T E A C H E R S N O T E S

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1 T E A C H E R S N O T E S Focus: Students explore energy: its sources, forms, and transformations. Students also consider the benefits of energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation. Learning Goals: Students will have opportunities to learn how to correctly use the terms natural resources, renewable, non-renewable, fossil fuel, energy transformation, potential energy, kinetic energy, greenhouse gas, energy efficient, biofuel, solar cell the difference between a source of energy and form of energy the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources about energy transformations and potential energy about the sources, generation, and transmission of electric energy about energy efficiency about biofuel and alternative energy sources Discussion Prompts: What is the difference between a source of energy and a form of energy? What is the difference between renewable and nonrenewable resources? What is potential energy? What is an energy transformation? What are the sources of electric energy? What is energy efficiency and why should we use energy-efficient technologies? What are some alternative energy sources? What is biofuel, and what are the pros and cons of making and using it? Assessment Prompts: Do students demonstrate, in their discussion and answers to questions, understanding of the science vocabulary used in the cards for this unit? Are students able to carry out the skills of scientific inquiry, following activity procedure steps safely and accurately, making observations when appropriate? Assess students responses during discussions. - Are students able to describe the difference between energy sources and energy forms and give examples of each? - Can students describe what renewable and nonrenewable resources are and give examples of each? - Do students demonstrate an understanding of potential energy and energy transformations? - Can students identify the sources of energy we use to generate electricity? - Can students describe why it is important to use energy-efficient devices? - Can students recognize the relationship between burning fossil fuel (our energy use) and the effect on Earth s atmosphere? - Can students identify technologies and practices that make a home energy efficient? Links to PCSP Student Book Conserve and Preserve: Card 1: see Lessons 1 3 Card 2: see Lessons 4 and 6 Card 3: see Lessons 3, 10, and 11 Card 4: see Lessons 7 9, and 11 Card 5: see Lessons 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10

2 Focus: Students explore forms of energy and sources of energy. Students also explore natural resources: renewable and non-renewable. Introduce students to the topic with the video of a city lit up at night. Discuss the video and any comments or questions students may have. Activity Description: Text describes the main sources of energy that we use (e.g., fossil fuel, hydroelectric, as well as some greener energy sources such as wind and solar). Text then describes some of the forms that energy takes (e.g., heat, light, sound). After, students engage in a timed dragand-drop activity, in which they must identify energy sources and energy forms. Students then click on the orange icon and are taken to a screen that describes how all of our energy sources come from Earth s natural resources. Text describes that some of the energy sources are renewable and some are non-renewable and how most of the energy we use today still comes from non-renewable resources. Students then engage in another timed drag-anddrop activity where they identify energy sources as being non-renewable or renewable. Learning Goals: Students explore energy sources and forms of energy. Students explore renewable and non-renewable sources of energy. Ask Students: What is the difference between an energy source and a form of energy? (An energy source is a natural resource that we use to make forms of energy. We use forms of energy to help keep us warm (heat ), to help us see inside and at night (light), and to power our machines and devices (electricity), and so on. Some students may point out that electricity is also a source of energy because it powers so many of our devices that transform the electricity into forms of energy such as light and heat. Students are correct to say this. However, electricity is also a form of energy as it must be generated from other sources of energy.) What is the difference between a renewable source of energy and a non-renewable source? (non-renewable: resources that cannot be replaced once they are used up, they are gone PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes Activity Description: Text describes that water is a precious resource not to be wasted and that we use energy to bring water to our homes. Students then engage in a timed drag-and-drop activity in which they drag a positive face to places on a house where energy or water is saved. Students drag the negative face to places on a house where energy or water is wasted. Learning Goal: Students identify ways in which water and energy are saved or wasted. Ask Students: Why is water such a precious resource? (because without water we cannot survive) Why is it important to conserve water? (so it is available for future generations and to conserve energy) What are ways that water is wasted in your home? (Ask students to identify places in the home where water is 2

