Lo Stoccaggio dell Energia negli Impianti Solari a Concentrazione

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1 Trasporto e Stoccaggio dell Energia: Come diventare Smart Milano, 11/07/2011 Enrico Savoldi Renewable and Nuclear Energies Business Development Manager Lo Stoccaggio dell Energia negli Impianti Solari a Concentrazione 1

2 TECHINT E&C CSP TECHNOLOGIES THERMAL STORAGE RE COMPARISON HIGHLIGHTS 2

3 Who we are Techint Engineering & Construction A multilocal company founded in Milan in 1945 providing Engineering, Procurement and Construction services on a global basis. Focused on technology, with peculiar construction capabilities. 3

4 Our group Techint Group Revenues: Over USD 19 billion as of December 31, % 40% 10% 3% 5% 4% 4

5 Our group All engineering and construction activities are managed by two headquarters: Milan and Buenos Aires Headquarters Engineering Centre Construction Capabilities 5

6 What we do Available services: Feasibility Studies Basic and Front-End Engineering Design Detail Engineering Project Management Procurement Services Construction Construction Management Project Financing Commissioning Operation and Maintenance 6

7 What we do In which segments: Oil & Gas production facilities Petroleum Refineries & Petrochemical Plants LNG Power Plants Architectural Works Infrastructures Pipelines 7

8 What we do Achievements: Number of projects realized: more than 200 EPC plants in the last 15 years. MW of installed power plants: exceeding 74,000 Over 70,000 km of pipelines installed Number of countries where we have worked: 38 8

9 So why choose Techint for CSP? Construction and engineering skills. Present in Suitable areas Clients can leverage Techint s expertise and long history of accomplishments in the engineering field, as well as in the procurement, construction and management fields. Globally present, locally strong. Not only do we operate and have offices in all corners of the world, we also strive to contribute to local development, investing in local human resources. 9

10 TECHINT E&C CSP TECHNOLOGIES THERMAL STORAGE RE COMPARISON HIGHLIGHTS 10

11 Energy solutions 11

12 Different CSP technologies Parabolic trough Solar tower Dish Stirling Linear Fresnel Higher: large-scale systems in place Level of technological maturity Lower: : large-scale deployment not yet proven Uses parabolic mirrors to concentrate solar radiation on linear tube receiver Provides heat storage capabilities Is a long-term, commercially proven technology Has high maturity level, operational experience, modularity and a large number of providers Concentrates solar radiation on a point receiver at the top of a tower Enables operation at high temperature level and provides heat storage capabilities Has high net solar to electrical efficiency and is a commercially proven technology Uses parabolic dish to concentrate solar radiation on a Stirling engine Has high net solar to electrical efficiency with low water consumption Is highly modular and suitable for both small stand-alone, decentralized off-grid power systems and large grid-connected power systems Uses flat mirror design to concentrate sun, enabling simpler production and installation Enables other industrial uses such as steam processing Has high land-to-electricity ratio due to linear design and the usability of space below support structure Provides heat storage capabilities 12

13 How parabolic trough plants operate solar field storage balance of plant steam generator + power island 13

14 Our approach We strongly believe that: 1. Parabolic trough is today s best available technology. 2. Thermal storage capabilities are crucial. 3. Molten salts are the best Heat Transfer Fluid. 4. High-tech components and tools are a must. 14

15 X-ITE01 collector A solar collector with all the synergies of advanced technologies. Concentrating solar efforts, for maximum results. 15

16 TECHINT E&C CSP TECHNOLOGIES THERMAL STORAGE RE COMPARISON HIGHLIGHTS 16

17 Storage deployment status 17

18 Storage operation MW el 70 MW el TO STORAGE 400 ST (fed by SOLAR SG) 40 FROM STORAGE 300 ST (fed by HRSG) 30 DIRECT SOLAR GAS TURBINE It is cheap: $/kwh It is efficient: less than 1% thermal losses per day It is simple: storing 1 kwh requires about 4,9 liters of molten salt 18

19 Thermal storage concept Any mature power technology must supply energy on demand This is crucial in off-grid applications Correct grid management requires constant energy availability The increase of fluctuating energy sources (such as wind or solar without storage) could lead to grid instability and crash Increasing the plant load factor is key element to cut the levelized Energy Cost A more intense utilization of the CAPEX invested in the plant reduces the production cost Other applications often require a smooth and constant operability e.g. Desalination plants 19

20 Influence on load factor Influence of thermal storage on load factor 0,7 0,6 Load factor 55 % Load Factor 0,5 0,4 0,3 Load factor 25 % 12 hour of storage 12 hour of storage 55% Capacity factor 0,2 0,1 0,0 No storage No storage 25 % Capacity factor Thermal Storage Capacity [ h ] 20

