School of Social Work and Human Services

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1 School of Social Work and Human Services Assignment Format and Presentation Guidelines The School of Social Work and Human Services assignment guidelines are intended to help you understand and follow a number of conventions that are commonly used in scholarly writings within social work and human services. The guidelines deal with layout, the use of quotations, and the preferred referencing system. Where teachers have different expectations, they will include these in the assignment brief. Assignment writing demands straightforward, plain English with simple sentence construction. The reference section of the University of Canterbury Library has a range of books that offer helpful advice on writing essays and assignments. In preparation for writing an essay or an assignment, you will be expected to read what others have written on the topic and draw on or review their ideas as you write. Any authors you refer to will need to be cited in the relevant section of the text and included in a list of references at the end of your essay. The importance of referencing the ideas and written work of other people and the consequences of not doing so are explained in the School s Guidelines on Plagiarism. The School s method of referencing citations follows the APA (American Psychological Association) system. The UC Library APA Style Tip Sheet provides some examples of this referencing system: The conventions of the APA system are more extensively covered in the APA Publication Manual. (Ref: American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.). The APA website has some examples for quick reference: A useful guide for social work and the human services is Writing With Style: APA Style for Social Work, which is available in the Library. (Ref: Szuchman, L. T., & Thomlison, B. (2004). Writing with style: APA style for social work. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning.) Essay layout and format use A4 size paper, print double sided use conventional style with both upper and lower case letters use double or 1½ line spacing and insert an extra blank line between paragraphs leave a 5cm left-hand margin for examiner s comments use bold type or underline section headings; headings help to add meaning and break up blocks of text for easier reading number all pages in sequence, except for the cover sheet or title page fill in details of your name, course code and title, the teacher s name, and the title of the assignment on the School s cover sheet (next to the essay box); a footer or a header is also useful should pages become detached Page 1 of 6

2 number figures, graphs, tables or charts, where these are required, in sequence, i.e., Figure 1, Figure 2; Table 1, Table 2, and include a caption or title for each. Refer to each figure or table in the text close to the figure. number and caption appendices if they are used. For example: Appendix A. Resume of United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child use a binder or staple the manuscript pages together at the top left corner. Do not use glide clips. If you use a binder or acetate slipcover, make sure your name is on these also. do not submit a photocopy of the manuscript. APA Referencing Guidelines Quotations Using direct excerpts or verbatim quotations from other people s work can add interest and authority to an essay or assignment. Paraphrasing or putting those ideas into your own words may not have the same impact. There is no golden rule on the maximum number of quotes that can be used; however, they should not exceed ten per cent of the manuscript. When you use or refer to other people s work, verbatim or not, you must include a reference to the source. (See the School s Guidelines on Plagiarism.) For short quotations of fewer than 40 words use quotation marks to indicate the exact words you are taking from another source and insert the quotation within the text. Add the author s surname, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses close to the quotation. For example: Social work in New Zealand, as in other parts of the Western world, has an interesting history that reflects the social, political, cultural, and economic circumstances in which it is practised (Nash, 2004, p. 42). Where you use the author s name as part of the text, add the year of publication and the page number in parentheses. For example: In an overview of the future of social work as a profession in New Zealand, Nash (2004, p. 42) argues that the inevitable tensions... between professional autonomy and agency demands place social workers professional identity at risk and their professional integrity under strain. If you want to omit some words from a sentence in the original text, for example to shorten the length of the quote or to extract the most meaning, you need to insert an ellipsis or three spaced dots or full-stops. If the passage you omit is between two sentences, use four dots. For long quotations of more than 40 words, use a new paragraph indented five spaces from the left, and do not use quotation marks. For example: However, while the activities of the state are a very important aspect of social provision, in our view it is inappropriate to delineate social policy as being synonymous with these state actions. It is misleading to focus on state actions in this way because such a focus necessarily excludes any attention to economic factors that are crucial to shaping people s lives, more crucial in many ways than the actions of the state. Also, the wider political and ideological dimensions that are so vital to an understanding of social policy are ignored. (Cheyne, O Brien, & Belgrave, 2005, p. 8) Page 2 of 6

3 Citations in the text All references to ideas obtained from books, articles, and other sources, are to be identified where you have used them in the text of an essay. The source of the information also needs to be indentified. Citations should include the author s(s ) surname(s) and the year of publication. If no date is available use (n.d.). When you use a direct quotation, include the page number(s) from the original source along with the citation. Here are some examples of how to reference other people s work: Single author For a single author, include the surname and date: Connolly (2004) suggests is suggested (Connolly, 2004). Two authors Where there are two authors, use an ampersand (&) when the names are in parentheses: Evans and Alliston (2004) describe is described (Evans & Alliston, 2004). Three to five authors Mention all authors surnames in the first instance and for subsequent citations only the first author s surname followed by et al. and the year of publication: Cheyne, O Brien, and Belgrave (2006) argue that... Additionally, they state... (Cheyne et al., 2006). Six authors or more Give the surname of the first author followed by et al. The exception is when a similar group of authors is to be cited in which case give the authors surnames required to avoid confusion, followed by et al. Multiple citations Give multiple citations for the same author(s) in chronological sequence: Taylor (2002, 2004) has established has been established (van Heugten & Daniels, 2001, 2002). For multiple citations within parentheses, give citations in alphabetical order of the first author s surname separated by semicolons: Several authors writing about Treaty matters (Durie, 2001; Orange, 2004; Spence, 2005; Wepa, 2005) have also highlighted the... An author cited in a secondary source Cite the author of the original work and the author of the work you have read with the date of the publication you have read. For a direct quotation from a secondary source, cite the page number of the publication you have read: In discussing the issue of cultural abuse, Balzer et al. state: colonisation of course is violence (as cited in Crichton-Hill, 2009, p. 172). Page 3 of 6

