MLA Style Sheet for Bibliography and Footnotes/Endnotes (For Humanities)

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1 MLA Style Sheet for ibliography and ootnotes/endnotes (or Humanities) The MLA style of bibliographic citations is often used to cite sources in the humanities. The difference between MLA style and Turabian styles is in punctuation and formatting. ootnotes and Endnotes: The primary function of a footnote or endnote is to inform the reader of the specific place within a work where a writer has cited text or extracted ideas from an outside source. ootnotes allow a person to read a paper without having to go to the end of the paper to locate the bibliographic citations for the materials the author refers to on the page. Endnotes are compiled together at the end of the paper before the bibliography. The footnote/endnote is designed with a number, inserted within the text after the punctuation, which corresponds to a number at the bottom of the page or at the end of the paper. The footnote/endnote is indented five spaces and includes the entire bibliographic citation of sources with page numbers. The footnote/endnote is single-spaced, but double-spaced between citations. asic Citation ormats for ootnotes/endnotes ook Journal Newspaper Example Author s irst and Last Name, Title of the ook, (Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication) Page Number(s). Author s irst and Last Name, Title of Article, Title of Journal Volume (Year): Page Number(s). Author s irst and Last Name, Title of Newspaper Article, Title of Newspaper, Date, Edition: Page Number(s). ut Peter Scotto has offered another view. 1 rye defined the alazon as a self-deceiving or self-deceived character in fiction. 2 1 Peter Scotto, Censorship, Reading, and Interpretation: A Case Study from the Soviet Union, PMLA 109 (1994): Nicholai rye, Anatomy of Criticism: our Essays (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957) rye, 35.* *Note: When a source is referenced more than once an abbreviated footnote can be used for after the first reference. If there is more than one title by the same author, include the first word of title between the author and page number. (ex. 3 rye, Anatomy of Criticism, 35.)

2 MLA Style Sheet for ibliography and ootnote/endnote Citations (or Humanities) ibliography/works Cited: A bibliography is a list of citations of sources used to write a paper. A writer should include sources from which direct quotes were extracted to support the writer s own ideas, paraphrased ideas from other sources, and sources the writer consulted to gain a general understanding of the research topic. ormatting for a bibliography: Place the bibliography at the end of a paper The title should be ibliography or Works Cited and should appear centered at the top of the page Double-space all lines Arrange entries alphabetically by the author s last name The first line of each entry is at the left margin. Any additional lines for an entry are indented five spaces Additional formatting guidelines for individual parts of a bibliography entry: Author: Last name first, followed by a period. With regards to initials and full name usage, the author s name should appear as it does on the title page of the work being cited. or example, if the author s name appears on the title page as Anthony T. oyle, Ph.D. should appear as oyle, Anthony T. Punctuation: Periods appear after the author, title, and the very end of the complete entry. A colon appears after the place of publication, and a comma is placed after the publisher. or other types of sources, see examples. Title of Sources: ollow the capitalization on the title page. Include any subtitles and, if not already shown, use a colon to separate the title and subtitle. Underline the entire title. or other types of sources, see specific examples. Example: Author. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. Prepared by K.A.Gnerre and E. Styles 2

3 MLA Style Sheet for ibliography and ootnote/endnote Citations (or Humanities) Example Citations for ibliography and ootnote/endnotes KEY: - ibliography - ootnotes/endnotes ooks ibliography ormat for ook Citations: Author s Name. Title of the ook. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. One Author or Editor as Author: Example 1: Author Hogan, P. M. The Nontoxic Home: A Simple Guide to Healthy Living. Euclid, PA: Rainer, P.M. Hogan, The Nontoxic Home: A Simple Guide to Healthy Living (Euclid, PA: Rainer, 1994) 32. Example 2: Editor aker, Russell, ed. The Norton ook of Light Verse. New York: Norton, Russell aker, ed. The Norton ook of Light Verse (New York: Norton, 1986) 25. Two or Three Authors, Editors as Authors: Example 1: Author Ward, Geoffrey C., and Dayton Duncan. Mark Twain. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Geoffrey C. Ward, and Dayton Duncan. Mark Twain. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001) 20. Prepared by K.A.Gnerre and E. Styles 3

4 MLA Style Sheet for ibliography and ootnote/endnote Citations (or Humanities) Example 2: Editor Rabkin, Eric S., Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, ed. No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian iction. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, Joseph D. Olander, ed., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian iction (Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1983) 30. More than Three Authors: Quirk, Randolph, et al. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language. London: Longman, Randolph Quirk, et al., A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (London: Longman, 1985) 35. Corporate Author without an Editor: American Medical Association. The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine. New York: Random, American Medical Association, The American Medical Association Encyclopedia of Medicine (New York: Random, 1989) 10. Article in a Reference ook Unsigned Article: Noon. Def. 4b. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2 nd ed Prepared by K.A.Gnerre and E. Styles 4