3 . continued from page 2 forever, such as coal and oil; renewable: resources that can be replaced and last forever, such as the Sun and wind.) Assessment: Can students recognize the difference between sources of energy and forms of energy? Are students able to explain the difference between renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy? continued from page 2 used and the ways in which they believe water is wasted there; or they could describe ways to conserve in their home.) Assessment: Can students explain why water is precious and why it is important to conserve it? Are students able to identify ways that water is wasted in their home and ways they could conserve water? Activity Description: Students click on the orange icons to help them identify how energy is used in the picture of the city. Students then click on the Think question, which asks them to consider how energy use affects the environment. Students are taken to a screen that describes how using fossil fuels in a city can lead to smog. Learning Goals: Students identify ways in which energy is used in cities. Students explore how burning energy affects a city environment. Ask Students: What are some ways that energy is used in a city? (You may wish to do this activity as a class and ask students to suggest examples before clicking on the orange icons.) What is smog? What is one way we could reduce smog? (Smog is a haze that forms over a city when sunlight reacts with car exhaust and other pollutants. We could reduce our use of cars to reduce the amount of exhaust put into the air. We could also identify the other sources of pollutants and try to reduce those.) Assessment: Are students able to identify ways in which cities use energy? Can students explain what smog is and suggest one way to reduce it? PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes 3

4 Focus: Students explore energy transformations, with a specific look at potential energy. Introduce students to the topic with the video of a space shuttle blasting off. Discuss the video and any comments or questions students may have. Activity Description: Text describes that inflating a balloon creates potential energy in the compressed air and stretched rubber. The potential energy can change into kinetic or sound energy when the balloon pops or the air is released. Students click on the orange start button to see an animation of the inflated balloon pop. Learning Goal: Students expand their knowledge of potential energy. Ask Students: In your own words, what is potential energy? (energy that is stored or saved, which can be transformed into other forms of energy) How does the inflated balloon have potential energy? (the stretched rubber holds energy until the balloon pops or it retracts to its original position; the air in the balloon) What form does the potential energy take next? Activity Description: Visuals show older steam technologies, but text describes that most of the electricity produced today is made using steam-driven turbines. Students click the orange icon to play a drag-and-drop activity. Students then click another orange icon and are taken to a screen that describes how a steam turbine works. On the right side of this screen are visuals of turbines that are pushed by steam, wind, or water. Students click on the plus signs on each picture to see a close-up of the image. Learning Goals: Students explore steam-driven turbines of the past and present. Students also identify different kinds of engines that have been developed through history. Ask Students: What is a turbine? (a device that rotates with blades that are pushed by steam, water, or wind) How does a steam turbine work? (Boiling water generates steam; the steam is directed towards the blades of the turbine; the steam pushes the blades of the turbine around, which creates kinetic (movement) PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes 4 Activity Description: Students play a timed matching game. Each matching pair of visuals is made up of one potential energy and the corresponding form of energy. Learning Goals: Students identify examples of potential energy and the forms of energy into which they are transformed. Ask Students: Have partners ask each other why a visual in the game is an example of potential energy. Students should then describe what form of energy the potential energy will transform into. Assessment: Were students able to identify the pairs of potential energy and forms of energy during the game? Was each pair of students able to describe why each example of potential energy is considered potential energy, and into what form of energy it will be transformed?

5 continued from page 4 (kinetic the rubber of the balloon moves when it pops or the air is released; there can be sound energy: a popping sound if the balloon bursts or a hissing sound if the air is released) Assessment: Are students able to give a definition of potential energy in their own words? Can they describe how the inflated balloon has or holds potential energy and what form that energy might take next? Activity Description: Students follow procedure steps to build an energy-transforming toy: a spool tractor. Students click on the Think question at the bottom right of the screen and are shown an animation of a spool tractor moving. When the animation stops, text boxes appear to describe to students the energy transformation that takes place as the tractor spool moves. Another text box describes the energy loss that occurs during the energy transformation. Learning Goal: Students expand their knowledge of potential energy, energy transformations, and energy loss. Ask Students: After students have built and tested their spool tractor, ask them: What energy transformation is taking place? Is any energy wasted as the transformation takes place? How? Assessment: Are students able to follow procedure steps accurately and safely to build and test the tractor spool? Can students describe the energy transformation that takes place when the tractor spool moves? Can they also describe what energy loss occurs? continued from page 4 energy to power machinery, or in the case of a power plant, to generate electricity; some students may prefer to show their understanding by drawing a labelled diagram.) What was the first type of engine? (steam) What are examples of engines that were made in later times? (e.g., diesel, internal combustion, jet) Assessment: Can students give a basic description of what a turbine is? Can they describe the basic function of a steam turbine in words or as a labelled diagram? Can students identify different kinds of engines that have been created through history? PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes 5

