Biogas in the Nordic countries

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1 Nordic Biogas Conference August Biogas in the Nordic countries Bruno Sander Nielsen / Danish Biogas Association

2 Brief overview Production Origin Use Development Major challenges / drivers Figures app Main sources: IEA Task 37 Members of organising committee

3 Nordic biogas production 3900 GWh 14 PJ

4 Nordic biogas production

5 Nordic biogas production

6 Nordic biogas production

7 Iceland 20 GWh/yr 0.07 PJ/yr

8 Iceland maj juni Biogas production Farm scale (cattle) used on farm Industrial plant (Coca Cola) proces Landfill gas Reykjavik transportation Coming up SORPA household waste Akureyri landfill gas and filling station

9 Iceland maj juni Utilisation 1400 vehicles, 100 % biomethane 3 filling stations in capital area Support schemes Exemption of excise and CO2 tax guaranteed to 2020 Vehicle conversion costs refunded (reduced vehicle tax) Free parking (1½ hours) Challenges Biogas not competive with geothermal heat and hydropower Iceland need to reduce GHG emissions in transportation

10 Finland

11 Finland 570 GWh 2.0 PJ

12 Finland

13 Finland Utilised Flared

14 Finland Status Growth expected Landfill forbidden from 2016 Competition with incineration Transportation 19 filling stations 1300 vehicles 18 % biomethane 3 upgrading plants

15 Finland Support schemes Feed-in tarifs: Guaranteed price electricity: 83.5 /MWh if <19MWh Heat bonus: +50 /MWhe If <1MW: 50 % total efficiency If >1MW: 75 % total efficiency Landfill gas and municipal plants excluded Plants can be included for 12 years Tarifs are regulated according to market price Investment grants: % As alternative to join the feed-in tarif system No tax on biomethane as a fuel

16 Norway

17 Norway 500 GWh 1.8 PJ

18 Norway

19 Norway Government aim (2009) for biogas in 2020: 30 % of livestock manure (4-5 mio ton) + 600,000 ton of food waste (60 % of total) To reduce GHG emissions from agriculture (½ mio. ton) Status: Limited development: actual 0.5 TWh TWh planned Government to propose strategy for biogas Focus on use of digestate as fertilizer incl. logistics Realistic potential in 2020: 2.3 TWh 32 % from manure 22 % from industrial waste 14 % from biowaste from households 7 % from biowaste from catering and trade Landfill (12%), straw (7%), waste water (6%)

20 Norway Incentives Ban of organic waste in landfill since 2009 Support for manure: 30 NOK/ton (proposal). Investment grants (small scale and industrial) pl. Norwegian-Sweden joint el. certificate (17-22 /MWh) Tax exemption for biogas for road transportation Investment subsidies for infrastructure No development in CHP all goes for transport. Current use of gas for transportation (2013) 176 filling stations 31 LNG ferries 900 vehicles 16 % biomethane in vehicle gas

21 Denmark

22 Denmark 1220 GWh 4.3 PJ

23 Denmark

24 Denmark Green growth agreement % manure in biogas in 2020 (now: 7 %) 20% investment grant (increased to 30% in 2012) Energy agreement in march 2012: Feed in tarifs 1. Improved: electricity from 79 to 115 DKK/GJ 2. New: biomethane in grid: 115 DKK/GJ (56 /MWh) 3. New: transport and industry: 75 DKK/GJ (37 /MWh) State aid approval EU 1 and 2: November and 2 combined with investm. grant: February : Still waiting

25 Denmark Biogas Task Force Established as part of energy agreement 2012 Parliament to discuss development in autumn 2014 Production probably doubled in 2020 (2.2TWh) Equals half of projection in Energy Agency scenarios Total potential 15 TWh (half of natural gas/transport) Focus on new solid type biomasses (residues etc.)

26 Denmark 50 pct. Uncertain Perhaps Very Pretty probable sure Manure Biogas Task Force

27 Denmark Clovergrass Energy beet Energy maize Sugar beet top Household waste Aqatic Green waste garden Road margins Field edges Natural habitats 2nd crop Straw Biogas potential Report for Biogas Task Force % livestock manure AgroTech 2013 Mio. m 3 metan

28 Denmark Biogas production Total Agriculture co-digest. Sewage Landfill Industrial

29 Denmark Status Feed in tarifs erodes back to 2012 level in 2020 Investment grant necessary but box is empty Trends Until now: only combined power/heat All new projects: upgrading to grid Widespread gas grid basis for both strategies Upgrading plants: 1 in now 4 Filling stations: 1 in 2012 now 7 Gas vehicles: increasing but probably still < 30 Discussion: Can vehicles use gas in Denmark? Danish biogas model is still based on residues Ressource strategy: Incinerate less reuse more Organic residues to go to biogas

30 Sweden

31 Sweden 1590 GWh 5.7 PJ

32 Sweden

33 Sweden Small gas grid and low gas consumption Transportation challenge for being fossil free 92 % fossil 57 upgrading plants 60 % biomethane in vehicle gas 138 public and 57 non public filling stations EU ban on landfill of organic matter a driver From 30,000 tonnes in 2005 To 250,000 tonnes in 2012

34 Biogas production (GWh) Sweden Landfills (55) 1200 Co-digestion (21) Agriculture (26) 600 Industrial waste (5) Waste water treatment (135)

35 Sweden Turnover in utilisation from heat to transportation

36 Sweden Methane for transportation (1%) (16%) 700 (1%) 2 % of vehicle fuel Buses important, stable market driving development

37 Sweden Support systems No feed in tarifs No CO2 or energy tax on biogas (value 68 /MWh) 40 % reduction of income tax for use of company NGV Investment grants up to 45 % (KLIMP, Landsbygdprogram, Biogasutlysningen etcetera) For biogas plants and filling stations Joint electricity certificate with Norway (value /MWh) Challenge: Tax exemptions not approved in EU Expected to last to 2019, but probably only secured to end of 2015

38 Conclusions Similarities Development dependent on framework conditions Less landfill gas more waste and agricultural biomass From heat and power to upgrading and transportation Development is slow and dependent on stable conditions Differences Incentives (feed in tarifs vs. taxexemption and market drive) Stakeholders (energy sector, municipalities, agriculture) Denmark: power and agricultural/waste Norway and Finland: heat and sewage Sweden: Transportation and sewage/waste

39 Thanks! - for your attention Thanks to Organizing committee for most valuable contributions! Björn Halldórsson, Tobias Persson, Henrik Lystad, Teemu Aittamaa Danish Biogas Association

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