1 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF AKRON COLLEGE OF NURSING American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guidelines Sixth Edition The following information is provided as the highlights of how to model your formal papers in APA format for the College of Nursing. Every student is expected to own a copy of the Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition (2010, second printing October, 2009). Examples of the specific topic will be included and referenced to the pages in the book will be in parentheses. **NOTE: The College of Nursing requires submission of TWO copies of all formal papers if the student wishes the graded copy to be returned. One copy of the paper is retained for College of Nursing files. Check course syllabus for policy on submission of late papers. Generally, points are deducted if this is done without prior instructor approval. Check with your instructor if electronic copies are acceptable. The instructions lay the groundwork for an electronic file as well as a hard copy of the paper. General Format (p ) Typing of Paper Paper: Use 8 1/2 x 11 heavy weight, white bond paper. Typeface: Times New Roman with a 12 point font size. Line spacing: Double-space between all text lines of the manuscript. Double-space after every line in the title, headings, footnotes, quotations, references, and figure captions. (See page 229 for table and exceptions) Spacing after punctuation marks: Use TWO spaces after punctuation marks at the end of a sentence. (p. 88) Line length: maximum 6 ½ inches. Lines should be left side aligned. Right sides may be uneven or ragged. Margins: One (1) inch (2.54 cm) margins at top, bottom, right and left sides of each page. Do not justify right margin. Instead, use flush-left style and leave the right margin uneven or ragged. Paragraph and indentations: Indent the first line of every paragraph 5-7 space or approximately ½ inch. Each paragraph is longer than a single sentence and none are longer than one manuscript page. The only exceptions to these requirements are (a) the abstract, (b) block quotations, (c) titles and headings, (d) table titles, (e) notes, and (f) figure captions.
2 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 2 Order of manuscript pages: Arrange the pages of the manuscript as follows: 1. Title page: The title page includes five elements: title, running head, author byline, institutional affiliation, and author note. Identify the title page as page number 1. The running head is an abbreviated title that is printed at the top of the pages of a manuscript or published article to identify the article for the readers. The running head should be a maximum of 50 characters, counting letters, punctuation, and spaces between words. It should appear flush left in all capital letters at the top of the title page and all subsequent pages. 2. Abstract: start on a separate page (if required) numbered page Text: start on a separate page, numbered page 3 (page 2 if no abstract) 4. References: start on a separate page 5. Tables: start on a separate page 6. Figures: start each on a separate page; include caption on page with figure 7. Appendices: start each on a separate page. If there is only one label it as Appendix; if there are more than one they are labeled "Appendix A" "Appendix B", etc., centered in upper and lowercase letters. Double space after heading and begin first line of text 5-7 spaces indented. Each appendix must have a title. Page numbers and running heads: The page number begins on the title page, in the heading area, right side aligned. Do not use the word "page" or put period after the number. Place numbers 1 inch from top in right-hand corner (1/2 word processor default is acceptable). Note: use the automatic word processing function to generate your running head and page number on each page in the heading. Seriation: within a paragraph or sentence, use lowercase letters (not italicized) in parentheses: e.g.: (a) some alternative courses of action, (b) the factors influencing the decision, (c)... (p. 64 for other specifics) Abbreviations: Use sparingly. A term to be abbreviated must, on its first appearance, be written out completely and followed immediately by its abbreviation in parenthesis, e.g., American Diabetic Association (ADA). Thereafter, the abbreviation may be used without further explanation (do not switch between the abbreviated and written out forms of a term). See Chapter 4 (pp ) for other specifics in regard to abbreviations.
