Lösungen Übung Verformung

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Lösungen Übung Verformung 1. (a) What is the meaning of T G? (b) To which materials does it apply? (c) What effect does it have on the toughness and on the stress- strain diagram? 2. Name the four main hardening mechanisms in metals discussed in the lecture. Briefly discuss each principle and explain the corresponding formula. 3. How is a dislocation (Versetzung) defined (vector, plane)? How do these parameters contribute to the energy of a dislocation? 4. Sketch the atomic arrangement and Burgers vector orientations in the slip plane of a bcc metal. (Note the shaded area of Table 6.9, Shackelford p. 216) 5. (a) Different planes in a crystal lattice are differently dense packed. In which plane does plastic deformation take place? Consider the energy of a dislocation. (b) A crystalline grain of aluminium in a metal plate is situated so that a tensile load (Zugspan- nung) is oriented along the [111] crystal direction. If the applied stress (Spannung) is 0.5 MPa, what will be the resolved shear stress (Schubspannung) τ, along the [101] direction within the (111) plane? (Equation 6.14, Shackelford p. 218) (c) What does it mean if the applied shear stress is above the resolved shear stress? 6. Consider the slip systems for aluminium shown in Figure 6-24 (Shackelford page 216). For an applied tensile stress in the [111] direction, which slip system(s) would be most likely to operate? Additional for interest: 7. Calculate the length of a Burgers vector in Cu (Kupfer) fcc (kubisch flächenzentriert). The lattice parameter is a = nm. 8. You are provided an unknown alloy with a measured Brinell hardness value of 100. Having no other information than the data of Figure 6-28a (Shackelford, p. 220), estimate the tensile strength (Zugfestigkeit) of the alloy. Express your answer in the form x ± y where y is the max. and min. deviation (Abweichung) from x. 9. Identification of preferred slip planes The planar density of the (112) plane in bcc iron is atoms/cm 2. Calculate (a) the planar density of the (110) plane and (b) the interplanar spacings for both the (112) and (110) planes. On which plane would slip normally occur?

2 Lösungen 1. (a) T G describes the temperature below which the molecules/atoms have little relative mobility. This is shown in the following figure: (b) It applies to all amorphous and partially amorphous materials (glasses, polymers, bulk metallic glasses, etc.) (c) Above T G the toughness increases significantly (area under the stress strain curve). The stress strain diagram nicely illustrates that the E- Modulus is lower, the elongation is higher and the up- taking forces of the materials are much lower at temperatures above the glass transition temper- ature. 2. Plastic deformation in crystals is being carried out by dislocations, which are generated upon ex- ternal mechanical load. Generally, the yield stress R p0.2 can be increased (hardening) by hindering the movement of dislocations. The relevant formulas are given in the script of the lecture De- formation. It is important to know the proportionality (linear, inverse, square root dependence...). - Solid solution hardening (Mischkristallhärtung): The creation of extrinsic atomic defects, i.e. in- troduction of substitution or interstitial impurity atoms (Fremdatome), results in a lattice distor- tion (lattice strain, Gitterverzerrung) and thus stress fields (Spannungsfelder) are created. These stress fields decrease the mobility of dislocations, e.g. C in Fe, steel. - Precipitation hardening (Teilchenhärtung): Precipitates that cannot be cut through and dis- persed particles in the microstructure are obstacles for dislocations.

3 - Grain boundary / Grain size hardening (Korngrenzen- / Feinkornhärtung): Grain boundaries are obstacles for dislocations. The finer the grains are the more effective they are in limiting the dislo- cation movements. - Dislocation hardening (Versetzungshärtung): Cold work increases the dislocation density in a sample. The more dislocation there are the more difficult it is to increase the number of disloca- tions because of the strain fields created by the existing dislocations. 3. A dislocation is defined by the Burgers vector and the dislocation line (Linienvektor), which togeth- er define the slip plane (Gleitebene). The energy of a dislocation is given by: E = G b 2. Therefore the shortest Burgers vector b represents the dislocation with the lowest energy and therefore the most favoured dislocation. 4. For example, two of the 12 systems would be: 5. (a) The energy of a dislocation is E = G b 2, therefore proportional to the length of the Burgers vec- tor b. The length of b is given by the distance between two atoms in the slip plane. This is shown in the following figure. This means: since the length of the Burgers vector is at least the distance between two lattice positions, it is easier to form a dislocation in a slip plane where the separation between two at-

