# Lesson 2.11: Physical Science Energy

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4 Minnesota is getting ready for the 2014 GED test! website with updated information on the professional development in Minnesota regarding the 2014 GED. H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.4 GED Science Curriculum

5 Unit 2.11 Handout 1 (4 pages total) H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.5 GED Science Curriculum

6 More and more architects and urban planners are incorporating solar energy into their designs of homes and office buildings. These methods, which were first employed by the Chinese and Greeks, are used to capture solar energy and then provide buildings with light and warmth. Solarpowered cars have been in development for a long time, and many believe they are a viable solution to pollution. Solar energy is a clean form of energy, as is wind energy, captured by turbines and windmills and channeled into grids. These are both alternative to fossil fuels, which pollute the environment. Wind and solar energy are both renewable and clean. The meaning of the word energy changes when you get into the physical sciences. Of the many forms of energy that have been defined by the physical sciences, one of the best known is kinetic energy. Kinetic energy is a term related to physics that describes the energy an object possesses due to motion. Measuring an object s kinetic energy means measuring the amount of force an object needs to accelerate. There are several forms of kinetic energy. These include: vibrational energy, or energy due to a vibrating motion; rotational energy, or energy due to a rotating motion; and translational energy, the energy due to the movement from one location to another. A good way to examine kinetic energy is by looking at a roller coaster. The cars of a roller coaster reach their highest kinetic energy when they are at the bottom of a hill. But then they start rising again their kinetic energy become potential energy instead, which is energy an object has in relation to its position in space. One of the best ways to examine potential energy is by looking at a bow and arrow. Energy is transferred from the potential energy in the archer s arm into the bow as it is drawn back. When it is released, the potential energy in the bow is transferred through the string and become energy as the arrow shoots outward. Heat is another type of energy. Heat can be transferred from one body to another in a whole bunch of ways, including processes called conduction, radiation, and convection. Conduction means that the heat is transferred by the diffusion and collision of participles within a body due to a temperature change. Radiation means that the heat is transferred through electromagnetic waves or moving particles. Convection means that heat is transferred through the movement of liquids. It is important to remember that heat is always associated with a process, such as flow and transfer. One of the most common uses of the word energy is in reference to food energy. This is the energy that animals and humans derive from their food. The human body uses energy for a wide range of things, including metabolism in our organs and tissues and to move. That is why people who lead a sedentary lifestyle (or site around a lot) require less energy. H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.6 GED Science Curriculum

7 Choose the best and answer from the list provide for each statement or question. 1. Select the word that is NOT a type of energy covered in the text. A. Kinetic B. Solar C. Stationary D. Food 2. How does the author contrast solar energy with fossil fuels? A. Solar energy is Chinese and fossil fuels are Greek. B. Solar energy is clean and renewable while fossil fuels cause pollution. C. Fossil fuels are classified as kinetic energy and solar energy is classified as potential energy. D. Fossil fuels are older than solar energy. 3. The sun loses energy by transferring light to the earth. On earth, we are able to use the light for solar power among other things. What conclusion can you draw from the above statement? A. Light is the only way to transfer energy. B. The heat from the sun is a result of the light energy. C. Energy lost by one object can be captured or used by another. D. The sun uses kinetic energy. 4. If somebody leads a very active lifestyle, what will they require? A. less energy from food B. more heat energy C. solar power D. more energy from food 5. What is the passage mostly about? A. several different types of energy, what they do, and how they work B. how humans use energy from the sun C. the difference between kinetic energy and potential energy D. how to measure energy H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.7 GED Science Curriculum

8 6. Read the following sentence: The meaning of the word energy changes when you get into the physical sciences. What did the author want to communicate to the reader by using this sentence? A. that she was going to continue her explanation of solar energy B. that she was going to remind the reader that energy is a scientific topic C. that she was about to transition the focus of her article to the physical sciences D. that she was going to introduce the definition of potential energy 7. Choose the answer that best completes the sentence below. Radiation transfers heat through electromagnetic waves;, convection transfers heat through liquid. A. however B. so C. for instance D. as a result 8. What is the major source of energy for humans on Earth? 9. When an object starts moving on its own, potential energy becomes kinetic energy. Use evidence from the text to support this statement. 10. Use evidence from the passage to explain what solar energy can be used for and how solar energy is different from other forms of energy H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.8 GED Science Curriculum

9 Unit 2.11 Handout 1 A Ball of Energy TEACHER ANSWER KEY 1. C 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. Answers may vary, suggested answer: The sun is the major source of energy for humans on Earth. 9. Answers may vary, suggested answer: The potential energy in an arrow become kinetic energy after it is shot. The potential energy in a rollercoaster car going up a hill becomes kinetic energy when it starts to go down the hill. In both cases, the potential energy became kinetic when an outside force (the arm or the rollercoaster) stopped causing the movement of the object. 10. Answers may vary, suggested answer: Solar energy can generate electricity and heat, it can help plants grow, and make cars move. The passage says that solar energy is a clean form of energy. Some people believe solar energy pollutes less than energy from gas or coal. H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.9 GED Science Curriculum

10 Unit 2.11 Handout 2 - (3 pages total) H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.10 GED Science Curriculum

11 H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.11 GED Science Curriculum

12 H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.12 GED Science Curriculum

13 Unit 2.11 Handout 2 Teacher Answer Key Page 1 Classifying Potential or Kinetic energy Potential Energy Standing at the top of a slide Sind up for the pitch A battery Juice in an orange An unburned lump of coal Frog sitting on a lily pad Book on a high shelf A parked car Kinetic Energy Move down a slice Throw a curve ball Execute a swan dive Move downhill in a roller coaster Frog leaping into the water Roll down a grassy hill Book falls from a high shelf A speeding car Page 2: 1. potential energy 2. Potential energy 3. Potential energy 4. kinetic energy 5. kinetic energy 6. kinetic energy 7. Potential energy 8. kinetic energy 9. kinetic energy 10. Potential energy 11. kinetic energy 12. Potential energy Page 3: Energy of One Kind or Another 1. electrical energy (electrical power to begin the roller coaster) 2. mechanical energy (chain is moving car) 3. most potential energy (at the top of hill) 4. potential energy changing to kinetic energy (moving) 5. most kinetic energy (at bottom) 6. thermal energy (creating friction) H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.13 GED Science Curriculum

14 Unit 2.11 Handout 3 ANSWER KEY 1. a. N (narrow) b. B (broad) c. M (main) 2. a 3. c 4. b 5. a 6. c H. Turngren, Minnesota Literacy Council, 2014 p.14 GED Science Curriculum

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