4 From a Maori perspective, writers argue, colonisation of course is violence (Balzer et al. as cited in Crichton-Hill, 2009, p. 172). Where you have used a secondary source, you need to list the publication you have read in the Reference list. A personal communication A personal communication is used for a direct quotation or a paraphrase from an , letter, or personal interview with an expert or authority in a particular field. A personal communication is not included in the Reference list. According to A. Clark (personal communication, April 6, 2007),... This is likely to occur within an older population group (A. Clark, personal communication, April 6, 2007). Statutes To cite an Act of Parliament: Under the Domestic Violence Act (1995), the safety of the victim... APA Reference list At the end of an essay, include a list of references under the heading References. The list should include all texts cited in the body of the essay, with the exception of a personal communication which is cited only in the body of the essay in parenthesis immediately after the relevant text. List the references in alphabetical order and where an author has several publications, list the earliest work first. Left justify the first line of each reference and indent subsequent lines by five spaces. The following referencing examples follow the APA style: Book Author, I. M. (year). Book title italicised. Place of publication: Publisher. Book chapter Author, I. N. (year). Chapter title. In A. N. Editor (Ed.), Book title italicised (pp. start page-finish page). Place of publication: Publisher. Author, I. N. (year). Chapter title. In A. N. Editor (Ed.), Book title italicised (2nd ed., pp. start page-finish page). Place of publication: Publisher. Journal article Author, I. N. (year). Article title. Journal title, and volume number italicised(issue number in parentheses), start page-finish page. Give the issue number of a journal in parentheses directly (no space) after the volume number only if the page numbering begins again with each new issue. The issue number and the brackets are not italicised. Page 4 of 6

5 Specimen list of references A journal article Frost, A., Daniels, K., & Hudson, S. M. (2006). Disclosure strategies among sex offenders: A model for understanding the engagement process in groupwork. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 12(3), An example of two citations with the same year (the a, b, c, convention) van Heugten, K. (2004a). Managing insider research: Learning from experience. Qualitative Social Work: Research and Practice, 3(2), van Heugten, K. (2004b). Co-worker violence toward social workers: Too hard to handle? Social Work Review, 15(4), A journal article also available in electronic form Maynard, K., & Wood, B. (2002). Tatou tatou working together: A model for government/nongovernment collaboration [Electronic version]. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 18, A book Connolly, M. (2004). Child and family welfare: Statutory responses to children at risk. Christchurch, New Zealand: Te Awatea Press. An edited book Connolly, M. (Ed.) (2004). Violence in society: New Zealand perspectives. Christchurch, New Zealand: Te Awatea Press. A book with more than one author Connolly, M., Crichton-Hill, Y., & Ward, T. (2005). Culture and child protection: Reflexive responses. London: Jessica Kingsley. A book, third edition Cheyne, C., O Brien, M., & Belgrave, M. (2005). Social policy in Aotearoa New Zealand (3rd ed.). Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. A chapter in a book (the book details must also be cited) Schofield, V. (2004). Elder abuse and neglect: Causes and consequences. In M. Connolly (Ed.), Violence in society: New Zealand perspectives (pp ). Christchurch, New Zealand: Te Awatea Press. A corporate author Ministerial Advisory Committee on a Maori Perspective for the Department of Social Welfare. (1986). Puao-te-Ata-tu (Daybreak). Wellington, New Zealand: Department of Social Welfare. Corporate author also publisher Office of the Commissioner for Children. (2000). Final report on the investigation into the death of James Whakaruru. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. A secondary source Crichton-Hill, Y. (2009). Family violence. In M. Connolly & L. Harms (Eds.), Social work: Contexts and practice (2nd ed., pp ). South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press. Page 5 of 6

6 A thesis Taylor, A. (1996). The imprisonment of women in New Zealand 1840 to the present day: A social and historical perspective. Unpublished master s thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. A newspaper article Focamp, P. (2006, March 21). A lust for violence. The Press, p. D1. When no author s name is available, reference as follows: A lust for violence. (2006, March 21). The Press, p. D1. Statutes Domestic Violence Act (1995). A lecture (includes PowerPoint presentation) Perez-y-Perez, M. (2007, May 7). Criminal Justice System. Presented at a SOWK102 Lecture, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Citation of lecture material generally relates to discussion points, case studies and the like. Students are expected to seek out the original sources of material covered in lectures. Material from the Internet (see also: The APA Publication Manual (2003, p. 269) provides two main guidelines for referencing material from the Internet: to provide sufficient information for the reader to be able to locate the document; and to ensure that the address (or URL) works. Material from non-peer-reviewed Internet sources should not be cited in academic writing (e.g., Wikipedia). Report retrieved from the Internet Ministry of Social Development. (2006). The social report: Te purongo oranga tangata: Indicators of social well-being in New Zealand. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. Retrieved March 16, 2007, from Article from Internet-only journal Powell, M. A., & Smith, A. B. (2006). Ethical guidelines for research with children: A review of current research ethics documentation in New Zealand. Kotuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 1, Retrieved March 16, 2007, from Material retrieved from an electronic database Author. (date). Name of article. Retrieved [month day, year,] from [source] on-line database [name of database], [item number if applicable] from http: [address] Page 6 of 6

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