4 oms is small. Therefore, dislocation movement in such a plane is also easier because of the com- paratively low energy. The binding energy also plays a role: it gives information about the Peierls- potential which de- scribes the energy barrier that has to be overcome to pass by an atom. Further points that influ- ence the dislocation movement are: Kinks, steps, climbing (Klettern), splitting in partial disloca- tions... (b) From crystallography you should be familiar with crystal planes, directions and their indices. F along [111] with σ = 0.5 MPa λ: angle between [101] and [111]: cos λ = φ: angle between [111] and [111]: cos φ = τ = σ cos λ cos φ = 0.5 MPa = MPa (c) Applied shear stresses above the resolved shear stress would initiate plastic deformation. 6. From equation 6.14 in the Shackelford: τ~ cos λ cos φ. For each angle, the cosine is determined by the dot product of 111 with 111 (for φ) or with 110 (for λ). The most likely slip systems are those with maximum τ. For the twelve systems in Figure 6-24, cos λ cos φ = 2 or 0. The six for which cos λ cos φ = 2 are: The lattice parameter for Cu is a = nm. The Burgers vector is along the closest packed direction and therefore of the form 110. The distance between two atoms is ½ of the diagonal length (see exercise 1 in h4): d = a = nm 8. All data in Figure 6-28 (a) fall within the band:

5 Average estimated tensile strength: TS = "#"# MPa = 400 MPa Error bar : MPa = 140 MPa Or: estimated tensile strength: 400 ± 140 MPa 9. The lattice parameter of bcc iron is nm or cm. The (110) plane is shown in the figure, with the portion of the atoms lying within the unit cell being shaded. Note that one- fouth of the four corner atoms plus the centre atom lie within an area of a 0 times 2 a 0. (a) The planar density is: Planar density (110): atoms area =."" " cm = " atoms/cm 2 Planar density (112): " atoms/cm 2 (from problem statement) (b) The interplanar spacings are: d " =."" " = cm d " =."" " = cm The planar density and interplanar spacing of the (110) are larger than those for the (112) plane; therefore, the (110) plane would be the preferred slip plane.

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip

CHAPTER 7 DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

7-1 CHAPTER 7 DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Basic Concepts of Dislocations Characteristics of Dislocations 7.1 The dislocation density is just the total dislocation length

(10 4 mm -2 )(1000 mm 3 ) = 10 7 mm = 10 4 m = 6.2 mi

14:440:407 Fall 010 Additional problems and SOLUTION OF HOMEWORK 07 DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Basic Concepts of Dislocations Characteristics of Dislocations 7.1 To provide

LECTURE SUMMARY September 30th 2009

LECTURE SUMMARY September 30 th 2009 Key Lecture Topics Crystal Structures in Relation to Slip Systems Resolved Shear Stress Using a Stereographic Projection to Determine the Active Slip System Slip Planes

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms

Chapter Outline Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms What is happening in material during plastic deformation? Dislocations and Plastic Deformation Motion of dislocations in response to stress Slip

Module #17. Work/Strain Hardening. READING LIST DIETER: Ch. 4, pp. 138-143; Ch. 6 in Dieter

Module #17 Work/Strain Hardening READING LIST DIETER: Ch. 4, pp. 138-143; Ch. 6 in Dieter D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, Trans. AIME, v. 224 (1962) pp. 1047-1061 Work Hardening RECALL: During plastic deformation,

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials Objective The purpose of this experiment is to introduce students to the use of X-ray diffraction techniques for investigating various types

Material Strengthening Mechanisms. Academic Resource Center

Material Strengthening Mechanisms Academic Resource Center Agenda Definition of strengthening Strengthening mechanisms Grain size reduction Solid solution alloying Cold Working (strain hardening) Three

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied

Mechanical Properties of Metals Mechanical Properties refers to the behavior of material when external forces are applied Stress and strain fracture or engineering point of view: allows to predict the

Material Deformations Academic Resource Center Agenda Origin of deformations Deformations & dislocations Dislocation motion Slip systems Stresses involved with deformation Deformation by twinning Origin

