Solar Energy in Egypt Advantages and Obstacles

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1 Solar Energy in Egypt Advantages and Obstacles By Samir S. Ayad Professor of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Engineering Benha University Cell Phone: President of Egyptian Solar Energy Systems Company

2

3 Solar Resources In Egypt The average annual direct normal solar radiation reaches ( ) kwh/m 2 /year. The average annual global radiation varies between ( ) kwh/m 2 /year

4 oenergy Consumption Status Final Energy Consumption =========== 42 M toe. Energy Consumption for Heating Water in Domestic Sector 1.3 M toe. History and Background of DSWH In 1980, in order to introduce the technology to the Egyptian market, the Ministry of Electricity & Energy imported 1000 DSWH systems, using flat-plate collector technology. In the same year, the first private sector local manufacturing was started. Since then DSWH systems are manufactured locally. LPG 43.0% NG 16.7% ELECTRICITY 38.8% SOLAR 1.6% Distribution of Water Heating System

5 Egyptian Solar Energy Systems Company Company has been established since We design, manufacture, install and services solar hot water systems for domestic uses as well as for tourist villages, hotels and hospitals. Low temperature industrial applications are also covered

6 Factory is established at October 6th city on an area of 1700 square meters in the first industrial zone. The Solar Hot water Systems produced have been tested by NREA and the test results showed up to 96% Solar Fraction. Installations have been operating successfully in many important places like International Medical Center, Police Academies around the country,.. etc

7 Thermo-Siphon 500 Liters/day

8 Solar-Heated Swimming Pool

9 Cross Section of Flat Plate Solar Collector

10 Absorber Plate Is made of copper fins welded to copper risers by plasma welder. Absorber is coated by selective black crystal coating with absorptivity α =0.96 and emissivity Є=0.08

11 500 liters/day Thermo-siphon Solar Hot Water System

12 Forced Circulation Solar System

13 Forced circulation systems For central hot water systems when lumped amount of hot water is needed it uses a calculating pump compatible with hot water a differential thermostatic controller is used to operate the pump. As the sun shines the outlet temperature of collector is higher than the inlet temperature and the controller signals the pump to operate.

14 Typical Central Hot Water Systems Systems of up to 18 m 3 /day are installed around the country ( El Obour hospital, Sohag school for police academy etc). Housings of 4232 Solar Collectors in New Beni Sweif.

15 The Company and the Environment Annual production of 3000 collectors Each collector produces daily 6 kwh.annual energy production of 6.3 GWh

16 CO 2 Emission Saving Based on Tests carried out by NREA (New and Renewable Energy Authority), and Carnot efficiency of Best Heat Engine The company Production Of Solar Hot Water Systems Saves the environment about 8000 Tons of CO 2 annually

17 osolar Thermal Applications in Egypt Solar Thermal is being developed in Egypt mainly for three applications Domestic Solar Water Heating Solar Industrial Process Heat Solar Electricity Generation Systems Kuraymat 150 Mw 130,800 m2 Parabolic Trough Total Electricity Generation===== 850 Gwh/a Solar Generation==========-=== 34 Gwh/a Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant)

18 Technical Design 395 C Stack Exhaust 100 C Steam 540 C, 100bar Solar HX HRSG Steam turbine G ~ Cooling Tower Air and vapour Air Air Condenser Parabolic Trough Field 295 C 600 C Gas turbine(s) G ~ Electricity to the grid Solar Island CC Island Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Power Plant ISCCS

19 ostate of the art oeconomic and Financial o(dswhs) Barriers The average cost of Common Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems 150 lit/day reaches about 3,500 LE High initial costs of solar thermal technologies. The Payback period of using Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems Direct compared oil and gas with subsidies electric equal heaters 41.8 is billion about L.E/yr year More than the revenues of Suez canal Lack of innovative financing schemes. Low level of awareness of local financing sector. In 2007, Egypt announced a new plan to Review out energy subsidies for industry.

20 Photo Voltaic Solar Systems The company put together and installs photovoltaic solar cells for electricity productions for lighting systems of small powers with photovoltaic panels, charge controller, deep cycle batteries and direct current bulbs. DC/AC inverter can be used to supply AC current.

21 Street Lights

22 o Recommendations Short term: To promote the training of technicians for the installation and maintenance of the systems. To promote a policy of awareness and divulgence of the benefits of hot water consumption coming from active solar systems, which would allow local community to choose that technology. To set up pilot European cooperation promotion programmes, in order to remove the barriers in the Egyptian market. To boost the diversification of companies in charge of production, installation and maintenance in order to guarantee the quality of the services rendered. To carry out consumer sector studies in each city so as to identify potential market niches. To seek the financing systems oriented to helping the creation of innovative industries in the solar thermal water heating area with the contribution of capitals from own funding and the availability of expertise (market studies, financial management, organisation,...).

23 o Recommendations Long term: To look for legislative support for the implementation of measures which would open up the market. To encourage the creation of a network of associations of manufacturers, small enterprises, importers and consumers related to the chamber of commerce and industry of each city. To promote a strategy in order to achieve a technical code based performance, introducing a norm that would regulate quality measures in component production, management and distribution as well as unit assembly.

24 Thank you for your attention GOD BLESS YOU ALL.

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