3 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 3 Level headings (pp ): Use at least two subsection headings within any given section or use none. Level of Heading Format 1 Centered, Boldface, Upper and Lowercase Heading 2 Flush left, Boldface, Upper and Lowercase Heading 3 Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. 4 Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. 5 Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. Introduction: Because the introduction is clearly identified by its position in the paper, it does NOT carry a heading labeling. (p. 27) Title Page (p. 23, 229) Running Head: The running head is the title of the paper and is placed left side aligned in the header. The title is typed in all capital letters. The title of the paper is in capital letters on all of the subsequent pages in the heading area left side aligned. (Note: some instructors may require the last name of the student to be the running head. Check with your course instructor for directions regarding this.) Example: Running head: GUIDELINES FOR THE SIXTH EDITION 1 Page numbers are right side aligned beginning on the title page. Title of paper centered on line Author s Name and affiliation (p. 23): The preferred authors name is first name, middle initial, and last name. This is centered in the middle of the page, in the middle of the line. Double space and include the institution affiliation: The University of Akron Example: Title of Paper Student Name The University of Akron
4 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 4 Author Note (p. 24): Center the label Author Note below the name and affiliation. Include information regarding the course name and specifics of the paper. If actually submitting the paper as a manuscript for publication, follow the specific directions found in the APA manual on page 25. For a required paper for the College of Nursing the following is the suggested format. Check with your course instructors for specifics. Double space between lines. Example: Author Note Florence Nightingale, College of Nursing, The University of Akron. This paper is in fulfillment for the course: Foundations in Nursing (Course title), 8200:000 (course number). Due 00/00/0000 (month, day, year), and instructor s name (Mary Gladwin PhD., RN).
5 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 5 (Example) Running head: GUIDELINES FOR THE SIXTH EDITION 1 Guidelines for the Sixth Edition APA format Florence Nightingale The University of Akron Author Note Florence Nightingale, College of Nursing, The University of Akron. This paper is in fulfillment for the course Professional Role, 8200:000, due January 1, Instructor: Mary Gladwin PhD, RN.
6 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 6 Body of the Paper Introduction: Presents specific problem under study, describes the research strategy, and identifies the purpose of the paper. The introduction is not labeled by a separate Introduction heading as it is identified by its position in the paper. Development of Concepts: Discuss the literature relevant to the subject of the paper using a clear, logical writing style and correct grammar and spelling. (pp , 77-86) of APA Publication Manual). Do not mix verb tenses. Typographical errors are considered spelling errors. If you use a computerized "spell-check," remember that it does not identify a correctly spelled word which is not the appropriate one for your sentence (e.g., "work" instead of "word"). Include reference citations in text. Refer to any course guidelines which instruct you about essential content for the paper or alterations in format which apply to papers with a specific learning purpose. Discussion/Conclusion: State the main points of the paper and discuss how the stated purpose was accomplished. Leave reader with a clear understanding of what the author most wants the reader to have learned or understood from reading the paper. Appendix: An appendix is useful if the detailed description of certain material is distracting or inappropriate to the body of the paper. Include an appendix only if it helps the reader to understand or evaluate the points expressed in the paper. (pp ) College of Nursing Generic drug names are not capitalized, example: acetaminophen Trade drug names are capitalized, example: Tylenol Reference Citations in Text Document your paper throughout the text by citing the author and date of works researched and included in the paper. This style of citation briefly identifies the sources for readers and enables them to locate the source of information in the alphabetical reference list at the end of the article. Failure to cite the work/ideas of others included in the paper is considered plagiarism. Under academic policies of The University of Akron, plagiarism will result in a failing grade and/or other academic disciplinary action. (p. 170) To set off the title of an article or chapter in a periodical or book when the title is mentioned in the text do so with quotation marks. Jones s (2010) article, Benner s Domains: Application to Undergraduate students discusses.. Quoting and Paraphrasing (pp ) Examples: One work by one author: (See p. 174) Rogers (2009) compared reaction times
7 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 7 In a recent study of reaction times (Rogers, 2009) In 1994 Rogers compared In a recent study of reaction times, Rogers (2009) described Within a paragraph, when the name of the author is part of the narrative (as in the first example above), you need not include the year in subsequent nonparenthetical references to a study as long as the study cannot be confused with the other studies cited in the article. (p 174) One work by multiple authors: (See p. 175) If two authors, cite both names each time: (Rogers, & Smith, 2010) If more than two, cite all authors the first time and include only the surname of the first author followed by 'et al." and the year in further citations: (Wasserstein, Zappulla, Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock, 2010) and then Wasserstein et al. (2010) or (Wasserstein et al., 2010). Personal communications: (Letters, memos, , telephone conversations, interviews) are cited in the text but not included on the reference list as they do not provide recoverable data. K.W. Schaie (personal communication, April 18, 2010); (V.G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 2010). Quotations: Direct quotes Material directly quoted from another author's work should be reproduced word for word. - Incorrect spelling, punctuation, or grammar in the source is identified by using [sic], meaning "as in the original." - Three ellipsis points are used to indicate that material is omitted from the original source, e.g., "Mary Jones ran quickly... toward home." ("around three trees and down a path" has been omitted.) If the omission is at the end of a sentence, complete the sentence with a period. E.g., "Mary Jones ran quickly toward home..."("after being chased by three large dogs." has been omitted.) Citation of Quoted Sources Include author, year and page number(s). e.g., (Jones, 1994, p. 23). Include any citations imbedded in the work you are quoting using single quotation marks. Typing: In text (less than 40 words), used double quotation marks (") in the sentence. (Block quotes (more than 40 words) use no quotation marks. Start on a new line and indent five spaces from left margin. Type subsequent lines double-spaced, flush with the indent.) Example: Text citation: "Using the learned helplessness theory, we predicted that the depressed and nondepressed participants would make some judgments of control" (Jones, 1994, p. 23). OR Jones (1994) has said, "Using the learned helplessness theory, we predicted that the depressed and non-depressed participants would make some judgments of control" (p. 23).
