Technological developments and market perspectives for renewable energy cooling systems

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1 Collector field Technological developments and market perspectives for renewable energy cooling systems Prof.Dr.habil. Ursula Eicker Centre of Applied Research Sustainable Energy Technology zafh.net University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart Folie 1

2 Solar cooling market Germany Source: Green Chiller 127; 47% 15; 5% 21; 8% 16; 6% 48; 18% 31; 11% 6; 2% Austria France Germany Greece Italy Portugal Spain Other EU Countr Yazaki largest with 13%, then Broad, Thermax, LG, Ebara 2011 in France: 15 installations with 630 kw Source: Tecsol 8; 3% Folie 2

3 News and trends Modified German renewable heat law ( ) includes 15% solar or 50% biomass heating and cooling for new buildings and for rehabilitation of public buildings Combined heat-power-cold largest market segment: CHP for smart grid applications A high efficiency 50 kw LiBr/H2O chiller was developed by ZAE Bayern/TU Berlin and Vattenfall with a COP of 0.8 from 25%-150% of nominal load, electric EER about 20 Liquid desiccant work ongoing in many places including the use of non-corrosive ionic liquids Folie 3

4 New large solar thermal systems deployed 3900 m² Flat plate collectors with 1575 kw single effect absorption (SOLID) in Singapore, 5000 m² 1750 kw Arizona 2052 m² parabolic trough collectors (Solitem) in Cyprus with 360 kw double effect chiller, 6 years amortisation 230 kw double effect chiller with PTC (NEP) in Cinema Complex, Newcastle, Australia Packaged medium/large power absorption chiller systems with concentrated collectors Thermax (India) Hitachi (Japan) Vicot Air Con (China) Folie 4

5 Many low power systems available InvenSor LTC9 & HTC11 Water / Zeolith SorTech ASC08 & ASC15 Water / Silica Gel Sakura SHL003 & SHL005 Water / Lithium Bromide Pink PC14 & PC19 Ammonia / Water Source: InvenSor Source: SorTech Source: Sakura Source: Pink Trends: packaged low power absorption chiller systems Folie 5

6 Heat rejection important issue for primary energy efficiency Source: Jiangsu Huineng Folie 6

7 Primary energy savings? Comparison: compression system COP 5.0 absorption system COP 0.6 Folie 7 Ziegler, F. Sorption heat pumping technologies: Comparisons and Challenges, International Journal of Refrigeration 32 (2009), pp

8 Photovoltaic electricity generation and compression cooling Source: ZAE Bayern, IEA task 38 PV modules electricity Compression cooling machine Cold storage tank Folie 8 Public grid

9 PV Module Prices Development zafh.net Source: Folie 9 9

10 Cooling loads of buildings 3 storey office building 927 m² surface ground view office floor 310m² vertical section second floor first floor ground floor CASE City Uwall Inter Sun Annual Annual Maximum (W/ nal Protection cooling heating cooling m²k) loads load load load (kwh/m²) (kwh/m²) (W/m²) Case 1 Palermo 1.1 low yes Case 2 Palermo 0.41 low yes Case 3 Palermo 1.1 high no Case 4 Palermo 0.41 high no Case 5 Madrid 0.66 low yes Case 6 Madrid 0.41 low yes Case 7 Madrid 0.66 high no 88 0 Folie Case 8 Madrid 0.41 high no Case 9 Stuttgart 1.1 low yes Case 10 Stuttgart 0.41 low yes Case 11 Stuttgart 1.1 high no Case 12 Stuttgart 0.41 high no

