1 f: Harvard style guide 1 CITATION STYLE: Harvard Referencing System HARVARD STYLE Acknowledge your source Plagiarism refers to the use of another s ideas, expressions or opinions without acknowledging their source or by claiming these views as your own. whenever you paraphrase or quote words or a written passage in an essay you need to state where this information came from if your refer to another s idea or argument you must acknowledge the original source The Australian National University, Faculty of Arts web page on plagiarism can be found at: In text citations How to cite a reference within an essay In text citations refer to citations made within an essay. Each citation style has a different way of acknowledging these citations. It is important to be aware of the way the style that you are using is written within your essay. The author-date style is used in the Harvard referencing system. This refers to brief information being given in brackets in the text. This information is linked to the reference list that you will make and attach to the end of your document. Note: it is important that the information given in the in text citation corresponds with that given in the list of references. What information do I need to give when using the author-date system of in text citation? In parentheses, give the author s surname and the year of publication, without punctuation For example: (Smith 2001) This information should be given at the end of the relevant sentence, followed by the closing punctuation mark Your department may require you to also provide the page, this should come after the date and be written as (author date, p. 1 or pp. 1-4) For example: (Smith 2001, pp ) If the author s name is used within the text, place the date in parentheses immediately after the name Author-date system examples: Fire is favourable to the dreamer if he does not get burned (Miller 1995). Author-date system when page numbers are required:
2 f: Harvard style guide 2 Fire is favourable to the dreamer if he does not get burned (Miller 1995, p. 237). Miller (1995) interprets the significance of fire in a person s dream: Fire is favourable to the dreamer if he does not get burned (p. 237). If you have a long sentence, and the citation is only relevant to part of the sentence, then place the citation information at the end of a clause. What other information might I need to provide? When you cite more than one work at a time, use a semicolon, to separate the citations, or the word and when writing the names within the text For example: (Smith 2001; Richards 1998) For example: Smith (2001) and Richards (1998) suggest that If there are two to three authors, separate the first and second name with a comma and the second last and last name with an ampersand when the information is given in parentheses For example: (Smith, Green & Stick 1978) When the citations is written into the essay, replace the ampersand with an and For example: Smith, Green and Stick (1978) suggest that fire often appear in dreams. When there are more than three authors, provide the first author s name then write et al. (this means, and others). If you need to refer to another work by Smith, which includes a different group of authors, then to avoid confusion you should give all the author s names in both in text citations For example: (Smith, Grey, Stick & Spence 1992), (Smith, Green, Stick & Saunders 1992) instead of (Smith et al. 1992; Smith et al. 1992) For further information on in text citations, visit Library Bridges Harvard System: Using quotations If you use a quotation you cannot change the grammar or spelling of that quotation. Short quotations, under 40 words: place the quotation within "double quotation marks" within the body of the text and provide the citation details after the closing quotation mark. Long quotations, 40 words and over: generally, when you are quoting more than forty words at a time, this quotation should be double spaced and indented five spaces from the left margin. For example: The author suggests that fire can have different implications in dreams:
3 f: Harvard style guide 3 To dream that he is fighting fire and does not get burned, denotes that he will be much worked and worried as to the conduct of his business. To see the ruins of his store after a fire forebodes ill luck. He will be almost ready to give up the effort of amassing a handsome fortune and a brilliant business record as useless, but some unforeseen good fortune will bear him up again. (Miller 1995) Preparing your reference list The reference list is placed at the end of your essay. However, it is important to prepare this list before you start writing. The reference list is a compilation of all the works that you cite within your text. This means that you do not include texts that you have not used in your essay. Other names for this list include Works Cited or Literature Cited; the preferred name for the Harvard style is Reference List. Note: if you include references that you have not mentioned within your essay, then this list is called a Bibliography, rather than a Reference List. How to format your reference list The citations should be placed in alphabetical order, using the author s last name (if given) or the first word of the title If you have the following names Ian McKnight, Ian MacDonald, Ian MacKnight, Ian Macaroon and Ian Maast then they would appear as: Maast, Ian Macaroon, Ian MacKnight, Ian McKnight, Ian The alphabetical order is taken from alphabetical order of letters in the last name. Only when these names are identical will you refer to the alphabetical order of the first name. When works are co-authored and the first author is the same, take the last name of the second author as your guide to place the names in alphabetical order. Smith, Jan and Michael Smith Smith, Jan and Kay Wilson When the work is by an anonymous author, use the first word in the title to place it in alphabetical order. However, if the title begins with A, An or The, then ignore these words and take the beginning of the title from the second word. The Orange Man A Tale of Truth and Lies
4 f: Harvard style guide 4 Harvard Reference List Harvard reference list examples for books List of possible components for a book and the order in which they should appear: The basic entry: a book by a single author. Two authors Three or more authors An Anonymous Book A book by a corporate author An introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword A book Published in a Second or Subsequent Edition A Manuscript or Typescript A Multivolume Work Author's/s' surname(s) plus initials., Year of publication. Title (italicised), Material type, where necessary, e.g. map, Edition (if it is not the first edition), Volume number, if the book has more than one volume, Publisher's name, Place of publication. Barry, P.,1995. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory, Manchester University Press, New York. Jakobson, R. & Quagh, L.R., The Sound Shape of Language, Indiana Up, Bloomington. Qurik, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G. & Svartvik, J., A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Longman, London. A Guide to Our Federal Lands 1984., National Geographic Society, Washington. American Council of Learned Societies., Teaching the Humanities: Essays from the ACLS Elementary and Secondary Schools Teacher Curriculum Development Project, ACLS, New York. Drabble, M., Introduction in Middlemarch, ed. George Eliot, Bantam, New York. Gross, H. & McDowell, R., Sound and Form in Modern Poetry. 2nd edn, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. Hudson, D.E., My journey to Khartoum, in possession of Mitchell Library, Sydney. Blanco, R. (ed.), The American Revolution, : An Encyclopedia, 2 vols, Garland, Hamden.
