1 Taylor & Francis Standard Reference Style: Chicago endnotes and bibliography The notes system is very flexible, allowing space for unusual kinds of sources, and it is liked for this reason by authors in the humanities. For full information on this style, see The Chicago Manual of Style (16th edn) or (click on the tab marked notes and bibliography to ensure you are using the right style): Contents of this guide In the text Tables and figures Reference list Book Journal Conference Thesis Unpublished work Internet Newspaper or magazine Report Personal communication Other reference types In the text In the text Placement and Bibliographic citations are provided in short endnotes
2 description of endnote style (under the heading Notes), supplemented by a bibliography (under the heading Bibliography) which includes all works cited in the notes. Each note only contains the last name of the author(s), a shortened title if the title is more than four words, and the relevant page or pages: 1. Smith and Jones, Style Manual, Khan, Chapter Title, 69. If there are more than three authors, just give the first author followed by et al: 3. Green et al., Style Guide, 98. NB: the shortened form is used even at the first mention. If the source is unpaginated (e.g. an electronic source), use a chapter or paragraph number instead. Several references documenting a single fact in the text should be separated by semicolons, with the last reference (often preceded by and ) followed by a full stop (period). A note number cannot reappear out of sequence. A note that applies to more than one location should be repeated with a new note number, or cross-referenced: 16. See note 4 above. Using more than one note reference at a single location (such as 5, 6 ) should be avoided. A single note can contain more than one citation or comment. The citations should be separated by semicolons and must appear in the same order as the text material to which they pertain. When a note contains the source of a fact or quotation in
3 the text and also related substantive material, the source comes first. A full stop (period) separates the citation from the commentary. Comments such as emphasis mine should be put in parentheses: 1. Smith and Jones, Style Manual, 66 (my italics). Very long endnotes can be broken into paragraphs. Note numbers The note number is superscript in the text, but in the note itself it is full-sized and followed by a full stop (period). The note number should be placed at the end of a sentence or clause. The number follows any punctuation mark except for the dash, which it precedes. It follows a closing parenthesis. For a parenthetical phrase within a sentence, it may occasionally be appropriate to place the note number before the closing parenthesis: As Smith and Jones had said (and this can be seen in their earliest publication 1 ),... A note number should not appear within or at the end of an article title or a subheading. A note that applies to an entire article should be unnumbered and be placed at the foot of the first page, preceding any numbered notes. A note that applies to a section following a subheading should be placed in an appropriate place in the text, such as after the first sentence in the section. Short titles With a quotation The short title in the endnote contains the key words. Do not change the word order. If the title contains four words or fewer, do not shorten it. The short title should be in the same style as the reference, e.g. in italics for a book or journal and in quotation marks for a chapter or journal article. The note number follows the quotation, whether the quotation is in the text or displayed as an extract. If the note includes a quotation, the source follows the end
4 punctuation, but is not in parentheses. Long quotations are displayed as extracts in the notes as they would be in the text. Ibid., idem, op. cit., loc.cit. See and cf. The abbreviation ibid. may be used to refer to a single work cited in the note immediately preceding. It must never be used if the preceding note contains more than one citation. It takes the place of the name of the author or editor, the title, and as much of the succeeding material as is identical. If the entire reference, including page numbers or other particulars, is identical, the word ibid. alone is used. The word ibid. is set in roman and followed by a full stop (period). 1. Smith and Jones, Style Manual, Ibid., Ibid. may also be used within one note in successive references to the same work. Do not use idem, op. cit., or loc. cit. Use cf. only if you mean compare or see, by way of comparison. Use see to direct the reader to further resources. Tables and figures Tables and figures References cited in tables or figure legends should be included in the endnote and bibliography list. Reference list Reference list Order Use the heading Bibliography. Do not use a 3-em dash to replace author names. Alphabetically by last name of author. If no author or editor, order by title. Follow Chicago s letter-by-letter system for alphabetizing entries. Names with particles (e.g. de, von, van den) should be alphabetized by the individual s personal preference if known, or traditional usage. A single-author entry precedes a multi-author entry that begins with the same name. Successive entries by two or more authors when only the first author is the same are alphabetized by co-authors last names.
5 If the bibliography contains two or more items by the same author, list them alphabetically by title of the work (ignoring initial The, An and A). All works by the same person should appear together, whether the person is author, compiler, editor, or translator: Green, Mary. Book Title. Abingdon: Routledge, Green, Mary, ed. Title of Book. Abingdon: Routledge, Form of author name Punctuation Generally, use the form of the author name as it appears on the title page or head of an article, but this can be made consistent within the bibliography if it is known that an author has used two different forms (e.g. Mary Louise Green and M. L. Green), to aid correct identification. Headline-style capitalization is used. In headline style, the first and last words of title and subtitle and all other major words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) are capitalized. For non-english titles, use sentence-style capitalization. Book Book One author Two authors Three authors Four to ten authors More than ten authors Smith, John. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge, Smith, J. J. Book Title. Abingdon: Routledge, Smith, John, and Jane Jones. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge, Smith, J. J., and J. B. Jones. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge, Smith, John, Jane Jones, and Mary Green. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge, Give all authors names. List the first seven authors followed by et al.
