1 Student Learning Support Writing Support Overview Chicago Basic Style Guide The Chicago Manual of Style is often referred to as Turabian, CMS, or simply Chicago. CMS is the oldest of the academic style guides. CMS emphasizes all of the information in a citation by giving the reader any information they may need. CMS referencing is made up of two parts: a citation and a bibliographic entry. In CMS, the citation can be done in two formats: with in-text or author-date citations and a reference list, or with footnotes and a bibliography. The citations are the direct references to the texts you have read. When using the in-text format, citations are written in the body of your work. Citations are also written in brackets or parenthesis, hence they are called parenthetical. Since the citation is considered part of your sentence, the period comes after the citation. In the footnote method, a superscript number is placed after the information you are citing. The same number is then placed in the footnote section at the bottom of your page, followed by citation information. In both cases, you must offer your reader citation information in the body of the text, and offer a list of sources at the end of the text. It is essential to confirm with your professor or publisher which format is preferred. Like other styles, the page should be formatted with a one inch margin and the text should be written in a 12 point Times or Arial font. Unlike other referencing styles, CMS encourages using titles in the body of the text. Any book or journal titles mentioned should be written out in the style of a headline with the main words capitalized and the whole title italicized. The titles of shorter texts such as articles and book chapters are written with quotation marks around them, and are not italicized. Chicago is commonly used in programs such as Photographic Preservation Management, History, Art History, and Theatre. Format for Footnotes/Endnotes and Bibliography General Rules: The first line of a footnote should be indented.5 from the margins and subsequent lines will be formatted flush left Do not repeat the hundred digit in the page range. For example, write , NOT Two spaces must be given between the title (Bibliography or References) and the first entry
2 All entries are listed alphabetically Page numbers begin in the header of the first page of text with Arabic number 1 Note numbers should be placed at the end of the clause or sentence to which they refer and should be placed after any and all punctuation In the notes themselves, note numbers are full-sized, not raised, and followed by a period (superscripting note numbers in the notes themselves is also acceptable) Make sure to use And, not & for multi-authored entries When a publication date is not given, use n.d., meaning no date If the author's name is not known, use the title of the work If citing a reprint or an edition of an older text put the original publication date in square brackets. For example, (Austen  2003) or Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Wallflower,  Use a DOI in place of a URL when possible Two Methods of Citing CMS has two formats for citing: 1) in-text (or author-date) citations and references, and 2) footnotes and bibliography. The formatting for the in-text citations and references is different from that of footnotes and bibliography. The main difference between the formatting of the references and the bibliography is the location of the date of publication. Both the bibliography and the references will contain all sources that you have consulted and been inspired by in developing your arguments and ideas for your essay. There are no exceptions to this rule. When using an electronic source make sure the reader can easily find the source. The Digital Object Identifier (doi) is a unique number assigned to each source. The DOI should be given. If there is no DOI, then a URL can be used instead. Access dates (the day that you found the source) do not need to be given. Footnote or Endnote and Bibliography Using footnotes or endnotes allows space to explain and describe unusual sources, as well as to provide commentary on sources cited. The format for both footnotes and endnotes is the same. They will be referred to together as notes. The first note must include all of the publication information. Subsequent citations can use a shortened version. The examples illustrate the first citation with the full information, and then subsequent citations with the information shortened. The examples also show the bibliographical citation.
3 Sample Notes and Bibliography Entire Book 1. Author s name, Title of Book: Title Case for Whole Title (Location: Publisher, Year of publication), page range. 2. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), Pollan, Dilemma, 97. Author, Name. Title of Book: Title Case for Whole Title. Location: Publisher, Year of Publication. Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, Book with Multiple Authors 1. Author s Name and Author s Name, Title of Book, (Location: Publisher, Year of Publication), page range. 2. Geoffrey C. Ward and Ken Burns, The War: An Intimate History, (New York: Knopf, 2007), Ward and Burns, War, 65. Author, Name, and Author s Name. Year of publication. Title of Book: Title Case for Whole Title. Location: Publisher. Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. The War: An Intimate History, New York: Knopf, For four or more authors, list all of the authors in the bibliography; in the note, list only the first author, followed by et al. ( and others ): 1. Dana Barnes et al., Plastics: Essays on American Corporate Ascendance in the 1960s...
4 Translated Book 1. Author s Name, Title of Book, trans. Translator s Name (Location: Publisher, Year of Publication), page range. 2. Gabriel García Márquez, Love in the Time of Cholera, trans. Edith Grossman (London: Cape, 1988), Márquez, Cholera, 210. Author, Name. Title of Book. Translated by Translator s Name. Location: Publisher, Year of Publication. García Márquez, Gabriel. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman. London: Cape, Chapter or Part of Book 1. Author s Name, Name of Chapter in the Book, in Title of Book, ed. Editor s Name (Location: Publisher, Year of Publication), page range. 2. John D. Kelly, Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War, in Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, ed. John D. Kelly et al. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), Kelly, Seeing Red, 77. Author, Name. Title of Chapter. In Title of Book, edited by Editor s Name, page range. Location: Publisher, Year of Publication. Kelly, John D. Seeing Red: Mao Fetishism, Pax Americana, and the Moral Economy of War. In Anthropology and Global Counterinsurgency, edited by John D. Kelly, Beatrice Jauregui, Sean T. Mitchell, and Jeremy Walton, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Journal Article 1. Author s Name, Title of Article, Title of Journal Volume (Year of Publication): page number(s).
7 Level 5 Begins with the paragraph, boldface or italics type, sentence-style capitalization, terminal period. Tables and Figures Position tables and figures after the paragraph in which they are described. Cite the source of the table and figure information with a source line at the bottom of the table or figure. Source lines are introduced by the word Source(s), followed by a colon, and ended with a period. Cite a source as you would for parenthetical citation, minus the parentheses, and include full information in an entry on your References page. Every table should have a number and a short and descriptive title flush on the line above the table. Every figure should have a number and a caption flush left on the line below the figure. Number tables and figures separately in the order you mention them in the text. In the text, identify tables and figures by number ( in figure 3 ) rather than by location ( below ). Table 1. Fraction of movers by desertion status Nondeserter Returned deserter Deserter State mover Within-state county mover County stayer
8 Sample Title Page The title should be centered a third of the way down the page BACK TO THE FUTURE, BACK TO THE CAVE: PLATO AND THE SCIENCE FICTION FILM Name and course information should be centered further down the page Ronaldo Rui Fernandes FLM 569: Theories of Art and Film
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