1 Academic Writing: Referencing Correctly Marian Butler Student Services
2 What should a uni essay do? Develop an argument (Your response to the question) Base argument on the experts Referencing Demonstrate critical thinking Plus/advantages/benefits of ideas Minus/disadvantages/problems with ideas
3 Referencing shows: Whoyou have read (author) Whatthey had to say (point) Whereyou found that source (book, journal article etc) Whenthe source was written (date) In your essay Smith (2009, p. 84) argues that developing nations need to be freed from national debt. OR Developing nations need to be freed from national debt (Smith 2009, p. 84). Author Date Title of book (italicised or underlined) In the reference list Smith, DP 2009, Debt and development, Harper Rowe, New York. Publisher Place of publication
4 Referencing is for: Your benefit To show offwhat you have read! To add authority and credibilityto your argument Reader s benefit To understand the context of your work To allow your reader to track down your research
5 There are also ethical reasons: Important to: Respect Intellectual property (ideas/creativity) To distinguish between: Your ideas Someone else s ideas Value others intellectual property Legal implications
6 What should be referenced? Anything not your own: ideas definitions information results opinions diagrams, graphs, tables pictures, video clips power points Even your ideas that another author also has From any source whether: summarised paraphrased or directly quoted
7 But.. No need to reference common knowledge. Youropinions based on the facts that you have read.
8 What is common knowledge? As a general rule of thumb: You did not know it before you read? NOT common knowledge Most of your classmates would know it? Probably IS common knowledge.
9 Examples of common knowledge Which of the following are common knowledge? The first fleet arrived in Australia in Yes (for someone who grew up in Australia) Driver fatigue is well recognised as a cause of accidents. Yes: from driver safety campaigns on TV. Alkaloids are the most important biochemical components of Areca Nuts. Not for the general public, but possibly for food biochemists. This should be cited. Women who enrol in postgraduate studies are at greater risk of late completion than men. Probably not.
10 Expressing opinions about texts Use tentative language It seems likely that. It is possible. Given the evidence, it could be the case that This could mean. Brown (2009, p. 45) argues that attending lectures is important for success at university. Thus it seems likely that first year students who are encouraged to attend, will do better in their studies than those who do not attend.
11 How do I reference? Many systems in use UQ no exception The most common: I am using Harvard for examples in this presentation Harvard system (author date and page in the text) Check with your faculty, school, subject Use guides and course profiles Check library home page
12 Examples of different types Author and date Harvard,APA, MLA Numberingwhich links to footnotesor endnotes Oxford, Chicago Numbering which links to the reference list Vancouver
16 Another word for referencing is citing A citation (or reference) in the text is where you citeor referto an author It may be in the form of a direct quoteor it may be a paraphraseof an author or a summary Direct quotes should be used sparingly When you refer to an author, it is wise to explain his/her position and critique/comment on it
17 Brown (2009, p. 55) argues that globalisation has resulted in poverty in developing countries. Similarly, Jones (2007, p 5) explains that poverty has been on the increase over the past ten years. According to Brent (2006), this is evident in Janoa Example: Brown (2009, p. 55) and Jones (2007, p. 5) both claimthat poverty has increased as a result of globalisation, particularlyaccording to Jones, over the last ten years. Case studies by authors such as Brent (2006) who evaluated the situation in Janoa confirm the views of Jones and Brown. Itseems important that developed countries, who may be in a position to fight poverty in developing countries, take some initiative in solving this problem.
18 Direct quoting Exact words from a source = directquote:.the long lasting negative effects of discrimination can be forestalled (Elliot, Pedersen & Morgan 1997, p.42). Quotes are not included in your word count Limit quotes to clever quotes Longer quotes are indented and single spaced, eg: The dispute ended in the victory of management who succeeded in introducing a more cost efficient system despite the opposition of the technical staff. (Goodall 2010, p.66). Note the full stops, commas and brackets!
19 Omissions from Quotations Leaving out words in a quote? Use three dotswith a space at either end Plagiarism is the act of misrepresenting as one's own original work the ideas, interpretations, words or creative works of another. These ideas, interpretations, words or works may be found in print and/or electronic media. (UQ Library 2008).
20 Additions to quotations Inside the quote: Use square [---] brackets This shows your comment, explanation [sic]shows your accuracy of transcription but an error in the original Use of italicsindicates your emphasis of words
21 Square bracket examples: It is the disparate expectations of language [which] contribute to misunderstanding and confusion between staff and their students (Meyer, 2008, p.89). but plagiarism is literary fraud whereby one writer sets forth the words or ideas of another writer as his [sic]own in order to get gain (Hatch, 2007, p.12).
22 Adding emphasis (italics) example By including oracy in this discussion, I am subscribing to the definition of literacy provided by the federal Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET): Literacy involves the integration of reading, writing, listening, speakingand critical thinking. It includes the knowledge which enables a speaker,writer or reader to recognise and use language appropriate to different social situations (my italics) (Dawkins 1990, p.4).
23 In your essay,wheneveryou use an author s ideas, you must include: His or her surname (notfirst name and then surname) for example: Brown (2009, p. 54) found that students with high emotional intelligence performed well at x university NOT James Brown (2009, p. 54) found that. Date of publication (Harvard and APA) Pageif it can be traced to a page Notthe name of the book!
24 Referring to organisations According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) the benefits of vaccination are... Next and subsequently: WHO reports recommend that these vaccinations...
