HARVARD STYLE (2002)

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1 HARVARD STYLE (2002) GUIDE TO USING THE UQ LIBRARY ENDNOTE OUTPUT STYLE Harvard Style is a generic term for any style that uses citations in the text that look something like (Smith, 1999), with a bibliography at the end of the document arranged by the authors' names and then by year of publication. There are hundreds of variations of the Harvard style. This style of referencing was developed in the nineteenth century by a researcher at the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University, but Harvard University does not have any responsibility for the Harvard style and there is no official manual of the Harvard style. The University of Queensland Library Harvard style follows the Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers. This manual was formerly published by the Australian Government Publishing Service and is still often referred to as the AGPS Manual. It is also known as the AGIMO Manual, because it is currently published for the Australian Government Information Management Office. It is also referred to as the Snooks Manual, because the 6th edition (2002) was prepared by the consultants Snooks and Co. Our EndNote Harvard output style is based on the 6th edition of the manual. The instructions below are designed to be used in conjunction with the uq_harvard_2002 EndNote output style which you can download from the University of Queensland Library website at They should help you use that style correctly and produce correctly formatted references. These instructions deal mainly with how to enter data into your EndNote library. The EndNote output style can only format your references correctly if you have entered data into the correct fields, as specified below. If you have exported references to your EndNote library from databases, you will probably have to do some editing of those references in your library. 3 May 2010 (JE)

2 Print or Online? Most journal articles (and an increasing number of books) are now being accessed online. Many of these publications are also available in an identical printed format. Referencing requirements for electronic publications are more complicated than the requirements for printed publications. For this reason, many researchers cite the printed format of the publication even though they have used the online format. You must decide which policy you intend to follow. Citing Specific Page Numbers If you have quoted directly from a source, you must cite the specific page number from which you obtained the quotation. Click on the citation in your document, and select the EndNote Edit Citations command. When the dialogue box opens, you will see a box labelled Pages where you can insert the page number. However if you need to cite a chapter, section, paragraph, etc., you should instead go the box labelled Suffix and type all the details, including the preceding comma and space. Removing the Author's Name from the Citation in the Text If you have inserted a reference and your document now looks like this: Smith (Smith, 2008) has argued that, you should use the Edit Citations command and check the Exclude Author box. EndNote will remove the author's name from the citation and it will now read: Smith (2008) has argued that Acronyms for Corporate Authors When citing references in the text, it is permissible to use a common acronym for the name of a corporate author, e.g. WHO instead of World Health Organization. However the full form of the name should be used when the author is cited for the first time. The full form must also be used in the reference list. For a workaround that will allow you to do this with EndNote, see: Different Authors with the Same Family Name EndNote is able to deal with the situation where you cite different authors who have the same family name. The Snooks Manual requires that you use the first initials of these authors' names in the citation in the text. For more information, see: 2

3 Entering Data in Your EndNote Library: General Instructions Multiple Authors: each author must be entered on a separate line in the Author field of the reference. Corporate Authors: if the author is an organisation, type the name in the Author field, and type a comma at the end of the name (e.g. American Psychological Association,) No Author: if the reference has no discernible personal or corporate author, EndNote will use the title when citing it in the text Capitalisation of Titles: For journal articles and books, capitalise only the first word of the title (e.g. Women and depression: recovery and resistance). But for titles of journals, capitalise all significant words (e.g. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology). No year of publication: Some references do not identify the year of publication. This is particularly true of web pages. In these cases, type the letters n.d. (for "no date") in the Year field. Dates: When you need to enter a date (e.g. the date of publication of a newspaper, or the date on which you accessed a web page), always use the form: 24 January Entering Data in Your EndNote Library: Specific Reference Types The uq_harvard_2002 output style is configured to format the following reference types, using the fields indicated under each. If you follow these instructions, most of your references should format in accordance with the Snooks manual. If you have to use another reference type, the output style will format it in a simple generic format. Journal Articles When citing a journal articles which you accessed in printed form, use the Journal Article reference type. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title, Journal, Volume, Issue (if appropriate), Pages. If the article is a review of a book, film, etc., enter the details of the work reviewed in the Reviewed Item field. Italicise the title of the work, e.g. The secret river by Kate Grenville 3