6 Organization as author No author Chapter University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Begin the bibliography entry with the title, and ignore the, a or an for the purposes of alphabetical order. Chapter in a single-author book: Green, Mary. Chapter Title. Chap. 5 in Style Manual. Abingdon: Routledge, Chapter in a multi-author book: Edited Edition Reprints/modern editions Multivolume work Translated Not in English Online Jones, Sam. Chapter Title. In Book Title, edited by John Smith, Abingdon: Routledge, Smith, John, ed. Collected Style Manuals. Abingdon: Routledge, Smith, John, and Jane Jones, eds. Collected Style Manuals. Abingdon: Routledge, University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 16th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Schweitzer, Albert. J. S. Bach. Translated by Ernest Newman. 2 vols Reprint, New York: Dover, Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, Reprinted with preface and notes by Matthew J. Bruccoli. New York: Collier Books, Page references are to the 1992 edition. Green, M. L. Collected Correspondence. Vol. 2 of The Collected Correspondence of M. L. Green. Abingdon: Routledge, Khan, Lisa. Collected Works. 2 vols. Abingdon: Routledge, Smith, John. Collected Style Manuals. Translated and edited by Jane Jones. Abingdon: Routledge, Piaget, J., and B. Inhelder. La genèse de l idée de hasard chez l enfant [The origin of the idea of chance in the child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, If you used an online version, cite the online version, include the URL or DOI: Smith, John. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon:
7 Place of publication Routledge, doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. Smith, John. Book Title: The Subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge, Where two cities are given, include the first one only. If the city could be confused with another, add the abbreviation of the state, province, or country: Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Oxford: Clarendon Press New York: Macmillan Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press When the publisher s name includes the state name, the abbreviation is not needed: Publisher Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press Omit initial the, and Inc., Ltd, Co., Publishing Co., etc. Journal Journal One author Two authors Three authors If you used an online version, cite the online version, include a DOI (preferably) or URL. Smith, John. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10, no. 1 (2012): doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. Smith, J. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10, no. 1 (2012): doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. Smith, John, and Lisa Khan. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10, no. 1 (2012): doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. Smith, J. J., and L. M. Khan. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10, no. 1 (2012): doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. Smith, John, Jane Jones, and Mary Green. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10, no. 1 (2012): 33
8 39. doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. Four to ten authors More than ten authors Translated Not in English Other article types Issue numbers Smith, J. J., J. P. Jones, and M. G. Green. Article Title: The Subtitle. Journal Title in Full 10, no. 1 (2012): doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. Give all authors names. List the first seven authors followed by et al. Khan, Lisa. Article Title in English. [In Hindi.] Journal Title in Full 10, no. 3 (2012): doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. Capitalize sentence-style, but according to the conventions of the relevant language. Smith, John. Title of Book Review. Review of Book Title, by Lisa Khan. Journal Title in Full 10, no. 1 (2012): doi:xxxxxxxxxxx. The issue number can be omitted if the journal is paginated consecutively through the volume (or if month or season is included), but it is not incorrect to include it. When volume and issue number alone are used, the issue number is within parentheses. If only an issue number is used, it is not within parentheses: Journal Title, no. 25 (1973): If using month, abbreviate as Jan., Feb., etc. If using season, spell out in full. Conference Conference Proceedings Paper Poster Individual contributions to conference proceedings are treated like chapters in multi-author books. If published in a journal, treat as an article. Smith, John. Title of Paper. Paper presented at the annual meeting for the Society of XXXX, Oxford, November 21 24, Smith, John. Title of Poster. Poster presented at the annual meeting for the Society of XXXX, Oxford, November 21 24, 2012.
9 Thesis Thesis Smith, John. Title of Thesis. PhD diss., University of Chicago, Unpublished work Unpublished work Book or journal article Use Forthcoming instead of the date. If an article is not yet accepted, treat as a thesis. Internet Internet Website Document Electronic mailing list Blog Multimedia In text only: ( As of July 19, 2012, the BBC listed on its website... ). Reference depending on the type of document. Access dates are not required unless no date of publication or revision can be found. If citing an undated online document, give an access date: Oxford Library. Library Strategy. Oxford Library. Accessed June 3, In text only (name of list, date of posting, URL). In text only. Include date that material was accessed if no original date can be determined. Include information about original performance or source, e.g. of a speech or performance. Include indication of source type. Newspaper or magazine Newspaper or magazine Newspapers and magazines are cited in the text, and no entry is needed in the bibliography: quotation from newspaper (Sunday Times, April 8, 2012)
10 Report... as noted in a Guardian article on February 27, If a reference is needed or preferred, use this style: Author Article Title. Sunday Times, April 8. (If no author is identified, begin the citation with the article title.) Report Treat pamphlets, reports, brochures and freestanding publications such as exhibition catalogues as books. Give sufficient information to identify the document. Personal communication Personal communication Letter, telephone conversation, or Run in to the text or give in a note. Do not include in the bibliography. Other reference types Other reference types Patent Audio and visual media Green, Ann. Patent description. US Patent 12345, filed March 23, Bernstein, Leonard, dir. Symphony no. 5, by Dmitri Shostakovich. New York Philharmonic. CBS IM Auden, W. H. Poems. Read by the author. Spoken Arts Compact disc. Database Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. Commentaries. Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, Name of Database (details; accessed Month Day, Year).
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