Documentation and Chicago Style Format

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1 Documentation and Chicago Style Format When to cite: Someone s ideas, opinions or theory from a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV programme, movie, web page, computer programme, letter, advertisement, or any other medium. Information gained through interviewing someone whether you paraphrase or quote their exact words. Statistics, graphs, drawings, visuals, graphics whether from printed or web sources. When not to cite: Write your own experiences, observations, insights, thoughts or conclusions about a subject Use common knowledge - facts which can be found in numerous places i.e. you can find the same information undocumented in at least five sources; you think it is information that readers already know; or a person can easily find the same information using general reference sources. Write up your own experimental results. Paraphrasing & Summarization: Paraphrasing is the process of expressing the ideas contained in a source in your own words, whilst still preserving the essential ideas of the original source. Even when you paraphrase you must still give credit to the original author. Summarising is using your own words to reduce the content of a passage to include only essential information. Examples of Paraphrasing: It is apparent that in this century information literacy is becoming an important global initiative in education. This fits in well with the new education initiatives in higher education and the emergence of a new learning environment. Librarians and faculty are collaborating like never before to train students in information and technology work as part of their total education so that ultimately they can be successful in the electronic environment. (Rader, 2003)

2 e.g. of a bad paraphrase Rader (2003) concludes that information literacy is an important global initiative and that the emergence of a new learning environment in higher education is as a result of this. Specifically, librarians and faculty are working more closely to train students in information and technology work to enable them to be successful in the electronic information environment. e.g. of a good paraphrase Rader (2003) concludes that the increasing importance of information literacy to education is now evident in the changes being seen in the higher education sector. In particular, new partnerships are being forged between faculty and librarians to train students in the requisite information skills and the use of the new technologies. This training is critical to enabling them to function effectively in the global information environment. CHICAGO STYLE Basic Principles: Author-date system a complete list of sources cited + very brief in-text citations, usually enclosed in parenthesis Heading- Reference List or Works Cited Arranged alphabetically. Do not divide list into sections List sources by last name of author/s Titles of books and articles capitalized sentence style. First word of subtitle capitalized Names of journals capitalized headline style whether spelt out or abbreviated Titles of books and journals are italicized Footnotes plus author-date citations: In addition to using author date citations in text for sources you may also use numbered footnotes for any substantive comments. If you have source citations within the notes you can treat the same way as in-text citations e.g.

3 1. There is actually very little evidence of this in the body of research on the subject (Wilson 1989) etc. Abbreviations: Phrases like edited by and translated by abbreviated to ed. or trans. University may also be abbreviated to univ. e.g. Cox, T.F. ed Risk taking and information handling in consumer behaviour. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press Months given with journal citations may be abbreviated Publication details: If no place or no date of publication can be ascertained use n.p. and n.d. respectively Edition: When an edition other than the first is cited the number or description of the edition follows the title. These are abbreviated as follows e.g. 2nd ed. ; rev. ed. Series: If a book is part of a series include the series information in the citation. You may omit the editor of the series if you wish. The number of the series (if any) follows the series title with no intervening comma unless vol. or no. is used e.g. Gwartney, James D Economics: Private and public choice. The Dryden Press Series in Economics 6. Forth Worth: Dryden Press. OR Gwartney, James D Economics: Private and public choice. The Dryden Press Series in Economics, vol. 6, no. 3. Forth Worth: Dryden Press. Note: the series title is capitalized headline style. Author entries: Single author entry precedes multi author entry beginning with the same name Successive entries by two or more authors where the first author s name is the same - alphabetized by coauthors last name e.g. Thomas, Clive, Lloyd Best, and Norman Girvan Economic liberalisation and Caribbean development : Proceedings of a

4 panel discussion. St. Augustine: UWI. Thomas, Clive, and Havelock Brewster The dynamics of West Indian economic integration. Kingston: UWI. Note: Only the first author s name is inverted Successive entries by the same author, translator, editor: A 3em dash (six unspaced hyphens) replaces the name after first appearance. These entries are arranged chronologically by year of publication. Undated works follow all dated works e.g. Demas, William The economics of development in small sates with special reference to the Caribbean. Montreal: McGill Univ. Press The political economy of the English-Speaking Caribbean : A summary view. Barbados: Cedar Press. 3em dash method is also used for Institutional authors Two or more works published same year by an author: Two or more works published in the same year by same author distinguished by a,b,c (set in roman) following the date. Alphabetize by title e.g. Beckles, Hilary. 1989a. Nature rebels : A social history of enslaved black women in Barbados. London: Zed b. White servitude and black slavery in Barbados, Knoxville: Univ. of Tennessee Press. NB: for dates in titles when not preceded by a preposition, separate with comma. If a colon used in the original retain. Chapter in a book: Beckles, Hilary Crop Over fetes and festivals in Caribbean slavery. In In the shadow of the plantation: Caribbean history and legacy, ed. Alvin O. Thompson, Kingston: Ian Randle.

