Bibliographies and Referencing: Chicago Style

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1 Learning Services Study Guides Bibliographies and Referencing: Chicago Style 1. Introduction This guide provides an introduction to bibliographies and referencing, and should help you with general points and skills. Obviously this guide is not exhaustive and what follows are broad guidelines which you can work from and develop. 2. LR Online LR Online is the LRC s own web site at : This site provides detailed and up-to-date information on all LRC services and support including subject information and guides to literature searching and bibliographies and referencing, and report and essay writing. 3.Bibliographies 3.1 Introduction What is a bibliography? - A comprehensive list of all information sources used within an essay (books, journal articles, newspaper articles, internet web sites, videos, CDs). It needs to be set out in a certain way; the style described in this sheet is the Chicago style which uses footnotes. If you would like information on the other style of referencing, which refers to the author in the text without using footnotes, please see the Bibliographies and Referencing Guide - the Harvard Referencing System Without Footnotes. What is different about the Chicago Style? - The Chicago style uses footnotes to provide information about where the reference came from. Full bibliographic details are given in a footnote the first time a publication is referred to, and then briefer references each subsequent time. Although strictly speaking the Chicago style does not necessitate using a bibliography, you should include a bibliography as it is a convenient source of information for your reader. Why have a bibliography? - It will show the research you have done and your range of sources, directing the reader to further information, and also prevent you from being charged with plagiarism. Do your bibliography first before you begin to write, as part of the research process, and always keep detailed records. 3.2 Books The entry in your bibliography must include: Author s name - last name, first name, followed by a comma: Bennett, Alan Title and subtitle (if there is one) of the book - underlined: Talking heads Place of publication - in brackets, followed by a colon: (London: Name of publisher - followed by a full comma: Faber and Faber, Year of publication - in brackets followed by a bracket and then a full stop: 1985). So the full entry should be: Bennett, Alan, Talking heads (London: Faber and Faber, 1985).

2 Watch out for: Editors: these are treated as an author but with ed. or eds. after their name. For example: Shields, Rob (ed.), Lifestyle shopping: the subject of consumption (London: Routledge, 1992). If there is more than one author give all their names in alphabetical order unless there are more than three authors, then give the name of the first one followed by et al. For example: Brown, F. & Smith, M., Enterprise Management (London: Penguin Books, 1995). Organisations as authors - these can be treated as normal authors. For example: The Royal Ballet, A Survey of Ballet Audiences: annual report (London: The Royal Ballet, 1996). Editions - don t include the 1 st edition, only include this when the book is a 2 nd or subsequent edition. For example: Smith, Robert, Performing on Stage, 2 nd edition (London: Penguin Books, 1986). If you want to, you can put the date of the first edition in the bracketed section, e.g. (1976, London: Penguin Books, 1986). 3.3 Articles in Books The entry must include: Author s name - followed by a comma: Smith, I., Title and subtitle (if there is one) of the article - in inverted commas: Theatres and performing arts schools Follow this by in and the author and name of the book (underlined) from the which the article: in Jones, S.M. (ed.), Performing Arts Schools Place, Publishers and Date of Publication in brackets, followed by a comma: (London: Penguin Books, 1997), Page numbers of the article and a full stop: pp So the full reference would be: Smith, I., Theatres in performing arts schools in Jones, S.M. (ed.), Performing Arts Schools (London: Penguin Books, 1997), pp

3 3.4 Articles in Journals, Newspapers, Magazines etc. The entry must include: Author s name - followed by a comma: Williams, J., Title and subtitle of article - in inverted commas followed by a comma: Mad cow disease epidemic, Title of journal or newspaper - underlined followed by a comma: Science Quarterly, Volume and date in brackets - followed by a comma: 14 (Spring, 1998), Page numbers - followed by a full stop: So the full entry should be: Williams, J., Mad cow disease epidemic, Science Quarterly, 14 (Spring, 1998), N.B. If it was a newspaper article you would only need the date in brackets and then the page numbers. For example: Hutton, W., Economics in Britain Today, The Guardian (25 th March 1998), Other types of media Film and Video For a pre-recorded film or video you need to specify the medium after the title. Director - last name, first name and note that they are the director too in brackets, followed by a comma: Spielberg, Stephen (dir.), Title - underlined: ET Media - in brackets after the title: (video recording) Publication details - place, publisher and date in brackets, followed by a full stop: (London: Rank Video, 1983). So the full entry should be: Spielberg, Stephen (dir.), ET (video recording) (London: Rank Video, 1983) Television Programmes Television programmes are referenced in the same manner as video recordings, but you need to include the date that the programme was shown and instead of publication details include the channel. For example: Later with Jools Holland (video recording) (London: BBC2, 6 th March 1997).