5 MLA Style Sheet for ibliography and ootnote/endnote Citations (or Humanities) 1 Noon, Def. 4b, The Oxford English Dictionary, 2 nd ed. 1989, 199. Signed Article: Mohanty, Jitendra M. Indian Philosophy. The New Encyclopedia ritannica: Macropaedia. 15 th ed Jitendra M. Mohanty, Indian Philosophy, The New Encyclopedia ritannica: Macropaedia, vol. 5, 500. Magazine/Journal Articles ibliography ormat for Article Citations: Author s name. Title of the Article. Journal Title Volume Number (Year): Page. Author: The journal article is listed in the reference list under the name of the author who wrote the article. Last name first, followed by the first name. Titles of Sources: Enclose in quotations but do not underline. All words in the title of the magazine/journal are capitalized and underlined. Journal Article (Hard Copy): itzgerald, John. The Misconceived Revolution: State and Society in China s Nationalist Revolution, Journal of Asian Studies 49 (1990): John itzgerald, The Misconceived Revolution: State and Society in China s Nationalist Revolution, , Journal of Asian Studies 49 (1990): 323. Magazine Article (Hard Copy): Mehta, Pratap hanu. Exploding Myths. New Republic 6 June 1998: Pratap hanu Mehta, Exploding Myths, New Republic 6 June 1998: 17. Prepared by K.A.Gnerre and E. Styles 5

6 MLA Style Sheet for ibliography and ootnote/endnote Citations (or Humanities) Electronic Databases/World Wide Web Use the following citation styles for: Electronic version of a printed source. or example, ritannica Online, the Oxford Reference Online, and the Encyclopedia Americana are all online versions of the source available in the print format. Online database resources. or example, EbscoHost, irstsearch, America: History and Life, JSTOR, and Lexis-Nexis all contain citations to electronic journals, newspaper articles, and book reviews that are available full-text online as well as citations to books and other media. Article from the World Wide Web: Author s Name. Title of Document. Date Last Updated. Title of Organization or Website. Date Accessed <URL>. Sherman, Chris. Google Launches Custom Search Engine Service. 24 October Search Engine Watch. 31 October 2006 <http://searchenginewatch.com/showpage.html?page= >. 1 Chris Sherman, Google Launches Custom Search Engine Service, 24 October 2006, Search Engine Watch, 31 October 2006 <http://searchenginewatch.com/showpage.html?page= >. Article in Reference ook Online Unsigned (Electronic Version): Article Title. Title of Source. Date Last Updated. Title of Print Source. Date Accessed <URL>. Updike, John. Encyclopedia ritannica Online Encyclopedia ritannica. 31 October 2006 <http://search.eb.com/>. * 1 Updike, John, Encyclopedia ritannica Online, 2006, Encyclopedia ritannica, 31 October 2006 <http://search.eb.com/eb/>. * Prepared by K.A.Gnerre and E. Styles 6

7 MLA Style Sheet for ibliography and ootnote/endnote Citations (or Humanities) Article in Reference ook Online Signed (Electronic Version): Author s Name. Article Title. Title of Source. Date Last Updated. Title of Print Source. Date Accessed <URL>. Mazari, Norbert. Chinua Achebe. EbscoHost Literary Reference Center Dictionary of World iography: The 20th Century. 31 October 2006 <http://search.ebscohost.com/>. * 1 Norbert Mazari, Chinua Achebe, EbscoHost Literary Reference Center, 2006, Dictionary of World iography: The 20th Century, 31 October 2006 <http://search.ebscohost.com>. * Journal Article (Electronic Database): Author s Name. Article Title. Title of Journal Volume (Year): Page Number(s). Name of Database or Website. Date Accessed <URL>. Lambert, rank. The Great Awakening: Whose Interpretive iction? The New England Quarterly. 68 (1995): JSTOR. 1 November <http://www.jstor.org/search>. * 1 rank Lambert, The Great Awakening: Whose Interpretive iction? The New England Quarterly, 68 (1995): 658, JSTOR, 1 November 2006, <http://www.jstor.org/search>. * Magazine Article (Electronic Database): Author s Name. Article Title. Title of Magazine Date: Page Number(s). Name of Database or Website. Date Accessed <URL>. Leakey, Richard E. Uncovering Earliest Man. Time. 31 March 2003: 35. EbscoHost Advanced Placement Source. 1 November 2006 <http://search.ebscohost.com/>. * Prepared by K.A.Gnerre and E. Styles 7

8 MLA Style Sheet for ibliography and ootnote/endnote Citations (or Humanities) 1 Richard E. Leakey, Uncovering Earliest Man, Time, 31 March 2003: 35, EbscoHost Advanced Placement Source, 1 November 2006 <http://search.ebscohost.com/>. * Newspaper Article (Electronic Database): Author s Name. Title of the Article. Title of Newspaper or Website Date. Date Accessed <URL>. Gordon, Michael R. Military Charts Movement of Conflict in Iraq Toward Chaos. New York Times 1 November November 2006 <http://www.nytimes.com>. * 1 Michael R. Gordon, Military Charts Movement of Conflict in Iraq Toward Chaos, New York Times 1 November 2006, 3 November 2006 <http://www.nytimes.com>. * *Note: If the whole URL is of considerable length and will cause formatting errors, use a shortened URL of the website s search page. If you have any further questions on how to cite other types of works, consult the MLA Handbook (cited at the end of this page) or ask a librarian for help. Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, Reference Collection M72 Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, Reference Collection G35 Hacker, Diana. A Writer's Reference. oston: edford, Reference Collection H11 Prepared by K.A.Gnerre and E. Styles 8

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