4 Electronic Journal Articles When citing a journal article which you accessed electronically, use the Electronic Article reference type. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title, Periodical Title, Volume (if appropriate), Issue (if appropriate), Pages (some online journals paginate each article from page one onwards; in such cases, leave the Pages field blank). Enter the date on which you viewed the article in the Date Accessed field. If the article has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the article via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. ABI Inform) in the Database field. Because some databases are available online from more than one company, you can also enter the name of the company who mount the database (e.g. Proquest) in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the article on a free website, put the URL of the article in the URL field. If Magazine Articles Magazines are not peer reviewed journals. The date of publication is an essential element when citing a magazine article. Use the Magazine Article reference type, regardless of whether you accessed the article in print or online. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title, Magazine, Volume (if appropriate), Issue Number (if appropriate), Date, Pages. If the article is a review of a book, film, etc., enter the details of the work reviewed in the Reviewed Item field. Italicise the title of the work, e.g. The secret river by Kate Grenville If you accessed the article electronically, enter the date on which you viewed the article in the Access Date field. If the article has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the article via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. ABI Inform) in the Database field. Because some databases are available online from more than one company, you can also enter the name of the company who mount the database (e.g. Proquest) in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the article on a free website, put the URL of the article in the URL field. If 4

5 Newspaper Articles For newspaper articles use the Newspaper Article reference type, regardless of whether you accessed the article in print or online. Enter data in the following fields: Reporter (if applicable), Year, Title, Newspaper, Pages (normally only relevant to printed newspapers), Issue Date, Section (if applicable, e.g. Review). If the article is a review of a book, film, etc., enter the details of the work reviewed in the Reviewed Item field. Italicise the title of the work, e.g. The secret river by Kate Grenville If you accessed the article electronically, enter the date on which you viewed the article in the Access Date field. If the article has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the article via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. Factiva) in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the article on a free website, put the URL of the article in the URL field. If the URL is very long, just give the URL of the entry page for the website (e.g. the homepage of the newspaper). Books When citing a book that you accessed in printed form, us the Book reference type and enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title, City, Publisher. Other fields may also be relevant: Edition, Volume, Number of Volumes, Series Title. Electronic Books When citing an electronic book, use the Electronic Book reference type. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title, Publisher, City. Other fields may also be relevant: Edition, Editor, Volume. Enter the date on which you viewed the book in the Date Accessed field. If the book has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the book via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. NetLibrary) in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the book on a free website, put the URL of the book in the URL field. If 5

6 Edited Books For an edited book, whether print or electronic, use the Edited Book reference type. Enter data in the following fields: Editor, Year, Title, Publisher, City. Other fields can be used as appropriate: Edition, Volume, Number of Volumes, Series Title. If you viewed the book online, enter the date on which you viewed the book in the Access Date field. If the book has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the book via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. NetLibrary) in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the book on a free website, put the URL of the book in the URL field. If Book Sections Use the Book Section reference type for an article in an edited book, whether print or electronic. The edited book might be an encyclopaedia or a collection of papers by different authors on a particular subject. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title (for the title of the section), Editor, Book Title, City, Publisher, Volume (if applicable), Pages, Edition (if applicable). If you viewed the book online, enter the date on which you viewed the book in the Access Date field. If the book has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the book via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. NetLibrary) in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the book on a free website, put the URL of the book in the URL field. If Reports Use the Report reference type for reports, whether print or electronic, published by universities, research institutes, etc. For an official government report use the Government Document reference type. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title, City, Institution, Report Number (if applicable). 6

7 When entering data in the Report Number field, enter the name of the report series and the number, e.g. Technical Report No. 87; Bulletin If you viewed the report online, enter the date on which you viewed the report in the Access Date field. If the report has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the report via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. ERIC) in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the report on a free website, put the URL of the report in the URL field. If Government Documents Use the Government Document reference type for reports and other publications issued by government agencies. See also the section below on Legal Material. Enter data in the following fields: Department (for the name of the agency, e.g. Queensland Health; Brisbane City Council), Year, Title, Author (for any persons named as being responsible for the document), Edition (if applicable), Volume (if applicable), Publisher (if this is the same as the name in the Department field, use an abbreviation if possible). If you viewed the document online, enter the date on which you viewed the document in the Access Date field. If the document has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the document via a database, enter the name of the database in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the document on a free website, put the URL of the report in the URL field. If Conference Papers For a published conference paper, use the Conference Proceedings reference type if the paper was published in an edited volume of conference proceedings. If the paper was published as a journal article (possibly in a special issue of a journal), use the Journal Article reference type. Use the Conference Paper reference type for an unpublished conference paper, whether print or electronic. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Date (if known), Title, Conference Name, Conference Location (if known). 7

