CONCENTRATED SOLAR PLANTS

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1 Low Carbon Electricity systems 2009 Leonardo Energy CONCENTRATED OLAR PLANT Dr. Luis Crespo General ecretary of PROTERMOOLAR June the 16 th 2009, Arnhem The Netherlands Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

2 TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Current Technologies 3. ituation in pain 4. ituation in the World 5. Technology Development Lines 6. Costs 7. Future Projections and Markets Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

3 1. Introduction 2. Current Technologies 3. ituation in pain 4. ituation in the World 5. Technology Development Lines 6. Costs 7. Future Projections and Markets Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

4 OME HITORICAL EXAMPLE OF THE UE OF OLAR CONCENTRATING TECHNOLOGIE 200 a.c. iracuse siege 1914 First solar industrial parabolic through collector power plant in human in Meadi, near Cairo (5 rows of 62 m each with a 120 HP steam turbine) mile linear fresnel reflector project for a cloth deying industry steam plant Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

5 THE PLANT IN THE 2000 s Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

6 1. Introduction 2. Current Technologies 3. ituation in pain 4. ituation in the World 5. Technology Development Lines 6. Costs 7. Future Projections and Markets Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

7 MAIN CP CONCEPT From centralized to distributed generation systems Parabolic trough Collectors Heliostats and Central Receiver Linear Frenel Reflectors Parabolic Dishes with tirling Motors Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

8 COMPARION AMONG CP AND OTHER R.E. PLANT (CURRENT DATA FOR PAIN) Wind Energy Photovoltaic Resource Different and complementary to some extend Less reliable forecast The same than CP Location Different They will not compete for the same land The same but different site requirements. More suitable for rural electrification Operation CP: h/year Dispatchable Fluent / non dispatchable hours/year Fluent / non dispatchable 1600 hours/year Costs CP: /kw 27 c /kwh /kw, 8 c /kwh /kw, 32 c /kwh Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

9 THE CURRENT ITUATION CP plants using parabolic troughs are already a reliable and demonstrated technology. everal plants, with an overall installed power close to 2000 MW, are either in construction or in operation, mainly in pain and the UA Parabolic through collectors and heliostat fields are in operation since the early 80 s with proven performances CP plants are dispatchable and their dispatchability can be enhanced by new storage technologies and/or hybrid concepts using other renewable or conventional fuels Dual applications, i.e. electricity and water desalination, might bring important benefits in some specific places Currently, the generation costs are still high and the conversion cycle water needs for cooling need to be reduced CP plants allow the grid to accommodate more non dispatchable renewable sources Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

10 ource:u: Foro Nuclear MAIN CP OPERATIONAL CHARACTERITIC CP have the same operational characteristics as conventional termal power plants - Provide inertia to the system - Allow primary, secondary and tertiary regulation - They might be disconnected while collecting solar energy CP might be easily hybridized with biomass or natural gas The forecast of the solar resource is very reliable Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

11 OPERATIONAL DIAGRAM Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

12 1. Introduction 2. Current Technologies 3. ituation in pain 4. ituation in the World 5. Technology Development Lines 6. Costs 7. Future Projections and Markets Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

13 CENTRALE EN OPERACION O CONTRUCCION Plants >10 MW: 33 In Operation: 131 MW In Construction: 1417 MW Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

14 OPERATIONAL PLANT IN PAIN P10 Y P20 en anlucar la Mayor, evilla Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

15 OPERATIONAL PLANT IN PAIN PT Puertollano, Ciudad Real ANDAOL 1 en Aldeire, Granada PE 1 Calasparra, Murcia Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

16 PROPECT ON HORT TERM OPERATIONAL PLANT IN PAIN Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

17 1. Introduction 2. Current Technologies 3. ituation in pain 4. ituation in the World 5. Technology Development Lines 6. Costs 7. Future Projections and Markets Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

18 OPERATIONAL PLANT IN UA Kimberlina 5 MW Bakersfild, California Nevada olar One 64 MW Boulder City, Nevada Red Rock 1 MW Arizona EG Plants (Total 354 MW) Kramer Jctn / Harper Lake, California Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

19 FIRT PROJECT IN THE MENA REGION 150 MW ICC at Hassi R Mel 470 MW ICC at Ain Beni Mathar 146 MW ICC at Kuraymat 100 MW in Abu Dhabi Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

20 PLANT IN ALGERIA AND MOROCCO ICC in Algeria 150 MWe 150 MW in Hassi- R mel Algeria. First combined cycle with solar trough field under construction 20 MW from trough, rest from natural gas m 2 of reflective surface Thermal oil as heat transfer fluid First ICC plant worldwide ICC in Morocco 470 MWe 470 MW in At Ain Beni Mathar Largest ICC plant worldwide Morocco. Largest combined cycle with solar trough field 20 MW from trough, rest from natural gas m 2 of reflective surface Thermal oil as heat transfer fluid Project sponsored by Wolrd Bank Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

21 1. Introduction 2. Current Technologies 3. ituation in pain 4. ituation in the World 5. Technology Development Lines 6. Costs 7. Future Projections and Markets Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

22 OLAR FIELD APPROACHE MAIN IUE Use of land Land requirements Field efficiency Working fluid temperature uitable working fluids Cost of the field Corresponding cost of the electricity Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

23 EFFICIENCY DEPENDENCE ON UN POITION Linear Fresnel Parabolic trough Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

24 EFFICIENCY DEPENDENCE ON UN POITION Gamma cosine versus time of the day for a 70 Mwe CR Plant Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