5 A paper included in published conference proceedings may be treated like chapters in a book. If published in a journal treated like a journal article. Multivolume works: Wright, Sewell Evolution and the genetics of population. 4 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Single volume: Wright, Sewell Theory of gene frequencies. Vo.l 2 of Evolution and the genetics of population. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Government documents: Barbados. Ministry of Economic Affairs development plan: Prosperity through increased productivity. St. Michael: Ministry of Economic Affairs. Corporate authors: Central Bank of Barbados Capital and money markets: For the period April- July Barbados: Central Bank of Barbados. Note: If there is no personal authors name on the title page, the organization is listed as author in the reference list even if it is also the publisher. Unpublished Works: Theses and Dissertations: Kind of thesis, academic institution and date follow the title e.g. Wilson, Andrew An economic analysis of the manufacturing sector in the Caribbean. PhD diss., Univ. of the West Indies. Working papers: Ferber, R Family decision-making and economic behaviour. Faculty Working Paper 35, College of Commerce and Business Administration, Univ. of

6 Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Lectures, papers presented at a conference, meeting: Sponsorship, location and date of meeting follow the title of speech or pare given e.g. Downes, Aviston Discerning sense from nonsense: Friendly societies and black economic enfranchisement in Barbados. Paper presented at the History Forum of the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill. Journal articles: Allison, G.W The implications of experimental design for biodiversity manipulations. American Naturalist 153 (3): Note: If pagination continuous throughout the volume, then issue number can be omitted. Also unnecessary when a month or season precedes the year. Spacing: space follows the colon after parenthetical information, but there is no space when parenthetical information absent e.g. 153:26-45 Magazine articles: Ezell, Carol Care for a dying continent. Scientific America. May. Weekly or monthly magazines even if numbered by volume and issue usually cited by date only. Inclusive page numbers may also be omitted. If in doubt use journal form if volume information easily located, magazine form if not. Electronic Publications: Electronic journals published on the web as distinct from electronic journals found by searching third party internet databases (like those accessed through library): From the web: Follow as for print journal examples above but add the URL and if the information is time sensitive add the date accessed. Give the full web address for the article e.g.

7 From databases: Follow the recommendations as for print journal articles. Add the URL, but only the part which represents the main entrance of the service e.g. IN TEXT CITATIONS Must agree exactly in both name and date with corresponding entry in reference list Single author: Basic form is last name of author followed by year of publication e.g. (Beckles 2000) Different authors same last name: Different authors with the same last name, include an initial e.g. (H. Beckles 2000) (C. Beckles 2001) Placement of citation in quotes: Author-date citations placed just before a mark of punctuation- While economists traditionally concentrated on distortions in product markets resulting from the application of protective measures (Belassa 1977); in recent years, Mckinnon (1973) has argued that appropriate policy in the domestic market is key to general liberalization. If author s name appears in text need not be repeated in parenthetical citation Works by two or more, more than three authors: Works by two or more authors all names are included e.g. (Loughran and Ritter 1995) More than three authors only first name followed by et al or and others e.g. (Beckles et al. 2003) In a study by Beckles and others (2003)..

8 Three or more authors but different coauthors: Reference list includes another work of same date that would also be abbreviated as Balassa et al but whose coauthors are different, text citations must distinguish between them e.g. (Balassa, Sharpston, et al. 2003) (Balassa, Gierch, et al. (2003) Same authors different titles: If you have references to two different titles by Balassa, Sharpston et al 2003 then you need to add a shortened title enclosed in commas e.g. (Balassa, Sharpston, et al., Export subsidies, 2003) (Balassa, Sharpston, et al., Economic incentives, 2003) Multiple references in same citation: Can list two or more references in a single parenthetical citation e.g. (Beckles 2003; Cobly 2004; Thompson 2002) Prepared by: Ingrid Iton Main Library October 2006

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