25 A chapter, paper or article in an edited book In the body of your essay: Rainer (2006).. Cite the author of the chapter or article notthe editor of the book itself. In the reference list: Rainer, G 2006, Caring for the elderly in MW Bron (ed.), Geriatric handbook, HBJ, New York, pp
26 Secondary sources You read Adams Adams = Primary source In essay: give the author (secondary source) as well as the primary source Smith (2001, cited in Adams 2005) argues that it is important.. Adams read and cited Smith Reference list: Adams, AR 2005, Power plays:how to maxmise power, Macmillan Australia, Sydney. Reference the primary source
27 Introducing authors in your essay Jones (2005) shows that.. Smith (2004) and Frost (1995) argue that.. Greenway (2000, p. 46) offers this view: Do not use says According to Brown, Smith and Jones (2005) Gordon et al. (2010) assert. Bannister (2008) disagrees Craigston s (2009) research points to. Elderly patrons found theatre seats uncomfortable (Rogers 2008; Sims 2009).
28 Use of tenses Past tense for specific findings: Corley (2005) foundthat 80% of arts grants were spent on salaries Present tense for theory and general discussion: Smith (2007) arguesthat there are three dominant stereotypes of creative people.
29 Referencing newspaper articles, organisations, corporations Treat the organisation like an author: A recent report (WHO, 2003) has suggested that Recently released crime statistics for Australia indicate that (Australian,27 May 2004, p. 5).
30 The reference list A list of all the works you have referred to in your text Is it a bibliography? Do you need a bibliography and reference list? Keep all details of readings as you research saves searching later! MLA uses: Works Cited
31 Reference list Should be on a separate page Is usually the last page of the assignment Includes ALL of the works you referred toin your essay Is in alphabetical order by author s surname. Is NOT usually numbered, except for numerical referencing systems.
32 Information for reference list Names of authors(family names and initials) Name of journal article, chapter or conference paper, etc. Name of journal, book, conference, etc. Date of publication Volume and issue number(for journals) Editor of book(if applicable) Publisher(for books) Place of publication(for books) Page numbers(of article or book chapter )
33 Harvard: Book References In the list of references: Surname of author, comma then author s initials Year of publication then a comma Name of book in italics (Capitals for first word only) then a comma Publisher comma Place of publication full stop Example: Jorges, T 1999, Creativity for university students, McGraw Hill, Brisbane. In the body of the essay: Author s surname, year of publication and page Example: Jorges (1999, p. 35) argues that.. Usually: nofirst names, notitles in the bodyof the essay
34 Harvard-book APA -book IN YOUR ESSAY: Sophisticated searching techniques are important (Berkman 1994, p. 25). OR Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that IN YOUR ESSAY: Sophisticated searching techniques are important (Berkman, 1994, p. 25). OR Berkman (1994, p. 25) claimed that IN YOUR REFERENCE LIST: Berkman, RI 1994, Find It fast: how to uncover expert information on any subject, Harper Perennial, New York. IN YOUR REFERENCE LIST: Berkman, R. I. (1994). Find it fast: how to uncover expert information. New York: Harper Perenial. Find the differences, there should be at least 6!
35 IN YOUR ESSAY MLA book The question of Branwell's authorship has been extensively discussed (Thomson 52). IN YOUR REFERENCE LIST Thomson, Rosemarie Garland. Extraordinary Bodies: Figuring Physical Disability in American Culture and Literature. New York: Columbia UP, ACLS Humanities E-Book. Web.13 Mar
36 Referencing journals In the list of references In the body of the essay: According to Lave (2008, p. 21).. (Lave 2008, p. 21) Author s surname, comma then author s initials Year of publication then comma Name of journal article in inverted commas then a comma Name of journal in italics (caps first letters) then a comma Volume number then a comma egvol. 1, Issue number or other identifier egissue 2 or no. 2, then a comma Page nosegpp Example: Lave, S 2008, Ethnicity and music practice, The Journal of New World Music, vol. 3, no. 2, August, pp
37 Referencing the internet author, date of publication or update known? use these as you would for other sources author not known? use the organisation as author organisation unknown? use title of the web page as author do not use URL (web address) in body of essay site is not dated? use nd for no date in reference list always include date you accessed the site
38 Examples of Internet references Sherman, C n.d., The invisible web, Free Print Limited, UK, viewed 27 November 2007, <http://www.freepint.co.uk/issues/ htm#feature>. Fine, M & Kurdek, LA 1993, Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations, American Psychologist, vol. 48, pp , viewed 12 January 2008, <http://www.apa.org/journals/amp/kurdek.html>. Cleary, P & Lewis, S 2001, 'It's the end of a long boom', The Australian Financial Review, 8 March, viewed 8 March 2001, <http://afr.com/australia/2001/03/08/ffxim9pu0kc.html>. The Body Shop Australia 2003, The Body Shop Australia, Mulgrave, Victoria, viewed 31 January 2003, <http://www.thebodyshop.com.au/>.
39 Referencing help Course outline or faculty guide Ask your lecturer or tutor Library website Web-page on your required style Ask a librarian
41 Accessing the TurnItIn report To view report, click here
42 Sample TurnItIn Report. Select these to exclude quoted material and your reference list from the text matching. Matching text Matching source
43 A final word Record all the detailsof sources as you take notes Take note of the page numbers Use one system consistently Follow the rules just do it! Check the referencing when proof reading Use your own words (amap) not direct quotes Comment on sources
Updated 10/07/08 TABLE OF CONTENTS WHAT IS MEANT BY REFERENCING AND CITING?...3 WHY IS REFERENCING IMPORTANT?...3 PLAGIARISM..3 HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM...4 THE HARVARD SYSTEM...5 IN-TEXT CITATION 5 COMPILING
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