State of Stress at Point

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "State of Stress at Point"

Transcription

1 State of Stress at Point Einstein Notation The basic idea of Einstein notation is that a covector and a vector can form a scalar: This is typically written as an explicit sum: According to this convention, when an index variable appears twice in a single term, once in an upper (superscript) and once in a lower (subscript) position, it implies that we are summing over all of its possible values.

2 Vector Representation in Einstein Indicial Notation x 3 e 1 e 3 θ 1 θ 3 a θ 2 n e 2 x 1 x 2 Unit Vector =

3 Vector dot product In mechanics and engineering, vectors in 3D space are often described in relation to orthogonal unit vectors i, j and k. If the basis vectors i, j, and k are instead expressed as e 1, e 2, and e 3, a vector can be expressed in terms of a summation: In Einstein notation, the summation symbol is omitted since the index i is repeated once as an upper index and once as a lower index, and we simply write Using e 1, e 2, and e 3 instead of i, j, and k, together with Einstein notation, we obtain a concise algebraic presentation of vector and tensor equations. For example,

4 Kronecker's delta function The Kronecker delta function or Kronecker's delta function, is a function of two variables, usually integers, which is 1 if they are equal and 0 otherwise. So, for example, δ 1,2 = 0, but δ 3,3 = 1 It is written as the symbol δ ij, and treated as a notational shorthand rather than as a function.

5 Abstract definitions and Examples In the traditional usage, one has in mind a vector space V with finite dimension n, and a specific basis of V. We can write the basis vectors as e 1, e 2,..., e n. Then if v is a vector in V, it has coordinates relative to this basis. The basic rule is: In this expression, it was assumed that the term on the right side was to be summed as i goes from 1 to n An index that is summed over is a summation index. Here, the i is known as a summation index. It is also known as a dummy index since the result is not dependent on it; thus we could also write, for example: Matrix multiplication We can represent matrix multiplication as: Examples: 4-Dimensional space indices run from 0 to 3 : Vector cross product: where with ε ijk

6 State of stress at a point. Stress is a measure of the internal forces acting within a deformable body. Quantitatively, Stress is a measure of the average force per unit area of a surface within the body on which internal forces act. These internal forces are a reaction to external forces applied on the body. Because the loaded deformable body is assumed to behave as a continuum, these internal forces are distributed continuously within the volume of the material body, and result in deformation of the body's shape. Beyond certain limits of material strength, this can lead to a permanent shape change or physical failure. Stress in a loaded deformable material body assumed as a continuum Axial stress in a prismatic bar axially loaded

7 Defintions Continuum mechanics deals with deformable bodies The stresses considered in continuum mechanics are only those produced by deformation of the body by surface forces contact forces, can act either on the bounding surface of the body and Body Forces originate from sources outside of the body that act on its volume (or mass) (gravitational field). When external contact forces act on a body, internal contact forces pass from point to point inside the body to balance their action, according to Newton's second law of motion of conservation of linear and angular momentum (principle of transmissibility). These laws are called Euler's equations of motion for continuous bodies. The density of internal forces at every point in a deformable body is not necessarily even, i.e. there is a distribution of stresses. This variation of internal forces is governed by the laws of conservation of linear and angular momentum, which normally apply to a mass particle but extend in continuum mechanics to a body of continuously distributed mass. Let us consider such a body subjected to contact and body forces as shown in this Figure. The Cauchy Stress Principle provides a framework for calculating The state of stress at any point P of the body under arbitrary distributions of contact forces F i and Body forces b i :

8 Cauchy stress principle The Cauchy stress principle states that upon any surface (real or imaginary) that divides the body, the action of one part of the body on the other is equivalent (equipollent) to the system of distributed forces and couples on the surface dividing the body, and it is represented by a vector field T (n), called the stress vector, defined on the surface S and assumed to depend continuously on the surface's unit vector n. [9] Internal distribution of contact forces and couple stresses on a differential of the internal surface in a continuum, as a result of the interaction between the two portions of the continuum separated by the surface F i Internal distribution of contact forces and couple stresses on a differential of the internal surface in a continuum, as a result of the interaction between the two portions of the continuum separated by the surface

9 Traction Vector or Stress Vector T ( n) consider an imaginary surface S passing through an internal material point P dividing the continuous body into two segments. The forces transmitted from one point to another generate a distribution on a small surface area ΔS, with a normal unit vector n, on the dividing plane S. Cauchy s stress principle asserts that as ΔS becomes very small and tends to zero the ratio ΔF/ΔS becomes df/ds and the couple stress vector ΔM vanishes. The resultant vector df/ds is defined as the stress vector or traction vector given by T (n) = T i (n) e i at the point P associated with a plane with a normal vector n: Cauchy s fundamental lemma is equivalent to Newton's third law of motion of action and reaction, and is expressed as The State of Stress at Point P is defined as the set : { T (n) n through P }

10 Normal and Shear Stress One normal to the plane, called normal stress with where df n is the normal component of the force df to the differential area ds and the other to this plane, called the shear stress where df s is the tangential component of the force df to the differential surface area ds Stress vector on an internal surface S with normal vector n. Depending on the orientation of the plane under consideration, the stress vector may not necessarily be perpendicular to that plane, i.e. parallel to, and can be resolved into two components: one component normal to the plane, called normal stress, and another component parallel to this plane, called the shearing stress.