8 If you viewed the paper online, enter the date on which you viewed the paper in the Access Date field. If the paper has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the paper via a database, enter the name of the database in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the paper on a free website, put the URL of the paper in the URL field. If Conference Proceedings Use this reference type for a conference paper that has been published in a volume of conference proceedings. For an unpublished paper, use the Conference Paper reference type. If you want to cite a whole volume of conference proceedings, use the Edited Book reference type. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year of Conference, Title, Editor, Conference Name, Conference Location, Volume (if appropriate), Pages. Theses and Dissertations Use the Thesis reference type for a thesis or dissertation, whether you accessed it in print form or online. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title, Degree (e.g. PhD, DSc, doctoral), University. If you viewed the thesis online, enter the date on which you viewed the thesis in the Access Date field. If the thesis has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the thesis via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. Proquest Dissertations and Theses) in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the thesis on a free website, put the URL of the thesis in the URL field. If Web Pages Use the Web Page reference type for online material not covered by the more specific reference types listed elsewhere in this guide. This would include company websites and postings on blogs, bulletin boards and discussion lists. 8

9 Enter data in the following fields: Author (person or organisation responsible for the page), Year (if no discernible year of publication, type n.d.), Title, Publisher (the organisation responsible for the website, unless already named in the Author field), Access Date (e.g. 12 June), Access Year, URL. Audiovisual Material Use the Audiovisual Material reference type for items such as video recordings and sound recordings. For films and broadcast material, use the Film or Broadcast reference type. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title, Type (e.g. video recording, sound recording, poster), Format (if appropriate, e.g. DVD, 2 CDs, videocassette), City (if appropriate), Publisher (if appropriate). Film and Broadcast Material Use this reference type for movies, television and radio programs. Enter data in the following fields: Title, Year Released, Medium (e.g. motion picture, television program, radio program), Producer (use this field for the name of a television or radio network; for an organisation, put a comma at the end of the name), Date Released (e.g. 12 June; use for the date of broadcast of a television or radio program), Distributor (if appropriate). Manuscript/Archival/Unpublished Material Use the Manuscript reference type for unpublished and archival sources. These will normally have been accessed in paper format, although a small amount of such material has now been digitised and is available online. Enter data in the following fields: Author, Year, Title (if any), Type of Work (use this field for descriptive phrases, e.g. Letter to William James; Diary; Interview with Walter Smith), Collection Title (if relevant, use this field for the title of a collection of records within a repository, e.g. William James Papers, and include here the number of the item within the collection), Library/Archive (name of the institution where the document is stored), City (location of the library or archive). If you viewed the document online, enter the date on which you viewed the document in the Access Date field. If the document has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the document via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. Empire Online) in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the document on a free website, put the URL of the document in the URL field. If 9

10 Patents Enter data in the following fields: Inventor, Year, Title, Assignee, Application Number (if applicable), Patent Number, Country. If you viewed the patent online, enter the date on which you viewed the patent in the Access Date field. If the patent has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the patent via a database, enter the name of the database (e.g. Derwent Innovations Index) in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the patent on a free website, put the URL of the patent in the URL field. If Maps Enter data in the following fields: Cartographer, Year, Title, Scale, Edition (if appropriate), Series Title (if appropriate), Publisher (if this is the same as the name in the Cartographer field, use an abbreviation if possible), City. If you viewed the map online, enter the date on which you viewed the map in the Access Date field. If the map has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. If you accessed the map via a database, enter the name of the database in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the map on a free website, put the URL of the map in the URL field. If Standards Enter data in the following fields: Institution (name of the issuing body in full), Year, Title, Document Number, Publisher (normally the same as the Institution, so an abbreviation will suffice), Place Published. If the standard is in parts or sections, include those details in the Title field. The title of the section or part can be separated from the main title by a comma or a dash. The standard number (the conventional short refrence to the standard) should be inserted into the Document Number field. If you viewed the standard online, enter the date on which you viewed the standard in the Access Date field. If the standard has a digital object identifier number, enter that in the DOI field. 10

11 If you accessed the standard via a database, enter the name of the database in the Database field. If appropriate you can also enter data in the Database Provider field. If you accessed the standard on a free website, put the URL of the standard in the URL field. If Personal Communications The output style will not format the Personal Communication reference type. Type details of personal communications in the text of your document (e.g. A former staff member verified the accuracy of this statement (J Williams 2009, pers. comm., 2 August) and also reported that ). Do not insert the reference using EndNote. Details of personal communications are not required in the list of references at the end of your document. Legal Material The output style will not format any of the legal reference types: Bill, Case, Hearing, Legal Rule or Regulation, Statute. These publications are cited directly in the text of the document, using the standard form of legal citation. Type the citation in the document: do not insert the reference using EndNote. Details of legal materials are not required in the list of reference at the end of your document. 11

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