6 Focus: Students explore sources of energy and how people harness that energy to do work. Activity Description: Students are shown an illustration of a hydroelectric power plant. They click on the blue icons to find out the purpose of different parts of the plant. Learning Goal: Students explore parts of a hydroelectric power plant. Ask Students: Do hydroelectric power plants use a renewable or nonrenewable resource to generate electricity? (renewable water) What are the main parts of a hydroelectric power plant and what do they do? Partners can take turns testing each other: one names each part of the plant while their partner describes its purpose.) Assessment: Are students able to identify and describe the purpose of each part of a hydroelectric power plant? Introduce students to the topic with the video of a wind turbine farm that produces electricity. Discuss the video and any comments or questions students may have. Activity Description: Text describes each basic step needed to transport electricity from a generating station to a home or business. Students click on the blue icons on each illustration to find out more about the transmission of electricity. Activity Description: Visuals and text describe that moving water is a powerful source of energy that has been used by people since ancient times. Learning Goal: Students explore water wheels old and new as a way of harnessing the power of moving water. Ask Students: In ancient times, what invention did people use to harness the power of rushing water? (water wheels) Why did ancient people need this power? (to grind grain for food) What type of machine do we use today to harness the power of rushing water? (turbine generators) What do generators do? (produce electricity) Assessment: Are students able to identify rushing water as a source of energy? Can students explain why people in the past and people today needed this energy? Can students identify the machine used in the past and the machine used today to harness the power of rushing water? PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes 6 Activity Description: Text describes that wind is a renewable energy source. It describes how people in the past learned to use windmills to capture wind energy. Students then click on the continue button, to see how modern wind turbines transform wind energy into electricity. Students then click on the orange icon and are shown a diagram of the parts of a wind turbine. Text describes the function of each part and students play a scramble word activity. Learning Goals: Students explore windmills and wind turbines. Ask Students: Why is wind a good energy source? (Wind is renewable and can be found almost

7 Activity Description: Text describes how fire was likely the first form of energy to be harnessed by humans. Burning fuel to create fire provided heat for cooking and warmth as well as a source of light. Today we burn fuel to generate electricity and power machines. Students click on the Think question and text states that humans learned to harness other forms of energy after fire. Students then play a drag-and-drop activity. Learning Goals: Students explore different forms of energy harnessed by humans and the technologies invented to help them accomplish this. Ask Students: What was probably the first form of energy harnessed by humans? (fire) How did people use fire then? (to cook, to keep warm, for light) How do we use fire today? (to generate electricity and power machines) What are other forms of energy that were harnessed by humans after fire? (animal power, water, wind, fossil fuel, nuclear, solar, electric, steam) Assessment: Do students identify fire as the first form of energy harnessed by humans? Can they describe how fire was used in the past and how it is used today? Are students able to identify other forms of energy that have been harnessed by humans? continued from page 6 Learning Goal: Students explore the transmission of electricity. Ask Students: In your own words, how is electricity passed from a generating station to a home? (Students may wish to answer this orally, in writing, or in pictures with captions.) What is a generator? (device that creates electricity) What is a transformer? (a device that boosts the voltage of the electricity so it can travel long distances) What are transmission towers and why do they hold the cables so high off the ground? (they hold electricity cables up high to prevent electric current from reaching the ground ) What does a street transformer do? (it reduces the force of the electric current so it can enter our homes at a voltage that works with our electric appliances) What is the final device electricity passes through before it enters our home? (electric meter) What does the meter do? (measures the amount of electricity used in each home) Assessment: Can students describe how electricity is transmitted from a generating station to a home? Are students able to identify the purpose of each device used to transmit electricity? continued from page 6 anywhere in the world.) How did people capture wind energy in the past? (windmills) How did they use this energy? (grind grain, pump water) How do we capture wind energy today? (wind turbines) How do we use this energy? (We transform it into electricity.) What are the main parts of a wind turbine? What does each part do? Assessment: Are students able to identify the technology people used to capture wind energy in the past and present? Can they explain how this energy has been used over time? Are students able to identify the main parts of a wind turbine and describe their functions? PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes 7

