2 What we are going to do understand why acknowledgement is important recognise the details that are needed to make up a citation/reference correctly cite a reference In other words: What is a citation Why cite When do you cite How to cite using Harvard
3 Whatis citation? A citation is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. It also gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again Citation includes: brief details of the publication in the body of your text (author s name, year of publication, page number). a complete list of full details of these citations at the end of your assignment in a reference list or bibliography section.
4 Why Cite References? Provides reader with enough information to find the sources of information you have consulted The authors of the original sources are given credit for their work Your own research is clear Helps to demonstrate how widely you have read around your subject, and on what authority you base your arguments or conclusions. The work has credibility Avoids plagiarism.
5 When do you have to cite? Whenever you use quotes Whenever you paraphrase Whenever you use an idea that someone else has already expressed Whenever you make specific reference to the work of another Whenever someone else s work has been critical in developing your own ideas.
6 Citation styles There are many accepted styles to present your references. Each style is a system with consistent rules about how to display a citation (including punctuation, font, capitalization and so on) within your text, footnotes, and the bibliography. Sample Styles: Harvard (author-date) MLA APA Chicago (numbered footnotes)
7 Sample styles used in GMIT Humanities: Business Studies: Hotel and Catering: Science: Computing: Engineering: Cluain Mhuire: Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard/ Vancouver Chicago/Turabian Harvard Number/Harvard style
8 1. In text citation Pagination Quotations Paraphrasing Multiple authors Author quoted in another work 2. Reference List Harvard Two elements to look at:
9 In text citation Citations contain the name of the author and the year the information was published after the quote or paraphrase. If it is a direct quote, the page number is also included in brackets. Ex: According to Davidson (1998), it is more commonplace for coach tour operators to link up with theme parks to put together a more attractive package for tourists. Bibliography DAVIDSON, R. (1998). Travel and Tourism in Europe. Harlow: Longman
10 The correct reference is? 1. Book A. Physics and chemistry of the solar system. San Diego: Academic Press. LEWIS, J. S B. LEWIS, J. S Physics and chemistry of the solar system. San Diego: Academic Press. C. Physics and chemistry of the solar system. LEWIS, J. S D. LEWIS, J. S. Physics and chemistry of the solar system. San Diego: 1997.
11 Pagination When quoting directly in your text When paraphrasing or referring directly to an author s ideas Pages should be indicated as Year, p. 7 or Year, pp Exclude page numbers if referring to an entire work
12 Quoting Short Quotations Put short quotations (around twenty words or less) in inverted commas within the text. Ex: Society has developed a boundary-free culture (Critser 2003, p.31) which has affected our food consumption Long Quotations Long quotations should be indented in a separate paragraph, in a smaller font. Cite the author and date in the same font and in brackets at the right margin of the page, under the quotation. Ex: Nowhere did this new boundary-free culture of American food consumption thrive better than in the traditional American family, which by the 80s was undergoing rapid change. (Critser 2003, p.31)
13 The correct reference is? Select the correct form of this direct quotation: A. Gustafson and Branch (1997) stated that a model is a simple representation of more complex forms." (p. 76) B. Gustafson and Branch (1997) stated that a model is a simple representation of more complex forms" (p. 76). C. Gustafson and Branch (1997) stated that a model is a simple representation of more complex forms (p. 76)."
14 A paraphrase is... Paraphrasing your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new way. one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate citation) to borrow from a source. a more detailed description than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea. Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because... it is better than quoting information from an unedited passage. it helps you to control the temptation to quote too much. the process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
15 Example Original Source Material: The concept of systems is really quite simple. The basic idea is that a system has parts that fit together to make a whole; but where it gets complicated -- and interesting -- is how those parts are connected or related to each other. Source: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Plagiarized Version A system has parts that fit together to make a whole, but the important aspect of systems is how those parts are connected or related to each other (Frick, 1991). References: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Explanation: This example of student written work is plagiarized. Although the author is cited at the end of the paragraph, the student copied word-for-word from the original source material and did not use quotation marks. Correct Version Frick (1991) states that "... a system has parts that fit together to make a whole..." but the important aspect of systems is "... how those parts are connected or related to each other" (p. 17). References: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Explanation: Note in this example that the passage begins with the author and year of the publication. Quotation marks are used to indicate that the passages are word-for-word citations from the original document. The author is also listed in the references. Indiana University Bloomington, School of Education How to Recognise Plagiarism [Online]. [Accessed 02 October 2013
16 How to cite multiple or no authors Two or three authors If the information you are referencing has two or three authors, then include all surnames in the citation Four or more authors When citing material written by four or more authors, only include the surname of the first author listed, followed by the abbreviation et al. (meaning and others). However, all names must appear in the reference list No author If you can't determine the author(s) of a work, include the work's title (in italics) within the brackets with the date.