11 Solar fraction for PV and ST cooling Folie 11

12 Primary energy savings for cooling Folie 12

13 Cost comparison Folie 13

14 Total annual costs Folie 14

15 Cost of cooling production Folie 15

16 Solar cooling for Kairo office building m² surface 52 W/m² cooling load 130 kwh/m² cooling energy demand Folie 16

17 Comparison of large multi-effect systems Case Chiller Type Cooling Capacity Collector Type Collector Area Storage Tank brut aperture hot cold Case 1 Single Effect Case 2 Case 3 Double Effect Triple Effect 422 kw Vacuum Tube 500 kw Linear Fresnel 563 kw Linear Fresnel 2025 m² 1350 m² 20 m³ 10 m³ 2050 m² 1320 m² 20 m³ 10 m³ 1280 m² 800 m² -- m³ 10 m³ THERMAX, single effect ProChill LT12C Shuangliang, double effect 500 kw Kawasaki Sigma, triple effect Ace CF Folie 17

18 Solar Collectors and back-up Vacuum tubes Jiangsu Sunrain TZ47/ U 0 = 0.65 a 1 =1.585 W/m²K a 2 = W/m²K² Linear Fresnel Industrial Solar GmbH 0 = 0.62 a 1 = W/m²K a 2 = W/m²K² Case Chiller Type Case 1 Single Effect Case 2 Case 3 Double Effect Triple Effect Cooling Capacity Backup heating Additional cooling (compression chiller) power heat rejection 422 kw kw direct dry kw Gas boiler 300 kw direct dry kw Direct gas burner 240 kw direct dry 2.8 Average COP el Folie 18

19 ACM fraction / % Solar system efficiency / % Absorption Cooling Fraction and Solar System Efficiency 100% 50% 90% 80% 40% 91% 93% 45% 40% 70% 60% 31% 27% 35% 30% 50% 25% 40% 30% 37% 20% 15% 20% 10% 10% 5% 0% Single effect ACM + vacuum tube collectors Double effect ACM + Fresnel collectors Triple effect ACM + Fresnel collectors 0% ACM fraction Solar system efficiency Folie 19

20 COP th / - Heating Energy Consumption and Average COP th Heating energy consumption / MWh a Single effect ACM + vacuum tube collectors Double effect ACM + Fresnel collectors Triple effect ACM + Fresnel collectors Qh_solar Qh_additional COPth Folie 20

21 Primary energy ratio PER / - Primary Energy Efficiency Primary energy consumption / MWh a Single effect ACM + vacuum tube collectors Double effect ACM + Fresnel collectors Triple effect ACM + Fresnel collectors 1240 CCM with PV collectors, grid as ideal storage CCM with PV collectors, electricity directly used Reference system with compression chiller only Electricity Additional heating Additional cooling PER Folie 21

22 Total system costs / Specific system costs / per kw cooling power System Costs Including Installation and Integration Installation and integration Piping hot and cold storage Collector / PV Chiller and heat rejection Specific system costs E 2E 3E CCM_PV CCM_PV_dir CCM_ref. 0 Folie 22

23 Annual Costs [ /a] Cooling costs [ /MWh] Overall Cooling Costs / Office Building in Cairo, Egypt Operational cost annuity System cost annuity Cooling costs E 2E 3E CCM_PV CCM_PV_dir CCM_ref Prices: Gas = /kwh Electricity = /kwh Water = 1.6 / m³ Source: Inflation rate = 5.6%/a Discount rate = 6%/a Folie 23

24 Annual cooling costs [ /a] Specific cooling costs [ /MWh] Overall Cooling Costs / Office Building in Cyprus Operational cost annuity System cost annuity Cooling costs E 2E 3E CCM_PV CCM_PV_dir CCM_ref. 0 Prices: Gas = /kwh Electricity = /kwh Water = 4.0 / m³ Inflation rate = 5.6%/a Discount rate = 6%/a Folie 24

25 Conclusions Cooled surface area and solar cooling market is growing New components and solar cooling kits are available in all power ranges Solar thermal cooling can be cost effective today with long chiller lifetimes and high cooling loads The primary energy efficiency of solar thermal cooling is comparable or higher than photovoltaic cooling, especially when double or triple effect chillers are used An efficient heat rejection system is essential Primary energy savings of 30 to 50% are reached at solar fractions around 50% Folie 25

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