25 CP AND THE ECOND THERMODINAMIC LAW max = th,carnot * absorber Parabolic Dish max Parabolic Trough olar Tower Flat Plate Collector T absorb. K Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

26 Distancia Altura Distancia HAVE CR PLANT IZE CONTRAINT? Parabolic troughs systems might reach very high power levels (200 MW or more) Have CR Plants physical limits? Will the tower high 2000 or the heliostat distance be unfeasible? 1750 Distancia Last heliostat distance Interception factor for a 70 Mwe plant Mw e Distancia Altura Tower high Mw e Mw e Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

27 WORKING FLUID Molten alt MAIN IUE ynthetic oil aturated team Highest working temperature Freezing temperature Heat transmission characteristics pecific heat Phase change characteristics afety issues Cost Air uperheated team Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

28 TORAGE YTEM MAIN IUE ame or different storage medium than the collector fluid ensible / Latent heat ingle or dual media Reversible chemical reactions Volume afety issues Cost Hybrid systems: Complement or Alternative? Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

29 1. Introduction 2. Current Technologies 3. ituation in pain 4. ituation in the World 5. Technology Development Lines 6. Costs 7. Future Projections and Markets Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

30 COT REDUCTION I THE MAIN IUE (1/2) What brings the cost down? Innovation in systems and components Improving production technology Increasing the overall efficiency Enlarging the number of operation hours Bigger power blocks Reducing the O & M costs Learning curve in construction Economies of scale Current Investment costs in pain of 50 MW plant: /kw without storage / 2000 h/year /kw with 7 hours storage / 3600 h/ year ale price [c /kwh] PV, pain Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands Current ETELA estimations 2100 kwh/m² DNI (pain) 3%/a cost reduction Range between 2% and 5% cost reduction per year Wind, pain 2600 kwh/m² DNI (MENA) 3%/a cost reduction 0 Year ale price [c /kwh] years financing Year Current ETELA estimations Potential scenario PV, with pain breakthroughs 2100 kwh/m² DNI (pain) 3%/a cost reduction Range between 2% and 5% cost reduction per year Wind, pain 2600 kwh/m² DNI (MENA) 3%/a cost reduction

31 IPP sales price [ct/kwh] IPP sales price [ct/kwh] IPP sales price [ct/kwh] IPP sales price [ct/kwh] IPP sales price [ct/kwh] COT REDUCTION I THE MAIN IUE (2/2) Influence of the financial scheme on the LEC CP-plant generation cost Finance: 20-year debt service Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands ated IPP baseline sales price for CP in Europe and MENA. Estimated IPP baseline Finance: sales price 40-year for CP debt in Europe service and MENA. Estimated IPP baseline sales price for CP in Europe and MENA ated IPP baseline sales price for CP in Europe and MENA PV, pain Estimated IPP baseline sales 40 PV, pain price for CP in Europe and MENA PV, pain PV, pain 40 PV, pain kwh/m² DNI (pain) 2100 kwh/m² DNI (pain) 3%/a cost reduction kwh/m² DNI (pain) 3%/a cost reduction 30 3%/a cost reduction 2100 kwh/m² DNI (pain) kwh/m² DNI (pain) 3%/a cost reduction 25 3%/a cost reduction Wind, pain 10 Wind, pain kwh/m² DNI (MENA) kwh/m² DNI (MENA) Wind, pain 5 3%/a cost reduction kwh/m² DNI (MENA) 3%/a cost reduction 10 Wind, pain 5 10 Wind, 3%/a pain cost reduction kwh/m² DNI (MENA) kwh/m² DNI (MENA) %/a cost reduction %/a cost reduction Year Year Example: CP plant in pain with Year Example: CP plant in Morocco with year debt service with a resulting 40-year debt service with a resulting Year LEC* of 27 ct/kwh LEC* of Year 15 ct/kwh Range between 2% and 5% cost reduction per year Range between 2% and 5% cost reduction per year *LEC: Levelized Energy Cost CP-plant generation cost Range between 2% and 5% cost reduction per year Range between 2% and 5% cost reduction per year Range between 2% and 5% cost reduction per year

32 WHAT DOE GENERATION COT MEAN? c /kwh Electricity cost scenarios Debt payment period l l l l Years Rest of operational life Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

33 1. Introduction 2. Current Technologies 3. ituation in pain 4. ituation in the World 5. Technology Development Lines 6. Costs 7. Future Projections and Markets Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

34 MERCADO ACTUALE Y FUTURO Excelente Bueno Adecuado Inadecuado Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

35 THE OLAR REOURCE DEERTEC / OLAR MEDITERRANEAN PLAN 3000 km 90 % of world electricity demand could be supplied by solar termoelectric power plants from a 300x300 km 2 desertic area and transported 3000 km away by HVDC lines with less than 10% losses. The electric European demand could be supply from the ahara desert through V dc lines using submarine cables under the Mediterranean sea EU25 Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

36 GW installed TWh/a PROPECT ON POWER INTALLED IN EUROPE pain Portugal Italy Greece Cyprus+Malta 30 GW / 85 TWh 60 GW / 170 TWh GW / 11 TWh ource: Estela Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

37 GLOBAL CP PROJECT PIPELINE BY COUNTRY The long solar night Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

38 HOW THE FUTURE WILL LOOK LIKE? Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

39 Thank you for your attention Low Carbon Electricity ystems 2009, Leonardo Energy Luis Crespo, Arnhem, The Netherlands

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