8 Focus: Students explore energy-efficient technologies and the reasons why we seek to promote energy conservation. Activity Description: Text describes greenhouse gases and how human activities may have caused an increase in greenhouse gases in Earth s atmosphere. Students click on the blue icons on the animation to find out what happens to solar heat when it arrives at Earth. Students click on the orange arrow for more information about greenhouse gases. Learning Goals: Students explore greenhouse gases and their role in Earth s atmosphere. Ask Students: What do greenhouse gases do in Earth s atmosphere? (trap the Sun s heat) Why is Earth s average temperature rising? (there are more greenhouse gases in our atmosphere) How much solar energy from the Sun reaches Earth s surface? (about 50%) Which greenhouse gas do we find more of in our atmosphere than any other greenhouse gas? (carbon dioxide) How do trees help reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? (living trees capture and store carbon) If we burn less fossil fuel, how can this help Earth s atmosphere? (We will reduce the amount of carbon dioxide we release into the atmosphere.) Assessment: Are students able to identify and describe basic facts and concepts relating to greenhouse overflow gases at end orally, of document in writing, or as an illustration? Introduce students to the topic with the video of a light-rail public transportation vehicle. Discuss the video and any comments or questions students may have. Activity Description: Students play a timed game, in which they select pairs that represent how to do tasks in a less energy-efficient way and more energy-efficient way. When students complete this game, they click on the orange icon on the right side of the screen. Students drag pictures that represent the most energy-efficient way to perform the tasks stated in the boxes. Each box describes to students why doing the task as suggested is the most energyefficient method. Learning Goal: Students identify ways of doing activities in more and less energy-efficient ways. Ask Students: What are some reasons that we do activities in ways that are not energy efficient? (usually it is faster and easier to do the task) Are there some activities you do each day that you could choose to do in a more energyefficient way? (e.g., Students might suggest riding a bike or walking rather than driving to buy milk or bread) Ask students to form into pairs or groups and Activity Description: Text describes that since humans started burning large amounts of coal for energy, gas emissions into the atmosphere have risen and so has Earth s average global temperature. Students then click the orange icon and they play a timed drag-and-drop activity. Learning Goals: Students identify the correlation of the burning of coal and other fossil fuels to a rise in Earth s average global temperature. Students identify significant energy-related events on a timeline. Ask Students: How has burning fossil fuels over the past couple hundred years affected Earth s climate? (Earth s average global PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes 8

9 Activity Description: Students investigate into their family s electricity use for one year. Students click on the orange icon and are presented with an interactive graph that enables them to drag bars up and down to represent their home s average electricity use in each season. Students return to the main page 4 screen and click on the orange icon near the Think question to play a time drag-and-drop activity. Learning Goals: Students investigate into electricity use in their household and present the information graphically. Students identify different ways that households use energy throughout the seasons of the year. Ask Students: How does your electricity bill show the amount of electricity used each month in your home? (Ask students to answer by using a sample bill, if possible.) Approximately how much electricity does your home use for each season? (Ask students to demonstrate their results using the electronic graph provided in the activity.) According to the final activity, in which season might your home use the most energy? (winter) The season with the second most amount of energy use? (summer). Are there activities that you can do more energy efficiently in your home that might reduce your energy use through the year? (e.g., wearing sweaters inside in winter and turning down the heat) Assessment: Are students able to carry out the investigation successfully to provide electricity-use data for their home? Are students able to identify in which seasons we may use more energy to live, and can they suggest ways in which they could reduce their energy use throughout the year? continued from page 8 test each other on the ideas presented in the second part of the activity. For example, they could ask Which is the most energy-efficient way of getting around: driving a car, riding a bike, or taking public transportation? (riding a bike) What s the second most efficient way of getting around? (taking public transportation) Assessment: Are students able to suggest reasons why we choose less energy-efficient ways of doing tasks? Can students describe activities they might choose to do in more energy-efficient ways? Can they pose and answer questions to a partner or group about ways to do activities in more energy-efficient ways? PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes continued from page 8 temperature has risen.) Choose one energy event on the timeline. In your own words, describe why this event was significant. Has this event had an impact of Earth s climate? How? Assessment: Can students identify the correlation between the burning of fossil fuels on a large scale and an increase in Earth s average global temperature? Can students provide a reasonable explanation for why one energy event was significant and how it has affected Earth s climate? 9