(10 4 mm -2 )(1000 mm 3 ) = 10 7 mm = 10 4 m = 6.2 mi

CHAPTER 8 DEFORMATION AND STRENGTHENING MECHANISMS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Basic Concepts of Dislocations Characteristics of Dislocations 8.1 To provide some perspective on the dimensions of atomic defects,

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R

3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated

CHAPTER 7: DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING

CHAPTER 7: DISLOCATIONS AND STRENGTHENING ISSUES TO ADDRESS... Why are dislocations observed primarily in metals and alloys? Mech 221 - Notes 7 1 DISLOCATION MOTION Produces plastic deformation, in crystalline

ME 612 Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity. 1. Introduction

Metal Forming and Theory of Plasticity Yrd.Doç. e mail: azsenalp@gyte.edu.tr Makine Mühendisliği Bölümü Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü In general, it is possible to evaluate metal forming operations

Tensile Testing. Objectives

Laboratory 1 Tensile Testing Objectives Students are required to understand the principle of a uniaxial tensile testing and gain their practices on operating the tensile testing machine. Students are able

Concepts of Stress and Strain

CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Concepts of Stress and Strain 6.4 A cylindrical specimen of a titanium alloy having an elastic modulus of 107 GPa (15.5 10 6 psi) and an original

Defects Introduction. Bonding + Structure + Defects. Properties

Defects Introduction Bonding + Structure + Defects Properties The processing determines the defects Composition Bonding type Structure of Crystalline Processing factors Defects Microstructure Types of

Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE , Sample Test #1, Spring 2010

Materials Science and Engineering Department MSE 200-001, Sample Test #1, Spring 2010 ID number First letter of your last name: Name: No notes, books, or information stored in calculator memories may be

The University of Western Ontario Department of Physics and Astronomy P2800 Fall 2008

P2800 Fall 2008 Questions (Total - 20 points): 1. Of the noble gases Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe, which should be the most chemically reactive and why? (0.5 point) Xenon should be most reactive since its outermost

Relevant Reading for this Lecture... Pages 83-87.

LECTURE #06 Chapter 3: X-ray Diffraction and Crystal Structure Determination Learning Objectives To describe crystals in terms of the stacking of planes. How to use a dot product to solve for the angles

Constitutive Equations - Plasticity

MCEN 5023/ASEN 5012 Chapter 9 Constitutive Equations - Plasticity Fall, 2006 1 Mechanical Properties of Materials: Modulus of Elasticity Tensile strength Yield Strength Compressive strength Hardness Impact

Imperfections in atomic arrangements

MME131: Lecture 8 Imperfections in atomic arrangements Part 1: 0D Defects A. K. M. B. Rashid Professor, Department of MME BUET, Dhaka Today s Topics Occurrence and importance of crystal defects Classification

Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1. Dr. Feras Fraige

Ch. 4: Imperfections in Solids Part 1 Dr. Feras Fraige Outline Defects in Solids 0D, Point defects vacancies Interstitials impurities, weight and atomic composition 1D, Dislocations edge screw 2D, Grain

Griffith theory of brittle fracture:

Griffith theory of brittle fracture: Observed fracture strength is always lower than theoretical cohesive strength. Griffith explained that the discrepancy is due to the inherent defects in brittle materials

σ = F / A o Chapter Outline Introduction Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? and Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Chapter Outline Introduction To understand and describe how materials

CHAPTER 4 IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

4-1 CHAPTER 4 IMPERFECTIONS IN SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Vacancies and Self-Interstitials 4.1 In order to compute the fraction of atom sites that are vacant in copper at 1357 K, we must employ Equation

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

For Cu, which has an FCC crystal structure, R = nm (Table 3.1) and a = 2R 2 =

7.9 Equations 7.1a and 7.1b, expressions for Burgers vectors for FCC and BCC crstal structures, are of the form a b = uvw where a is the unit cell edge length. Also, since the magnitudes of these Burgers

MAE 20 Winter 2011 Assignment 2 solutions

MAE 0 Winter 0 Assignment solutions. List the point coordinates of the titanium, barium, and oxygen ions for a unit cell of the perovskite crystal structure (Figure.6). In Figure.6, the barium ions are

Microscopy and Nanoindentation. Combining Orientation Imaging. to investigate localized. deformation behaviour. Felix Reinauer

Combining Orientation Imaging Microscopy and Nanoindentation to investigate localized deformation behaviour Felix Reinauer René de Kloe Matt Nowell Introduction Anisotropy in crystalline materials Presentation

Chapter Outline. Diffusion - how do atoms move through solids?