4 3.5.3 Recorded Music Similar to a book entry, but include the format of the item: Bowie, D., Spiders from mars (audio recording on compact disc) (London: EMI, 1964). For a song from an album, reference as follows: Blur, Girls and boys in Parklife (audio recording on audio cassette) (London: EMI, 1994) Radio Programmes Similar to entry for television programme: The Evening Session (audio recording) (London: BBC Radio 1, 28 th July 1998) Online databases You can also cite information from on-line databases such as Web of Science. Include the author s surname and initials, the title of the document in inverted commas, the journal title underlined, the journal details, the media (online), the online database name underlined and the date accessed: Roberts, S. Performing Arts in Libraries, Library Review (online) 50 (3,2001) , available Webof Science (24 th June 2004) The Internet If you know the author of a web site include the author, the title underlined, the media (online), the web page address and the date you accessed the document and page numbers if there are any: Jones, H., Music in education (online), available (25 th August 2004), If you cannot identify an individual author use the company or organisation as the author. If there are a few web sites where a document appears, try to use the site which seems to be the most permanent and long lasting. As web sites change rapidly and information is often difficult to find again at a later date it is a good idea to make hard copies of any information sources you use from the Internet.

5 s You may want to cite information that someone has given you via . Include the author s surname and initials, the title of the (from the subject line) underlined, the media ( ), and the date that you accessed it: Henderson, R., Information about modern dance ( ), personal to Brown, J. (16 th August 2004). If you do this you must get the sender s permission to cite the message, otherwise you may be breaking Copyright and Data Protection laws CD-ROM Full text article on a CD-Rom: Smith, H., Using computers in Performing Arts in The Times (CD-Rom)(3 rd August 2003), The Times and Sunday Times CD-Rom edition (London: Chadwyck-Healey, 2004). If you have used a CD-Rom to look up general information use the following method. Include the title of the CD-ROM, the manufacturer and the date. Encarta 96 encyclopedia (CD-Rom) (San Francisco: Microsoft, 1996) Interviews When citing interviews include the following information: the person who did the interviewing, who the interview was with, the media (transcribed or recorded interview), and the date: Holmes, C., Interview with Morrissey (transcribed from audio recording) (7 th August 2004). Note: A bibliography is always arranged alphabetically by author. If you do not have an author then list the item alphabetically by title. If an author has more than one publication, list the publications chronologically with the earliest first. Use lower case letters to distinguish between publications that have been published in the same year (see the referencing section below).

6 4. Referencing 4.1 When to Reference You need to reference a source when you use direct quotations from a text, summarise an author s words or use one of their ideas. You must do this in order to avoid accusations of plagiarism and to show how well you have researched your subject. Every time you refer to a publication using the Chicago system you need to include a footnote. 4.2 How to Reference (first reference) The first time that you refer to a publication you must put a full reference in the footnotes in the style listed above. Obviously the style of the reference will depend upon the type of publication you are referencing. You also need to include the page number which you are referring to. Add the page number by using a comma after the end of the full reference and then p. for page, the number and then a full stop. Here are some examples: Burns describes how performing arts institutions have developed in the past five years. 1 The footnote entry would read: Burns, S., Performing Arts in Britain (London: Routledge, 2004), p.12. Jones argues that popular music has caused social unrest for many years. 2 The footnote entry would read: Jones, G., Popular Music and Social Unrest, Journal of Popular Music, 30 (4, 2004), 12-23, p How to Reference (subsequent references) Once you have given a full reference to an item the first time when you next refer to it you needn t give the full reference again in the footnotes. Instead you can use an abbreviated version of the title in each subsequent footnote reference to this text and include the page number. You can also use the Latin terms op.cit and ibid. In these subsequent footnotes to show that you have already referred to the text. Use op.cit when you are referring to a text which has been referenced before, but not in the previous footnote. Use ibid. to refer to a text which has been referenced before and has been referenced in the immediately preceding footnote. Here are some examples: Jones, G., Popular Music, p.23. Burns, S., Performing Arts, p.24. Jones, G.,op.cit., p.22. Burns, S., op.cit., p.34. Burns, S., ibid., p Quotations Try to avoid using very long quotations in your work. Quotations of up to three lines can be included in the text and set in quotation marks. Quotations of three lines or more should be separated from the main text, indented and single spaced. For example: Roberts has argued that: Performing Arts libraries cater for the different needs of students and academic staff, and must therefore have a larger collection of CDs... N.B. With indented quotations you do not need to use inverted commas. LRC 2004 For further help and advice please ask at the LRC!

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