17 Referencing author in work of different author You should always try to track down the original work but, if this is not possible, and you must quote the ideas of one author which you have found in the work of another, your in-text citation must mention two names: 1. the author of the idea you are using, and 2. the source you have found it in. Ex: (Wilson 1989, cited in Smith 1995 p.4). However, your bibliography should only give details of the source that you found it in (in this case, Smith 1995).
18 Reference list a detailed list of all sources which were cited within the text of a paper The reference list is located at the end of a paper, article, thesis, etc. References should be in alphabetical order by author surname The main title of each source should be in italics. (You may underline or use bold instead of italics, but you must choose one method of emphasis and stick to it consistently) The layout of all references must be consistent
19 Essential elements of every reference Every reference must have enough information for the reader to find the source again Ex: A book reference must have an author, year, title, place of publication, publisher, and edition (if it is not the first edition) A journal article reference never has place of publication or publisher, but must include journal volume, issue and page numbers
20 Harvard Style reference list 1. Book Author(s) - name, initials. (Year). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. Example TIERNAN, S., MORLEY, M. and FOLEY, E. (1996). Modern Management: theory and practice for Irish students. Dublin: Gill and MacMillan. 2. Work in edited book Author(s) - name, initials. (Year). Title of chapter, in: Editor(s) - family name, initials, ed(s). Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Chapter or page numbers. Example FALLON, K.G. and SIMPSON, O.J. (2012). The economy of the west of Ireland in 2010, in KELLY, D., ed. The Irish economy in recession. London: Routledge, pp
21 3. Academic thesis Author - family name, initials. (Year). Title of thesis. Type of thesis. Institution. Example CAROLAN, L. (2001) Staff Retention in the Hospitality Industry, Bachelor of Business Studies, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology. 4. Journal article Author(s) - family name, initials. (Year). Title of article. Journal title, volume(issue number), Page number(s). Example RICHARDSON, M. (2009). Good Staff Training Leads To Customer Satisfaction. Caterer & Hotelkeeper, 199(4583), 26 June 2009, pp
22 The correct reference is? A. Rib DAVIS (2008) Writing dialogue for scripts: effective dialogue for film, tv, radio and stage, H & C Black: London B. DAVIS, R. (2008) Writing dialogue for scripts: effective dialogue for film, tv, radio and stage, London: H & C Black
23 Referencing Electronic Resources Electronic resources mainly refer to the World Wide Web. When you are citing electronic resources in your reference list, the following details, or some combination of them, apply:
24 5. Online journal article Author(s) - family name, initials. (Year). Title of article. Title of online journal, [Online], volume(issue), page numbers, available: <url> (Date accessed). Example McARTHUR, J. and LETENDRE, S. (2006) Is the glass three-quarters full or one-quarter empty?, Journal of Infectious Diseases [online], 194(12), pp , available: < 5&site=ehost-live> [accessed 03 February 2007].
25 6. Web site (excluding online journals) Author(s) - name, initials. (Year). Title of document. [Online]. Place of publication: Publisher. (Date accessed). Where a Web site has no identifiable author, and is not the work of an organisation, leave out the author details, beginning the reference with the title of the Web page. Example Recreation Policy Health Forest, Healthy Nation (2005) [Online]. Coillte. Available: < [Accessed 13 February 2007].
26 7. Journal Article in Electronic Database Author s Surname, Author s Initials (Year), Article Title, Journal Title, volume(issue), paging if given or indication of length, viewed day month year, Name of database, Name of database service. KARNATH, B., 'Smoking cessation'. The American Journal of Medicine [Online], 112, pp Available from: Science Direct [Viewed 27 September 2012]. Note: A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) may be used instead of the database name or URL, if available. Ex: DOI: /S (01)
28 8. Book on the Web-eBook Author(s) name, initial(s). (year of publication) Title of ebook, Name of ebook supplier [online], available: web address [accessed date]. Example: BECK, K. (1999) Extreme Programming Explained, Safari Tech Books [online], available at: [accessed 10 Oct 2005].
29 The correct reference is? Which of these references are written correctly: A. ROBERTS, A. (2002) The changing faces of terrorism[online]. London: BBC. Available at < html> [Accessed: 20th October 2009] B. BBC. The changing faces of terrorism[online]. Roberts, A < html> [Accessed: 20th October 2009] C. ROBERTS, A. The changing faces of terrorism[online]. London: BBC. Available at < html> D. Roberts, A. (2002) The changing faces of terrorism [online]. London: BBC. [Accessed: 20th October 2009]
30 Links for Further Research vard2.htm ex.htm_01.htm If you need further assistance or have any queries please contact ext or
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