Chapter Outline iffusion - how do atoms move through solids? iffusion mechanisms Vacancy diffusion Interstitial diffusion Impurities The mathematics of diffusion Steady-state diffusion (Fick s first law)

Energy of a Dislocation

Energy of a Dislocation The Line Tension T Broken and stretched bonds around the dislocation There is EXTRA energy associated with the Defect T = G 2 r 2 b J m G = Shear Modulus Total Extra Energy in the

14:635:407:02 Homework III Solutions

14:635:407:0 Homework III Solutions 4.1 Calculate the fraction of atom sites that are vacant for lead at its melting temperature of 37 C (600 K). Assume an energy for vacancy formation of 0.55 ev/atom.

x100 A o Percent cold work = %CW = A o A d Yield Stress Work Hardening Why? Cell Structures Pattern Formation

Work Hardening Dislocations interact with each other and assume configurations that restrict the movement of other dislocations. As the dislocation density increases there is an increase in the flow stress

NPTEL: STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS Instructor: Anandh Subramaniam [Lecture-1 to Lecture-45] 1. Overview (C1) (Time: 49:06)

NPTEL: STRUCTURE OF MATERIALS Instructor: Anandh Subramaniam [Lecture-1 to Lecture-45] Lec Chapter 1. Overview (C1) (Time: 49:06) 2. Geometry of Crystals: Symmetry, Lattices (C2) (Time: 1:08:58) 3. (Time:

Lecture 18 Strain Hardening And Recrystallization

-138- Lecture 18 Strain Hardening And Recrystallization Strain Hardening We have previously seen that the flow stress (the stress necessary to produce a certain plastic strain rate) increases with increasing

Dislocation Plasticity: Overview

Dislocation Plasticity: Overview 1. DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION An arbitrary deformation of a material can always be described as the sum of a change in volume and a change in shape at constant

Deformation of Single Crystals

Deformation of Single Crystals When a single crystal is deformed under a tensile stress, it is observed that plastic deformation occurs by slip on well defined parallel crystal planes. Sections of the

Fatigue :Failure under fluctuating / cyclic stress

Fatigue :Failure under fluctuating / cyclic stress Under fluctuating / cyclic stresses, failure can occur at loads considerably lower than tensile or yield strengths of material under a static load: Fatigue

Chapter Outline. How do atoms arrange themselves to form solids?

Chapter Outline How do atoms arrange themselves to form solids? Fundamental concepts and language Unit cells Crystal structures Simple cubic Face-centered cubic Body-centered cubic Hexagonal close-packed

Materials Issues in Fatigue and Fracture

Materials Issues in Fatigue and Fracture 5.1 Fundamental Concepts 5.2 Ensuring Infinite Life 5.3 Finite Life 5.4 Summary FCP 1 5.1 Fundamental Concepts Structural metals Process of fatigue A simple view

Solution for Homework #1

Solution for Homework #1 Chapter 2: Multiple Choice Questions (2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.11) 2.5 Which of the following bond types are classified as primary bonds (more than one)? (a) covalent bonding, (b) hydrogen

v kt = N A ρ Au exp (

4-2 4.2 Determination of the number of vacancies per cubic meter in gold at 900 C (1173 K) requires the utilization of Equations 4.1 and 4.2 as follows: N v N exp Q v N A ρ Au kt A Au exp Q v kt (6.023

Martensite in Steels

Materials Science & Metallurgy http://www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/2002/martensite.html H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Martensite in Steels The name martensite is after the German scientist Martens. It was used

Solid State Device Fundamentals

Solid State Device Fundamentals ENS 345 Lecture Course by Alexander M. Zaitsev alexander.zaitsev@csi.cuny.edu Tel: 718 982 2812 Office 4N101b 1 Solids Three types of solids, classified according to atomic

, to obtain a way to calculate stress from the energy function U(r).