21 Direct vs. indirect system OIL ~ 390 C SOLAR FIELD AUXILIARY HEATER HEAT EXCHANGER 380 C THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE 290 C ~ 375 C STEAM GENERATOR STEAM TURBINE CONDENSER ~ 550 C 535 C MOLTEN SALT AUXILIARY HEATER 550 C THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE STEAM GENERATOR STEAM TURBINE SOLAR FIELD 290 C CONDENSER 21

22 Direct system impact Molten salts work as sole fluid for both heat absorption and storage allowing a simplified design of the plant (single circuit, not pressurized) The extended temperature operating range allows a large reduction of storage dimensions Indirect system * Direct system Thermal capacity [MWh] Cold storage temperature [ C] Hot storage temperature [ C] Salt Mass [tons] Tank height [m] Tank ddiameter[m] * Andasol 1 & 2-50 MW, 7-hrs molten salt heat storage Martin, J. - SENER March 2007 NREL Parabolic Trough Technology Workshop 22

23 LEC comparison LEC and solar field dimension vs TES capacity Indirect System 1.0 Solar field factor Direct System Normalized LEC TES capacity [h] 23

24 Bestor exclusive simulation tool Features: Solar field area, Storage capacity and Rated Power sizes optimization Optimal storage and power delivery management Evaluation of any kind of economic indexes based on real hourly electricity tariffs Approach: Complete year simulation considering selected components performance figures Optimal storage and power delivery management Bestor Whole day dispatching profile 24

25 Storage optimization Case 1 El. Energy [GWh] IRR [%] Norm. LEC [-] 40.5 Net El. Energy IRR Norm. LEC Sicily (Italy) 12 MW fix conf. 43 loops fix conf. market tariff IRR max Storage capacity [hours]

26 Storage optimization Case 1 El. Energy [GWh] IRR [%] Norm. LEC [-] 40 Net El. Energy IRR Norm. LEC Sicily (Italy) 12 MW fix conf. 41 loops fix conf. market tariff IRR max Storage capacity [hours]

27 El. Energy [GWh] Storage optimization Case 2 - Atacama desert (Chile) 50 MW fix conf. flat tariff LEC min vs. storage h LEC [ /MWh] 315 Net El. Energy LEC Storage capacity [hours] 27

28 Storage optimization Case 2 El. Energy [GWh] - Atacama desert (Chile) 50 MW fix conf. flat tariff LEC min vs. loop n. LEC [ /MWh] 315 Net El. Energy LEC Number of loops 28

29 DNI data Djibouti: Lat North, Long East Yearly Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI): 1877 kwh/m kwh/m 2 /day

30 Energy flow 93.56% 53.21% 98.60% 38.13% Shadows and Solar Storage Power Incident Reverse GWh GWh Collectors Angle effects GWh System GWh Block GWh Osmosis Million m 3 Fossil back-up 1.7 GWh 19.1% 30

31 Energy production GWh Monthly Energy Flow DNI Energy to PB Deliv. El. Energy Deliv. El. Energy Energy to PB DNI

32 Daily production MWt 35 Daily Production Curve in a Sunny Day MWht Thermal Power To Storage System Storage Level Thermal Power To Power Block Energy to PB Solar En. to Storage Stored Energy

33 TECHINT E&C CSP TECHNOLOGIES THERMAL STORAGE RE COMPARISON HIGHLIGHTS 33

34 CSP with storage vs. other REs Task: 10 MW Firm Power Capacity CSP+Storage: 10 MW installed, 10 % Fuel PV+Backup: 10 MW installed, 75 % Fuel Wind+Backup: 10 MW installed, 60 % Fuel Power Supply (MW) Time (hour of year) Power Supply (MW) Power Supply (MW) Time (hour of year) Wind Power Conventional Power Time (hour of year) Concentrating Solar Power Conventional Power Photovoltaic Power Conventional Power 34

35 Competitive analysis - PV 35

36 Competitive analysis - Wind 36

37 Competitive analysis - CCGT 37

38 TECHINT E&C CSP TECHNOLOGIES THERMAL STORAGE RE COMPARISON HIGHLIGHTS 38

39 Highlights the storage option is an essential element to make CSP suitable for large scale energy production dispatching to the grid the consequential production flexibility will make the CSP competitive right now, following the market most profitable opportunities, also coupled with other REs the scale effect and the plant operational knowledge, accelerated by specific incentive laws, will lead the development process and the cost reduction trend to the technology sustainability the large CSP application has to be in any case considered a valid alternative of energy resource and power production only in suitable geographical areas and with adequate optimization actions 39

