ENEA Thermodynamic Solar Project. Prepared by Mauro Vignolini Presented by A. Fontanella Italy China Innovation Forum - November 8, 2010

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1 ENEA Thermodynamic Solar Project Prepared by Mauro Vignolini Presented by A. Fontanella

2 ENEA objective To produce electricity by solar plant at high temperature (550 C) using molten salt. the advantages are: Higher solar plant efficiency Lower solar electricity cost Higher storage efficiency Integration with combined gas cycle plant

3 ENEA Roadmap: by labs to industrial demonstration (10 years) ENEL Archimede 5 MWe Started on July 2010 Industrial Demonstration plant Demo design and construction Industrial role 2007 Lab R&D Test facility PCS Project Start-up Prototype Operation start-up Prototype Design Components test and qualification 70 employers Government role

4 Key element The key element for the diffusion of CSP technology is to reduce the cost of electric energy produced to a level compared with power plants based on fossil fuels. At present the cost of the electric energy from CSP is about c /kwh, 2-4 times the energy of fossil fuel The ways to reduce the CSP cost of energy are: increasing of efficiency reduction of manufacturing cost localization in areas with higher solar radiation

5 Cost reduction: Experience effect Within 2025 CSP is expected to be competitive against fossil fuelled power plant

6 Cost reduction: localization effect Increasing irradiation level offer further potential to decrease cost of electricity (- 4,5% per DNI increase of 100 kwh/m 2 a) Transmission cost is c /kwh per km (do not outweigh the advantage of lower electricity production cost)

7 Solar Plant Cost Breakdown Project development : land purchase, permission. (6-7%) Engineering/planning : engineering/planning, EPC management. (8-11%) Technology (procurement) : solar field, thermal generation system, storage system, electrical generation system. (60-68%) Construction/site improvement. (2-3%) O&M cost : plant operation, maintenance. (1,5%) Other project cost: project insurance, contingency, risk fees. (15-17%)

8 Technology innovation: Molten salt as heat carrier and thermal storage Salt mixture Sodium Nitrate (NaNO 3 ) Potassium Nitrate (KNO 3 ) 60% - 40% Advantages: High working temperature (550 C) Atmospheric pressure in the thermal storage Lower volume and cost for thermal storage Used as a fertilizer

9 Technology innovation: A new design for receiving tube ENEA patent Coating Highest temperature (550 C) and efficiency in the world coating stable in air

10 Technology innovation: support structure of solar collector Competitors Patent ENEA Wing rib ENEA

11 Technology innovation: Tracking System MAIN FEATURES High torque ( 130 knm) Variable rotating speed (0 0,61 sec/degree) Low current absorption (5,5 A) High precision ( < 0,17 mrad)

12 Technology innovation: Reflecting panel manufacturing Composite material and thin glass

13 Test facility for components and system qualification Upside of the Storage ENEA Casaccia labs (Rome) - Started-up April 2004 Storage Investment 5,43 M

14 Archimede project: Demonstrative plant in collaboration by ENEA Owner ENEL (electrical utility) Technology and design ENEA Power 5 MWe Placed in Siracusa (Sicily) Storage 7 hours ENEL Archimede will start on June 2010

15 Archimede solar plant layout ENEL Gas Combined Cycle Solar field DNI 1936 kwh/ m 2 y Number of SCA 54 Solar field area m 2 Thermal output 28,3 GWh/y Field efficiency 48% Thermal storage 100 MWh (8 h) Nominal power 4,7 MWe Net electrical output 8,7 GWhe/y Solar to electricity 14% Energy saving 1921TEP/y Emission avoid CO t/y

16 Final remarks ENEA started 10 years ago with a vigorous research, development and demonstration program on CSP and introduced many innovations. ENEA has several patents concerning solar components. ENEA has many R&D activities on the components Technology is ready for industrial development The main objective obtained is the development of Italian firms specialized in manufacturing of components for solar power plants

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