BIOEN 36 013 LECTURE : MOLECULAR BASIS OF ELASTICITY Estimating Young s Modulus from Bond Energies and Structures First we consider solids, which include mostly nonbiological materials, such as metals,

CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Fundamental Concepts.6 Show that the atomic packing factor for HCP is 0.74. The APF is just the total sphere volume-unit cell volume ratio.

THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE. Sub-topics. Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry

THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE Sub-topics 1 Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry RATE PROCESSES IN SOLIDS At any temperature different from absolute zero all atoms, irrespective of their state of aggregation

Introduction to Materials Science, Chapter 11, Thermal Processing of Metal Alloys. Chapter 11 Thermal Processing of Metal Alloys

Chapter 11 Thermal Processing of Metal Alloys Designer Alloys: Utilize heat treatments to design optimum microstructures and mechanical properties (strength, ductility, hardness.) Strength in steels correlates

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TESTING OF MATERIALS

LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TESTING OF MATERIALS 1. TENSION TEST: INTRODUCTION & THEORY The tension test is the most commonly used method to evaluate the mechanical properties of metals. Its main objective

- in a typical metal each atom contributes one electron to the delocalized electron gas describing the conduction electrons

Free Electrons in a Metal - in a typical metal each atom contributes one electron to the delocalized electron gas describing the conduction electrons - if these electrons would behave like an ideal gas

Problem Set 7 Materials101 1.) You wish to develop a gold alloy (mostly gold) that can be precipitation strengthened to provide high strength - high conductivity electrical leads to integrated circuits

Chapter Outline: Phase Transformations in Metals

Chapter Outline: Phase Transformations in Metals Heat Treatment (time and temperature) Microstructure Mechanical Properties Kinetics of phase transformations Multiphase Transformations Phase transformations

Size effects. Lecture 6 OUTLINE

Size effects 1 MTX9100 Nanomaterials Lecture 6 OUTLINE -Why does size influence the material s properties? -How does size influence the material s performance? -Why are properties of nanoscale objects

Chapter 3: The Structure of Crystalline Solids

Sapphire: cryst. Al 2 O 3 Insulin : The Structure of Crystalline Solids Crystal: a solid composed of atoms, ions, or molecules arranged in a pattern that is repeated in three dimensions A material in which

Chapter 5: Diffusion. 5.1 Steady-State Diffusion

: Diffusion Diffusion: the movement of particles in a solid from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, resulting in the uniform distribution of the substance Diffusion is process

Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram (a review) see Callister Chapter 9

Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram (a review) see Callister Chapter 9 University of Tennessee, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering 1 The Iron Iron Carbide (Fe Fe 3 C) Phase Diagram In their simplest form,

Met-2023: Concepts of Materials Science I Sample Questions & Answers,(2009) ( Met, PR, FC, MP, CNC, McE )

1 Met-223: Concepts of Materials Science I Sample Questions & Answers,(29) ( Met, PR, FC, MP, CNC, McE ) Q-1.Define the following. (i) Point Defects (ii) Burgers Vector (iii) Slip and Slip system (iv)

The Crystal Structures of Solids

The Crystal Structures of Solids Crystals of pure substances can be analyzed using X-ray diffraction methods to provide valuable information. The type and strength of intramolecular forces, density, molar

FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES. Component failures. Ductile and Brittle Fracture COMPONENT FAILURES. COMPONENT FAILURE MODES examples:

FAILURE MODES and MATERIALS PROPERTIES MECH2300 - Materials Lecture 10 R. W. Truss Materials Engineering R.Truss@uq.edu.au COMPONENT FAILURES Structures lectures es on component es cause response in component

Dislocation theory. Subjects of interest

Chapter 5 Dislocation theory Subjects of interest Introduction/Objectives Observation of dislocation Burgers vector and the dislocation loop Dislocation in the FCC, HCP and BCC lattice Stress fields and

CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 6 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Concepts of Stress and Strain 6.1 Using mechanics of materials principles (i.e., equations of mechanical equilibrium applied to a free-body diagram),

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue

Lecture 8: Extrinsic semiconductors - mobility

Lecture 8: Extrinsic semiconductors - mobility Contents Carrier mobility. Lattice scattering......................... 2.2 Impurity scattering........................ 3.3 Conductivity in extrinsic semiconductors............

