Optics and Spectroscopy at Surfaces and Interfaces

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1 Vladimir G. Bordo and Horst-Gunter Rubahn Optics and Spectroscopy at Surfaces and Interfaces WILEY- VCH WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA

2 Contents Preface IX 1 Introduction 1 2 Surfaces and Interfaces Solid Surfaces Surface Structure Relaxation and Reconstruction Surface Lattice and Superstructure Surface Structure Notation Reciprocal Lattice Electronic Surface States One-dimensional Problem Nearly-free Electron Approximation Tamm and Shockley States A Image States Surface States of a 3D Crystal Extrinsic Surface States Surface Plasmons Surface Phonons Surface Roughness Adsorption on Solid Surfaces Physisorption Chemisorption Vibrational States of Adsorbates Symmetry of Adsorption Sites Vibrational Frequencies of Isolated Adsorbates Coupled Vibrations of Overlayers Relaxation of Adsorbate Excitations 39 Optics and Spectroscopy at Surfaces and Interfaces, Vladimir G. Bordo and Horst-Gunter Rubahn Copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN:

3 VI Contents Adsorption and Desorption Kinetics Liquid-Solid Interface The Electric Double Layer Linear-sweep and Cyclic Voltammetry Gas-Solid Interface Velocity Distribution Function Scattering Kernel Relaxation of Gas Excitation 52 3 Linear Optical Properties of Surfaces and Interfaces Reflection and Refraction of Light Fresnel Equations Total Internal Reflection (TIR) Account of a Transition Layer Macroscopic layer Microscopic layer Nonlocal Optical Response Surface Polaritons Fundamental Properties Surface Plasmon Polaritons Surface Phonon Polaritons Excitation of Surface Polaritons Electromagnetic Field Enhancement Localized Surface Polaritons Scattering of Light at Rough Surfaces 85 4 Infrared Spectroscopy at Surfaces and Interfaces Infrared Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (IRSE) Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy (IRAS) of Adsorbed Molecules Infrared Surface Polariton Spectroscopy Determination of Optical Constants of Crystals Surface Electromagnetic Wave Spectroscopy of Overlayers Correlation between Propagation Length and Surface Roughness Time-resolved Infrared Spectroscopy Linear Optical Techniques at Surfaces and Interfaces Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) Reflection Difference Techniques Surface Differential Reflectivity (SDR) Reflection Anisotropy Spectroscopy (RAS) 226

4 Contents VII 5.3 Transmission Spectroscopy Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Atoms and Molecules Photoluminescence Spectroscopy at Semiconductor Surfaces and Interfaces Raman Spectroscopy Raman Scattering Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Surface Plasmon Polariton Spectroscopy Spectroscopy at Metal Surfaces and Interfaces Spectroscopy at Electrochemical Interfaces Electrochemical Optical Spectroscopy Nonlinear Optical Techniques at Surfaces and Interfaces Nonlinear Optical Response Second Harmonic Generation Determination of Coverages Symmetries Orientations and Chirality Surface Magnetization Spectroscopy Sum Frequency Generation Four-wave Mixing Two-photon Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Adsorbed Atoms and Molecules Optical Spectroscopy at a Gas-Solid Interface Optical Response of a Gas Near a Solid Selective Reflection Spectroscopy Spectral Narrowing of Selective Reflection Observation of Transient Effects Manifestation of Atom-Surface Interactions Selective Reflection in a Pump-Probe Scheme Evanescent Wave Fluorescence Spectroscopy One-photon Excitation Two-photon Excitation Temperature Dependence of Fluorescence Spectra Excitation by Crossed Waves Optical Microscopy Optical Resolution and Simple Light Microscopes Dark-field, Fluorescence and Confocal Microscopy 204

5 VIII Contents Fluorescence and Phase Contrast Microscopy Confocal Microscopy Total Internal Reflection Microscopy (TIRM) Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) Phase Measurement Interference Microscopy (PMIM) Second Harmonic Microscopy Nano-optics and Local Spectroscopy Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy and Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Scanning Plasmon Near-field Microscopy (SPNM) Near-field Optical Spectroscopy Fluorescence Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy Near-field Nonlinear Optics Solutions to Problems 237 Glossary 253 Bibliography 259 Index 269

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