Crash Course in APA Style: Documentation for Academic Writing. Sting Y. Jacket. Black Hills State University. Running head: CRASH COURSE IN APA STYLE

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1 1 Running head: CRASH COURSE IN APA STYLE Comment [A1]: The label running head only appears on the title page; all caps are used for the shortened version of the title. Crash Course in APA Style: Documentation for Academic Writing Sting Y. Jacket Black Hills State University Comment [A2]: Full title, writer s name, and affiliation. All lines are centered.

2 2 CRASH COURSE IN APA STYLE Abstract This concise guide presents a crash course in APA style citations and references. It is Comment [A3]: This paragraph provides information on abstract content and format. intended for consultant and student use in the Writing Center. If this were a real APAstyle paper, the abstract would include a brief overview of the project, its central research questions and objectives, as well as participants, research methods, and conclusions, as applicable. The abstract is designed to give the reader a concise summary of the information to come. It should be between words and in the same format as the rest of the paper. It might end with a listing of keywords, which can be used for classification and categorization purposes. Please take note of the formatting of the running header/header (different on page 1), title page, and abstract page. Please note that the APA paper has four distinct parts: the title page, abstract, main body, and reference page. Keywords: APA, abstract, running header, main body, references

3 3 CRASH COURSE IN APA STYLE Crash Course in APA Style: Documentation for Academic Writing Comment [A4]: The label running head only appears on the title page; all caps are used for the shortened version of the title. Comment [A5]: Long title is used here. APA style may seem unwieldy and complex at first, but whether you are a student or a professional, it is essential to your ability to ethically and accurately document sources. Smith, Bell, & Francisco (2010) likened plagiarism to identity theft. They wrote, when someone steals your identity, they rob you of your name, money, credit standing, and integrity. Likewise, when someone steals a writer s words or ideas, they are robbing that writer of his or her identity as well, as writing is a product of hard work (p. 34). APA allows for a standard of documentation that clearly and accurately gives credit where credit is due. In this way, the writer maintains his or her integrity and likewise his or her hard work is recognized by fellow writers, instead of recklessly and disrespectfully stolen ( APA and You, n.d., para. 4). Thus, when a writer s words or ideas are used, APA documentation requires writers not only to indicate when they are using a source s information, through source introductions or attributive tags like According to Author Jones (1981), but to also indicate, through parenthetical citations, where those ideas end (Smith et al., 2010). In those parenthetical citations, readers receive the very important information of the source, publication year, and page number (for quotes), so that they, too, might research and find that same information. Finally, the source, and all of its relevant information, is documented in a reference list, further identifying and crediting the work. This keeps writers honest and sources recognized (Smith et al., 2010). Betty Jackson advised that writers will do well to remember that APA documentation is a four-step process (as cited in Smith et al., 2010, p. 38). Any time an author or text is listed, the publication year must appear as well. Second, all directly quoted material must be enclosed in quotation marks. Remember, however, that it is not enough to change only a few words when working with source passages; either directly quote the text, or rewrite it completely in your own Comment [A6]: In APA, the date of publication is emphasized; dates always appear with source names either in the lead-in or in the parenthetical citation. For three or more authors, all names are listed in the initial lead-in; subsequent citations note the first author and et al : Smith et al. (2010) Comment [A7]: Page numbers are indicated with p. All quotations require page numbers. APA encourages, but does not require, page numbers for paraphrases or summaries. Comment [A8]: When an online source has no listed author, use the title of the article. Instead of page numbers, online sources use paragraph markers. If there is no date listed, use n.d. Comment [A9]: This is a citation for an indirect source found in Smith et al. s work; only your original source appears in the reference list.

4 4 CRASH COURSE IN APA STYLE words and writing style through summary or paraphrase (Jackson as cited in Smith et al., 2010). No matter what kind of source treatment you use, all three require citations in the text; this is the third step. Unfortunately, it is a step that many writers forget. McKibbin (2009) reiterated this point: All paraphrases, summaries, and quotes require a parenthetical citation with author and publication year, and some will require the addition of the source s name if he or she is not introduced in the sentence lead-in, or if readers might be confused as to which source is being used. Even if you use your own writing, you are still using the source s ideas, and these ideas must be credited. Page numbers (or paragraph numbers for online texts without pagination) are required for direct quotes and are encouraged for paraphrases and summaries. (p. 26) Finally, all sources that appear in the essay must appear in a correctly formatted reference page at the end; likewise, all sources that appear in the reference list must appear in the essay ( APA, n.d., para. 13). These are the four steps that will help keep you safe when citing; if you are in doubt, it is better to over-cite than risk unethical source treatment, which carries heavy consequences in academia. Comment [A10]: The label running head only appears on the title page; all caps are used for the shortened version of the title. Comment [A11]: In APA, a block quote is used for 40 or more words. Unlike MLA, the block quote in APA is indented only once; similar to MLA, however, there are no quotes and the punctuation is placed before the parenthetical, creating a hanging citation.