Tensile Testing Laboratory

Tensile Testing Laboratory By Stephan Favilla 0723668 ME 354 AC Date of Lab Report Submission: February 11 th 2010 Date of Lab Exercise: January 28 th 2010 1 Executive Summary Tensile tests are fundamental

ORIENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF MATERIALS

ORIENTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF MATERIALS K. Sztwiertnia Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, 25 Reymonta St., 30-059 Krakow, Poland MMN 2009

Lecture 14. Chapter 8-1

Lecture 14 Fatigue & Creep in Engineering Materials (Chapter 8) Chapter 8-1 Fatigue Fatigue = failure under applied cyclic stress. specimen compression on top bearing bearing motor counter flex coupling

Unit 12 Practice Test

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 12 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and

Chapter 3. 1. 3 types of materials- amorphous, crystalline, and polycrystalline. 5. Same as #3 for the ceramic and diamond crystal structures.

Chapter Highlights: Notes: 1. types of materials- amorphous, crystalline, and polycrystalline.. Understand the meaning of crystallinity, which refers to a regular lattice based on a repeating unit cell..

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties Hardness Hardness can be defined as resistance to deformation or indentation or resistance to scratch. Hardness Indentation Scratch Rebound Indentation hardness is of particular interest

Strengthening. Mechanisms of strengthening in single-phase metals: grain-size reduction solid-solution alloying strain hardening

Strengthening The ability of a metal to deform depends on the ability of dislocations to move Restricting dislocation motion makes the material stronger Mechanisms of strengthening in single-phase metals:

What is Manufacturing?

MECH 421/6511 Shaping of Metals and Plastics DEPT. OF MECH. AND IND. ENG. MECH 421/6511 Shaping of Metals and Plastics LECTURES: Mon-Wed ER- 511-9 at 4:15 to 5:30 pm FACULTY: Dr. Mamoun Medraj e-mail:

Composition Solidus Liquidus (wt% Au) Temperature ( C) Temperature ( C)

10.4 Given here are the solidus and liquidus temperatures for the copper gold system. Construct the phase diagram for this system and label each region. Composition Solidus Liquidus (wt% Au) Temperature

Effect of Heat Treatment Process on the Fatigue Behavior of AISI 1060 Steel

International International Journal of ISSI, Journal Vol. of 12 ISSI, (2015), Vol.10 No.1, (2013), pp. 28-32 No.1 Effect of Heat Treatment Process on the Fatigue Behavior of AISI 1060 Steel M. Mehdinia

Wafer Manufacturing. Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 3.1~3.4

Wafer Manufacturing Reading Assignments: Plummer, Chap 3.1~3.4 1 Periodic Table Roman letters give valence of the Elements 2 Why Silicon? First transistor, Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain1947 Made by Germanium

HW 10. = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi)

HW 10 Problem 15.1 Elastic modulus and tensile strength of poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature [20 C (68 F)]. Compare these with the corresponding values in Table 15.1. Figure 15.3 is accurate;

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 1.1 PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Different materials possess different properties in varying degree and therefore behave in different ways under given conditions. These properties

Torsion Tests. Subjects of interest

Chapter 10 Torsion Tests Subjects of interest Introduction/Objectives Mechanical properties in torsion Torsional stresses for large plastic strains Type of torsion failures Torsion test vs.tension test

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Mechanics of Brittle Materials. τ xy 2σ y. σ x 3. τ yz 2σ z 3. ) 2 + ( σ 3. σ 3

Yield Criteria for Ductile Materials and Fracture Mechanics of Brittle Materials Brittle materials are materials that display Hookean behavior (linear relationship between stress and strain) and which

Heat Treatment of Aluminum Foundry Alloys. Fred Major Rio Tinto Alcan

Heat Treatment of Aluminum Foundry Alloys Fred Major Rio Tinto Alcan OUTLINE Basics of Heat Treatment (What is happening to the metal at each step). Atomic Structure of Aluminum Deformation Mechanisms

The Fundamental Principles of Composite Material Stiffness Predictions. David Richardson

The Fundamental Principles of Composite Material Stiffness Predictions David Richardson Contents Description of example material for analysis Prediction of Stiffness using Rule of Mixtures (ROM) ROM with

Chapter Outline. Defects Introduction (I)

Crystals are like people, it is the defects in them which tend to make them interesting! - Colin Humphreys. Defects in Solids Chapter Outline 0D, Point defects vacancies interstitials impurities, weight

Mechanical Properties - Stresses & Strains

Mechanical Properties - Stresses & Strains Types of Deformation : Elasic Plastic Anelastic Elastic deformation is defined as instantaneous recoverable deformation Hooke's law : For tensile loading, σ =

Crystals are solids in which the atoms are regularly arranged with respect to one another.