11 The Stress Tensor The State of Stress at Point P is defined as the set :{ T (n) n through P } This requires a knowlwdge of infinite number of T (n) s. Cauchy theorem reduces this set to merely by knowing the stress vectors on three mutually perpendicular planes, the stress vector on any other plane passing through that point can be found through coordinate transformation equations To prove this theorem, consider a tetrahedron with three faces oriented in the coordinate planes, and with an infinitesimal area da oriented in an arbitrary direction specified by a normal vector n in Figure. Note that unit vector perpendicular to x 1 Ox 3 is e 3 stress vector is -T (e 3 ), The tetrahedron is formed by slicing the infinitesimal element along an arbitrary plane n. The stress vector on this plane is denoted by T (n). The stress vectors acting on the faces of the tetrahedron are denoted as T (e 1 ), T (e 2 ), and T (e 3 ) Stress vector acting on a plane with normal vector n.

12 The Stress Tensor where the right-hand-side represents the product of the mass enclosed by the tetrahedron and its acceleration: ρ is the density, a is the acceleration, and h is the height of the tetrahedron, considering the plane n as the base The area of the faces of the tetrahedron perpendicular to the axes can be found by projecting da into each face (using the dot product): A note on the sign convention: The tetrahedron is formed by slicing a parallelepiped along an arbitrary plane n. So, the force acting on the plane n is the reaction exerted by the other half of the parallelepiped and has an opposite sign. h 0

13 The Stress Tensor We define the stress tensor component as the jth component of the stress vector The nine components σ ij of the stress vectors are the components of a second-order Cartesian tensor called the Cauchy stress tensor, which completely defines the state of stress at a point and is given by where σ 11, σ 22, and σ 33 are normal stresses, and σ 12, σ 13, σ 21, σ 23, σ 31, and σ 32 are shear stresses. The first index i indicates that the stress acts on a plane normal to the x i -axis, and the second index j denotes the direction in which the stress acts.

14 The Stress Tensor Using the components of the stress tensor Or Examples of components of the stress tensor Shear stress component on Normal stress component plane plane σ 11, σ 22, and σ 33 are normal stresses, and σ 12, σ 13, σ 21, σ 23, σ 31, and σ 32 are shear stresses. Components of stress in three dimensions

15 Transformation of Stress Tensor where A is a rotation matrix with components a ij. In matrix form this is The other components of the expanded stress tensor can be obtained by cyclic permutation The stress tensor is a second order tensor, which is a statement of how it transforms under a change of the coordinate system. From an x i - system to an x i '-system, the components σ ij in the initial system are transformed into the components σ ij ' in the new system according to :

16 Normal and Shear Stresses The magnitude of the normal stress component σ n of any stress vector T (n) acting on an arbitrary plane with normal vector n at a given point, in terms of the components σ ij of the stress tensor σ, is the dot product of the stress vector and the normal vector: The magnitude of the shear stress component τ n, acting in the plane spanned by the two vectors T (n) and n, can then be found using the Pythagorean theorem where

17 Principal stresses and stress invariants At every point in a stressed body there are at least three planes, called principal planes, with normal vectors, called principal directions, where the corresponding stress vector i perpendicular to the plane, i.e., parallel or in the same direction as the normal vector, and where there are no normal shear stresses. The three stresses normal to these principal planes are called principal stresses. A stress vector parallel to the normal vector is given by: where is a constant of proportionality, and in this particular case corresponds to the magnitudes of the normal stress vectors or principal stresses. Knowing that This is a homogeneous system, i.e. equal to zero, of three linear equations where are the unknowns. To obtain a nontrivial (non-zero) solution for, the determinant matrix of the coefficients must be equal to zero, i.e. the system is singular. Thus

18 Principal stresses and stress invariants Expanding the determinant leads to the characteristic equation where The characteristic equation has three real roots, i.e. not imaginary due to the symmetry of the stress tensor. The three roots,, and are the eigenvalues or principal stresses, and they are the roots. The principal stresses are unique for a given stress tensor. Therefore, from the characteristic equation, the coefficients, and, called the first, second, and third stress invariants, respectively, have always the same value regardless of the coordinate system's orientation.