10 Focus: Students explore energy conservation and how alternative energy sources can contribute to that goal. Introduce students to the topic with the video of an animated array of solar panels. Discuss the video and any comments or questions students may have. Activity Description: Text describes how most garbage we throw away ends up in landfills. A garbage can visual demonstrates the percentages of the different kinds of waste found in a typical Canadian landfill. Students click on the orange continue button. Text and an illustration with captions describe how methane from landfills can be captured and transformed into electricity. Learning Goals: Students explore the quantities and kinds of garbage that go to landfill sites. Students also explore how methane gas can be transformed into electricity. Ask Students: What happens to the garbage you throw out at home? (it goes to a landfill; it rots or decomposes and creates methane, a greenhouse gas) How could you reduce the quantity of material that goes to landfill? (reduce, re-use, recycle, and compost) Look at the garbage can graph. What kinds of waste shown there could be diverted away from landfills? (most food and garden waste can be compost; most paper, glass, and plastic can be recycled) How do landfill sites affect Earth s atmosphere? (They produce methane. Methane is a greenhouse gas, which contributes to global warming.) What is one positive way we can use the methane that is produced in landfill sites? (convert it to electricity) PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes 10 Activity Description: Text describes that solar energy is a renewable energy source used by some homes to heat water and power devices. Two animations show some of the ways that solar energy is used in a home. Students click on continue buttons to see more examples. Activity Description: Text describes that certain crops can be used not only for food but as biofuel. Text describes concern over using croplands to grow fuel rather than food. Students click on the orange icon and are taken to a screen where they drag and drop captions into boxes labelled pros and cons. The captions describe the positive and negative aspects of growing crops for fuel. Students click on the orange icon to play a timed word scramble game. Learning Goal: Students explore biofuel growing crops for fuel. Ask Students: What is a biofuel? (fuel that comes from living things usually plant matter) Ask students to form small groups and have a debate on the pros and cons of biofuel. Alternatively, have a class debate, with each small group contributing one or two points to the debate, either on the pro or con side. Students may choose to do additional Internet research about biofuel to add to their knowledge for the debate. Assessment: Are students able to identify and describe the pros and cons of growing and using biofuel?

11 Activity Description: Students are shown an illustration of a house. They are asked to click on the areas of the house that they believe make it energy efficient. When students click on a correct area, a caption pops up describing what makes it energy efficient. Learning Goals: Students explore energyefficient technologies and practices related to a home. Ask Students: What energy-efficient features did you find in and around the home? (e.g., solar panels, wind turbine, recycling bins) Are there other parts of the home that could be energy efficient? (e.g., appliances that use less power, taps that reduce the flow of water) Assessment: Are students able to identify parts of the home that are energy efficient? Can they suggest other aspects of the home that could be used in an energy efficient way? continued from page 10 Assessment: Can students identify what happens to garbage in landfills, the effect of methane on the atmosphere, and one positive use of methane captured in landfill sites? Can students identify kinds of waste on the graph that could be diverted away from landfill sites? continued from page 10 Learning Goal: Students explore the practical applications of solar energy. Ask Students: What is a photovoltaic cell? (This is another term for solar cell, a device that transforms solar energy into electric energy.) Examine the animations of the two homes: What are some ways that solar energy can be used in a home? (heat water, run electric appliances, send additional electricity into the electricity grid) Imagine you live somewhere in the world with little or no electricity but lots of sunlight. What kind of device could you use to boil water or cook food? (solar cooker) When you use a solar cooker, what energy transformation takes place? (light energy from the Sun is transformed into heat energy) Assessment: Are students able to identify different ways that solar energy can be used in the home? Can they describe what energy transformation takes place using a solar cooker? PCSP Interactive Science Teacher s Notes 11

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