5 f: Harvard style guide 5 Harvard reference list examples for books A Government Publication The Published Proceedings of a Conference A Book in a Language Other Than English A book without Stated Publication Information or Pagination An Unpublished Dissertation Australian Archives Relations in Record: A Guide to Family History Sources in the Australian Archives, AGPS Press, Canberra. DuPont, B., Bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immuno-deficiency with an unrelated MLC compatible donor, Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Society for Experimental Hematology, International Society for Experimental Hematology, Houston, Texas, pp Bessiere, J. (ed.), Mythologies de l ecriture: Champs critiques. PUF, Paris. c. proceeds the date, when it is an approximate date? proceeds the date, when it the date is in question n.d. No date of publication given Crowley, F.K., Working class conditions in Australia, , PhD thesis, University of Melbourne. Harvard reference list examples for journals List of possible components for an article citation and the order in which they should appear: The Basic Entry: An Article in a Newspaper Author's/s' surname(s) plus initials., year of publication. chapter title, title of book, editor(s) of book, publisher, place of publication, article or chapter pages. Dewhirst, C., Hot air over the Himalayas, World Geographic, vol. 1, no. 4, pp Rosenberg, G., Electronic Discovery Proves an effective Legal Weapon, New York Times, 31 Mar. late ed. p. D5.
6 f: Harvard style guide 6 Harvard reference list examples for electric sources List of possible components for a book and the order in which they should appear: The basic entry: a book by a single author. Author's/s' surname(s) plus initials., year of publication. article title, journal title, medium type (for example: CD-ROM, Online), pages/length, Electronic address (URL, , database), access date. Harvard Referencing, Curtin University of Technology Library and Information Service, [Online], Available: [2001, August 30]. For examples on how to cite electronic resources see the Curtin University of Technology Library guide to Harvard referencing: Note: there are variations as to the format of the Harvard style of referencing. It is important to check with you department as to the preferred option. Further, remember that once you have decided on a style, to be consistent. Alternative ways of writing in the Harvard style: Barry, P.1995, Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory, Manchester University Press, New York. See the University of Western Australia Library web site on citing your sources Harvard style: Barry, P. (1995) Beginning theory: an introduction to literary and cultural theory, New York, Manchester University Press. See the Leeds Metropolitan University Bibliographical References Harvard Style:
7 f: Harvard style guide 7 Harvard Bibliography The Australian National University. Faculty of Arts, The Australian National University: Rules and Policies, Plagiarism, [Online], Available: [2001, October 12]. 'Citing Your Sources Harvard Style', University of Western Australia Library, [Online], Available: [2001, October 19]. Dee, M. Quote, Unquote the Harvard Style of Referencing Published Material, [Online], Available: [2001, October 19]. 'Guide to Referencing Internet Resources Using the Harvard Style', The University of Southern Queensland Library, [Online], Available: :http://www.usq.edu.au/library/resources/genref/harvardonlinereferencing.htm [2001, October 19]. 'Harvard Referencing: of Types of Electronic References', Curtin University of Technology Library and Information Service, [Online], Available: [2001, October 19]. 'Harvard Referencing', The University of Southern Queensland, [Online], Available: 9/http://www.usq.edu.au/faculty/business/dept_hrm/HRMJournal/Harvard%20Referencing.ht m [2001, October 19]. 'Library Bridges Harvard System', Bournemouth University - Academic Services - University Library, [Online], Available: [2001, October 19]. Miller, G.H. 1995, Fire in The Wordsworth Dictionary of Dreams Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editons Ltd. 'References/Bibliography Harvard Style: Quick Guide How to Use it', The University of Queensland Library, [Online], Available: [2001, October 19].
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