5 5 CRASH COURSE IN APA STYLE References Comment [A12]: The label running head only appears on the title page; all caps are used for the shortened version of the title. APA and you. (n.d.). Retrieved from McKibbin, I. (2009). Tips for successful APA documentation. In E. Fullerton (ed.), The student s handbook for college-level writing 2 nd ed. (pp ). Boston: Longman. Smith, J., Bell, M., & Francisco, T. (2010). Avoiding plagiarism at all costs. In The writer s guide to APA documentation (pp ). New York: Penguin. Comment [A13]: Website with no known author or group. The n.d. indicates that no date of publication was available. Comment [A14]: Chapter in an edited collection. Notice we provide the author of the chapter, date of publication, and chapter title before moving on to the editor of the collection, the title, edition, page span, and publisher information. Comment [A15]: Chapter written by same author(s) as book; text with three or more authors

6 6 QUICK REFERENCE: COMMON SOURCE FORMATS IN APA A reference page must accompany all texts that include sources. References is centered in plain type at the top of the page. Entries are alphabetized using the last name of the senior author (the first author listed). Notice that only the last name and first initial are supplied for each author. If no author is available, alphabetize by the title. In APA, the date of publication is emphasized and follows the author s name in the entry. Notice that the first line of each entry is flush against the left margin; second and subsequent lines are indented once. Formatting Titles In APA reference entries, only book and periodical titles are formatted in italics. Article titles are written in plain text without quotation marks. Capitalize the first word of the title only, unless the title is of a periodical. All words in periodical titles are capitalized. Citing DOIs A DOI indicates a permanent link to online content. APA recommends citing a source s DOI when available. You can usually locate the number on the first page of electronic texts and database articles. Check for DOIs near the copyright notice. Abbreviations ed. = edition Rev. ed. = revised edition Ed. (Eds.) = editor(s) n.d. = no date No. = number p./pp. = page(s) Vol. = volume Comment [A16]: Acceptable abbreviations to use on the Reference page. JOURNAL ARTICLES, PRINT AND ONLINE Online with DOI Fine, D. (2010). New technologies for the home. Technology Today, 7(8), 19. doi: /et Online without DOI Fine, D. (2010). New technologies for the home. Technology Today, 7(8), 19. Retrieved from Print Fine, D. (2010). New technologies for the home. Technology Today, 7(8), 19. Comment [A17]: Volume, issue, and page number. Comment [A18]: A DOI indicates a permanent link to online content, such as published articles. APA recommends citing a source s DOI when available. Comment [A19]: If there is no DOI for an article online or from a database, use the URL. If the URL is not included in the database information, search for it on the web.

7 7 MAGAZINES AND NEWSPAPERS, PRINT AND ONLINE Newspaper Articles Online Trites, S. (2007, April 2). In cities, ipods dominate. The New York Times. Retrieved from Print Trites, S. (2007, April 2). In cities, ipods dominate. The New York Times, p. D8. Magazine Articles Online Scheel, N. (2000, February 24). 21 st century gender disparity. The New Yorker, 45. Retrieved from Print Scheel, N. (2000, February 24). 21 st century gender disparity. The New Yorker, 45, BOOKS AND CHAPTERS, PRINT AND ONLINE Entire Book, Print Version Waterman, J. & Jason Steldman. (2008). The making of contemporary America. New York: St. Martin s Press. Electronic Version of Print Book Johnson, F. (2008). Reality for reality s sake. Retrieved from Reference Book, Print Version Jules, K., Sanford, J., Opalman, B., & Vean, S. (2008). Writing for the sciences. New York: University Press. Book Chapter, Print version Thewn, L. (2001). Drug-resistant staph cases increasing. In T. Hughes (Ed.), Trends and outbreaks in medicine (pp.64-79). Boston: Grey Press.

8 8 Entry in an online Reference Work Willis, B.G., & Rogers, B.E. (2001). Red-bellied woodpecker habitats. In E. Sandwick (Ed.), Birding atlas (2002 ed.). Retrieved from Entry in an online Reference Work, no author, editor, or date Black Hills Birds. (n.d.). In Birding America. Retrieved from WEB PAGES AND SOURCES Webpage Jensen, K., Ruley, W., Rightly, D. & Jensen, D. (1999, May 10). APA guide, 2009/2010.Retrieved from Report or Long Document from a Web Site Faris, A., Johnson, C., & Thomas, H. (2007, June). Causal connections between teen drinking Comment [A20]: For webpages, you want to cite as much information as possible: the author, date of publication or update, title of the article/text, and the full website. This may require you to do some digging on the site, and may require you to search the main URL site. If no author is cited, begin with the title of the text. and college graduation rates. Retrieved from Report or Long Document from a Web Site: No Date Matthews, D., & Grey, D. (n.d.). Jazz roots in jam bands of America. Retrieved from For help with APA citations, or for more information on incorporating and documenting sources, visit the BHSU Writing Assistance Center. Writing Assistance Center at BHSU

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