19 For each eigenvalue, there is a non-trivial solution for in the equation. These solutions are the principal directions or eigenvectors defining the plane where the principal stresses act. The principal stresses and principal directions characterize the stress at a point and are independent of the orientation. A coordinate system with axes oriented to the principal directions implies that the normal stresses are the principal stresses and the stress tensor is represented by a diagonal matrix: For which the three stress Invariants are: Maximum and minimum shear stresses The maximum shear stress or maximum principal shear stress is equal to one-half the difference between the largest and smallest principal stresses, and acts on the plane that bisects the angle between the directions of the largest and smallest principal stresses, i.e. the plane of the maximum shear stress is oriented from the principal stress planes. The maximum shear stress is expressed as assming

20 Stress deviator tensor The stress tensor can be expressed as the sum of two other stress tensors: a mean hydrostatic stress tensor or volumetric stress tensor or mean normal stress tensor,, which tends to change the volume of the stressed body; and a deviatoric component called the stress deviator tensor, which tends to distort it where is the mean stress given by: Note that convention in solid mechanics differs slightly from what is listed above. In solid mechanics, pressure is generally defined as negative one-third the trace of the stress tensor. The deviatoric stress tensor can be obtained by subtracting the hydrostatic stress tensor from the stress tensor:

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28 Stress deviator tensor Stress deviator tensor Stress deviator tensor Invariants

29 PROBLEMS SOLVED ON STRESS TENSOR 1. 2.

30 3.

31 4.

32

33

34

35

36

37

Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F

Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F CHAPTER I VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantities are anything which can be measured, and stated with number. Quantities in physics are divided into two types; scalar and vector quantities. Scalar quantities have

More information

Vectors and Index Notation

Vectors and Index Notation Vectors and Index Notation Stephen R. Addison January 12, 2004 1 Basic Vector Review 1.1 Unit Vectors We will denote a unit vector with a superscript caret, thus â denotes a unit vector. â â = 1 If x is

More information

1 Scalars, Vectors and Tensors

1 Scalars, Vectors and Tensors DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, MADRAS PH350 Classical Physics Handout 1 8.8.2009 1 Scalars, Vectors and Tensors In physics, we are interested in obtaining laws (in the form of mathematical

More information

Scalars, Vectors and Tensors

Scalars, Vectors and Tensors Scalars, Vectors and Tensors A scalar is a physical quantity that it represented by a dimensional number at a particular point in space and time. Examples are hydrostatic pressure and temperature. A vector

More information

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation

Differential Relations for Fluid Flow. Acceleration field of a fluid. The differential equation of mass conservation Differential Relations for Fluid Flow In this approach, we apply our four basic conservation laws to an infinitesimally small control volume. The differential approach provides point by point details of

More information

by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given

by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors Example Suppose Then So, geometrically, multiplying a vector in by the matrix A results in a vector which is a reflection of the given vector about the y-axis We observe that

More information

CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Differential Balance Equations

CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Differential Balance Equations CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Differential Balance Equations We have previously derived integral balances for mass, momentum, and energy for a control volume. The control volume was assumed to be some large object,

More information

Elasticity Theory Basics

Elasticity Theory Basics G22.3033-002: Topics in Computer Graphics: Lecture #7 Geometric Modeling New York University Elasticity Theory Basics Lecture #7: 20 October 2003 Lecturer: Denis Zorin Scribe: Adrian Secord, Yotam Gingold

More information

Review of Vector Analysis in Cartesian Coordinates

Review of Vector Analysis in Cartesian Coordinates R. evicky, CBE 6333 Review of Vector Analysis in Cartesian Coordinates Scalar: A quantity that has magnitude, but no direction. Examples are mass, temperature, pressure, time, distance, and real numbers.

More information

VECTOR CALCULUS: USEFUL STUFF Revision of Basic Vectors

VECTOR CALCULUS: USEFUL STUFF Revision of Basic Vectors Prof. S.M. Tobias Jan 2009 VECTOR CALCULUS: USEFUL STUFF Revision of Basic Vectors A scalar is a physical quantity with magnitude only A vector is a physical quantity with magnitude and direction A unit

More information

Index notation in 3D. 1 Why index notation?

Index notation in 3D. 1 Why index notation? Index notation in 3D 1 Why index notation? Vectors are objects that have properties that are independent of the coordinate system that they are written in. Vector notation is advantageous since it is elegant

More information

A vector is a directed line segment used to represent a vector quantity.