40 40

41 How we do it Techint Engineering & Construction Company Organization CEO Paolo Bigi HSE / Quality Commercial Remo Papotti Procurement Massimo Nappi Operation Luca Tonello Sales Bid Renewables Enrico Savoldi Engineering Construction Project Management Project Control Process 41

42 References Libya - Desalination Plant Contract Client Start 2007 End 2008 S.O.W. Engineering National Board for Scientific Research - Renewable Energy and Water Desalination Research Centre Basic and detail engineering of the solar field, the thermal storage system and the auxiliary heating system Description Design of an integrated solar desalination plant, having the capacity to supply the steam demand of a Multi Effect Desalination Plant (MED), with a fresh water production of 1200 m3/day. An auxiliary oil-fired boiler system will ensure steam feeding to the MED, when the solar field is not operating. Technology Advisor: ENEA Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Enviroment. 42

43 References MED-CSD Contract FP7 research program Client European Union Start 2008 End 2010 S.O.W. Basic design and dissemination Description Combined solar power and desalination plants: techno-economic potential in Mediterranean Partner countries. 5 feasibility studies carried on in partnership with: Observatoire Mediterranée de l Energie (OME - leader), Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvables Morocco, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.v. (DLR) Germany, EDF France, Kernenergien Germany, Mekorot Israel, NERC Jordan, NREA Egypt, Office National de l Eau Potable (ONEP) Morocco, PEC Palestinian National Authority, Inven - Germany 43

44 References Macchiareddu 55 MWe Contract Client Start 2008 End 2009 S.O.W. Engineering Sorgenia S.p.A. Basic engineering for permitting activities Description Full technical assistance for the preliminary design and sizing of a 55 MW parabolic trough solar plant, using thermal oil as HTF and with approx. 7 hours molten salts thermal storage. 44

45 References Rajasthan Solar One Contract Client Start 2009 End 2010 S.O.W. Engineering Entegra Ltd. Feasibility study and basic engineering for investment evaluation and permitting activities Description Full technical assistance for the preliminary design and sizing of the Solar Block (solar field + storage system + steam generation system) of a 10 MW parabolic trough solar plant, using molten salts as HTF and with 8 hours molten salts thermal storage. X-ITE 01 collector technology adopted. 45

46 References Molten salts thermo decomposition Pilot Plant Contract Client EPC SQM Start 2010 End 2011 S.O.W. Engineering, Procurement and Construction Description Pilot Plant for the assessment of a thermo decomposition refining process for a Potassium Nitrate molten mixture. Molten salt flow rate 3000 kg/h 46

47 DYSALT simulation tool Features: Dynamic detailed analysis for complete CSP trough systems Customized and proprietary modules for molten salt components: receivers, burners, storage Dynamic analysis of the draining and filling operating phases Approach: Real dynamic simulation Detailed physical models of the main components Foreseen model validation with experimental data 47

48 DYSALT simulation tool P&I D Dysalt Scheme 48

49 Risk analysis Laboratorio di Analisi di Segnale ed Analisi di Rischio LASAR Research project with Politecnico of Milan Objectives Analysis of the economic sustainability, from the risk assessment point of view, of a CSP plant operating with molten salt as heat transfer fluid Approach Failure analysis: analysis of the events/processes/parameters impacting power generation performance (HAZard IDentification analysis, HAZID) Quantitative analysis of accident scenarios leading to relevant economical losses (both for missing power production and for asset losses) Results Useful design recommendations to avoid potential hazard sources Suggestions for reliability allocation Intrinsic risks are sustainable from the economic and technological points of view 49

50 Risk analysis Laboratorio di Analisi di Segnale ed Analisi di Rischio LASAR Research project with Politecnico of Milan Fault tree example 50

51 Desalination technology comparison TECHNOLOGY MSF ME/TVC MVC RO Energy consumption (kwh/m 3 ) Electrical/ mechanical Thermal None 4 6 None Thermal equivalent for electrical energy (kwh/m 3 ) Total equivalent thermal energy consumption (kwh/m 3 ) Solar energy (average) (kwh/m 3 ) Solar field (m 2 /m 3 day )

52 CSP Italian feed-in tariff scheme National goal of 200 MW within 2016 Fixed feed-in tariff for 25 years Feed-in tariff to be added to the electricity price: 0,28 euro for plants with solar fraction > 85% 0,25 euro for plants with solar fraction 85 50% 0,22 euro for plants with solar fraction < 50% Incentives could be cumulated with loans or grants, with reduction of tariff Plant minimum requirements: the heat exchange fluid has to be not toxic or pollutant, unless if installed in industrial sites a storage system has to be foreseen, with a minimum capacity of about 4 hours the mirror surface has to be > m 2 (~ 500 kwe) 52

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