Crystalline structures. Basic concepts Crystals are solids in which the atoms are regularly arranged with respect to one another. This regularity of arrangement can be described in terms of symmetry elements.

ME 215 Engineering Materials I

ME 215 Engineering Materials I Chapter 3 Properties in Tension and Compression (Part III) Mechanical Engineering University of Gaziantep Dr. A. Tolga Bozdana www.gantep.edu.tr/~bozdana True Stress and

Chapter Outline. Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads?

Mechanical Properties of Metals How do metals respond to external loads? Stress and Strain Tension Compression Shear Torsion Elastic deformation Plastic Deformation Yield Strength Tensile Strength Ductility

Crystallographic Directions, and Planes

Crstallographic Directions, and Planes Now that we know how atoms arrange themselves to form crstals, we need a wa to identif directions and planes of atoms. Wh? Deformation under loading (slip) occurs

Mechanical properties of twin lamella copper: Preliminary studies

: Preliminary studies Markus J. Buehler Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Abstract. The study of the mechanical properties of materials at nano-

MCEN 2024, Spring 2008 The week of Apr 07 HW 9 with Solutions

MCEN 2024, Spring 2008 The week of Apr 07 HW 9 with Solutions The Quiz questions based upon HW9 will open on Thursday, Apr. 11 and close on Wednesday, Apr 17 at 1:30 PM. References to A&J: Chapters 13,

MUKAVEMET KIRILMA HİPOTEZLERİ

1 MUKAVEMET KIRILMA HİPOTEZLERİ 17. Theories of failure or yield criteria (1) Maximum shearing stress theory (2) Octahedral shearing stress theory (3) Maximum normal stress theory for brittle materials.

CONSOLIDATION AND HIGH STRAIN RATE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF NANOCRYSTALLINE TANTALUM POWDER

CONSOLIDATION AND HIGH STRAIN RATE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF NANOCRYSTALLINE TANTALUM POWDER Sang H. Yoo, T.S. Sudarshan, Krupa Sethuram Materials Modification Inc, 2929-P1 Eskridge Rd, Fairfax, VA, 22031

POWER SCREWS (ACME THREAD) DESIGN There are at least three types of power screw threads: the square thread, the Acme thread, and the buttress thread. Of these, the square and buttress threads are the most

Geometry of the deformation zone

Geometry of the deformation zone R. Chandramouli Associate Dean-Research SASTRA University, Thanjavur-613 401 Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc Funded by MHRD Page 1 of 8 Table of Contents 1.Geometry of

Basic Concepts of Crystallography

Basic Concepts of Crystallography Language of Crystallography: Real Space Combination of local (point) symmetry elements, which include angular rotation, center-symmetric inversion, and reflection in mirror

Objectives. Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity and ductility of given materials.

Lab 3 Tension Test Objectives Concepts Background Experimental Procedure Report Requirements Discussion Objectives Experimentally determine the yield strength, tensile strength, and modules of elasticity

Chapter 12 Elasticity

If I have seen further than other men, it is because I stood on the shoulders of giants. Isaac Newton 12.1 The Atomic Nature of Elasticity Elasticity is that property of a body by which it experiences

Crystal Defects p. 2. Point Defects: Vacancies. Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Virginia. Lecturer: Leonid V.

Crystal Defects p. 1 A two-dimensional representation of a perfect single crystal with regular arrangement of atoms. But nothing is perfect, and structures of real materials can be better represented by

Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys

Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys THIRD EDITION DAVID A. PORTER, KENNETH E. EASTERLING, and MOHAMED Y. SHERIF ( г йс) CRC Press ^ ^ ) Taylor & Francis Group Boca Raton London New York CRC Press