8 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 8 Reference List Start the reference list on a new page. The word References should appear in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered. Double space all reference entries in hanging indent format (first line of each reference is flush left and subsequent lines are indented. The reference list provides information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. Include only sources used in the preparation of the paper. References cited in the text must appear in the reference list and each entry in the reference list must be cited in the text. Reference data must be correct and complete. Include correctly spelled proper names, words in foreign languages, journal title, years, volume numbers (issue number) and page numbers. The College of Nursing requires references from sources published within the last five years and from professional journals, unless there is rationale for using older references and your instructor has approved this. Order of References: Arrange entries in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author followed by the initials of the authors given name. See pages for special cases. Reference Components (pp ) In general a reference should contain the author name, date of publication, title of the work, and the publication date. Authors: invert all authors names; give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors. When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors names, then insert three ellipsis points and add the last authors name: i.e. (Smith, A., Lui, B., Jones, A., Dye, B., Knight, M., Day, E., Tall, J. (2010). (see page 177 for specific examples) Use an ampersand (&) before the last author when there are two or more authors: i.e. (Jones, B., & Smith, D. (2010). Volume number are in italics and issue numbers are not. Indent the second and subsequent lines of the individual reference. Begin the following reference on a separate line, left side aligned. Double space between lines. General reference form: References to Periodicals: Examples Author, A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx(x), pp-pp. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx Include the digital object identifier (DOI) if in the reference if one is assigned. If no doi is assigned to the content and your retrieved the article online, include the home page UHL for the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference: Use this format: Retrieved from (p. 198) (other examples pp ) 1) Journal Article, one author with doi: Bekerian, D. A. (2008). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologist, 48,
9 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 9 doi: ) Pagination discontinuous, no doi, online retrieval: Bekerian, D. A. (2008). In search of the typical eyewitness: Beware. American Psychologist, 48, 25, 28, Retrieved from 3) Journal Article, two authors, issue number, and doi: Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (2009). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), doi: x References to Books: General format: Author, A. A. (2007). Title of work. Location: Publisher. Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (2001). Title of work. Location: Publisher. 1) Entire book print version: Cone, J. D., & Foster, S. L. (2010). Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2) Electronic version of print book Shotton, M.A. (2000). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from 3) Electronic only version O Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egotism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from 4) Book, third edition: Mitchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behavior (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. 5) Edited book:
10 SIXTH EDITION APA GUIDELINES 10 Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2000). Children of color: Psychological interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 6) Article or chapter in edited book: Massaro, D. (2002). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick, Jr., P. van den Broek, & D. C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and Methodological issues (pp ). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Other Internet Reference sources: please see APA book, Chapter 7: Website: when citing an entire website, it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text. Kidspsych is a wonderful interactive website for children ( Note: All information is based on: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. (6 th ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Students are required to purchase this manual which is the accepted reference source adopted by the College of Nursing. This manual should be kept throughout your career in the College of Nursing. Only the second printing of the Sixth edition has correct sample papers. (p. 41.) APA 6mbc
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