A vector is a directed line segment used to represent a vector quantity. Chapters and 6 Introduction to Vectors A vector quantity has direction and magnitude. There are many examples of vector quantities in the natural world, such as force, velocity, and acceleration. A vector

More information

Lecture L3 - Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations

Lecture L3 - Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2009 Lecture notes based on J. Peraire Version 2.0 Lecture L3 - Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations By using vectors and defining appropriate operations between

More information

Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices

Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices The following represents a systematic investigation for the steps used to solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns. The motivation for considering

More information

MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS. + + x 2. x n. a 11 a 12 a 1n b 1 a 21 a 22 a 2n b 2 a 31 a 32 a 3n b 3. a m1 a m2 a mn b m

MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS. + + x 2. x n. a 11 a 12 a 1n b 1 a 21 a 22 a 2n b 2 a 31 a 32 a 3n b 3. a m1 a m2 a mn b m MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS 1. SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS AND MATRICES 1.1. Representation of a linear system. The general system of m equations in n unknowns can be written a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 +

More information

Section 1.1. Introduction to R n

Section 1.1. Introduction to R n The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section. Introduction to R n Calculus is the study of functional relationships and how related quantities change with each other. In your first exposure to

More information

Unit 3 (Review of) Language of Stress/Strain Analysis

Unit 3 (Review of) Language of Stress/Strain Analysis Unit 3 (Review of) Language of Stress/Strain Analysis Readings: B, M, P A.2, A.3, A.6 Rivello 2.1, 2.2 T & G Ch. 1 (especially 1.7) Paul A. Lagace, Ph.D. Professor of Aeronautics & Astronautics and Engineering

More information

9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product

9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product Arkansas Tech University MATH 934: Calculus III Dr. Marcel B Finan 9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product Up to this point we have defined what vectors are and discussed basic notation

More information

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations

Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow. 2.1 General Considerations Chapter 2. Derivation of the Equations of Open Channel Flow 2.1 General Considerations Of interest is water flowing in a channel with a free surface, which is usually referred to as open channel flow.

More information

Physics 235 Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Matrices, Vectors, and Vector Calculus

Physics 235 Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Matrices, Vectors, and Vector Calculus Chapter 1 Matrices, Vectors, and Vector Calculus In this chapter, we will focus on the mathematical tools required for the course. The main concepts that will be covered are: Coordinate transformations

More information

A Primer on Index Notation

A Primer on Index Notation A Primer on John Crimaldi August 28, 2006 1. Index versus Index notation (a.k.a. Cartesian notation) is a powerful tool for manipulating multidimensional equations. However, there are times when the more

More information

Problem set on Cross Product

Problem set on Cross Product 1 Calculate the vector product of a and b given that a= 2i + j + k and b = i j k (Ans 3 j - 3 k ) 2 Calculate the vector product of i - j and i + j (Ans ) 3 Find the unit vectors that are perpendicular

More information

The Matrix Elements of a 3 3 Orthogonal Matrix Revisited

The Matrix Elements of a 3 3 Orthogonal Matrix Revisited Physics 116A Winter 2011 The Matrix Elements of a 3 3 Orthogonal Matrix Revisited 1. Introduction In a class handout entitled, Three-Dimensional Proper and Improper Rotation Matrices, I provided a derivation

More information

Introduction to Matrix Algebra

Introduction to Matrix Algebra Psychology 7291: Multivariate Statistics (Carey) 8/27/98 Matrix Algebra - 1 Introduction to Matrix Algebra Definitions: A matrix is a collection of numbers ordered by rows and columns. It is customary

More information

1 Lecture 3: Operators in Quantum Mechanics

1 Lecture 3: Operators in Quantum Mechanics 1 Lecture 3: Operators in Quantum Mechanics 1.1 Basic notions of operator algebra. In the previous lectures we have met operators: ˆx and ˆp = i h they are called fundamental operators. Many operators

More information

11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space

11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11 Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11.1 Vectors in the Plane Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives! Write the component form of

More information

THEORETICAL MECHANICS

THEORETICAL MECHANICS PROF. DR. ING. VASILE SZOLGA THEORETICAL MECHANICS LECTURE NOTES AND SAMPLE PROBLEMS PART ONE STATICS OF THE PARTICLE, OF THE RIGID BODY AND OF THE SYSTEMS OF BODIES KINEMATICS OF THE PARTICLE 2010 0 Contents

More information

13 MATH FACTS 101. 2 a = 1. 7. The elements of a vector have a graphical interpretation, which is particularly easy to see in two or three dimensions.

13 MATH FACTS 101. 2 a = 1. 7. The elements of a vector have a graphical interpretation, which is particularly easy to see in two or three dimensions. 3 MATH FACTS 0 3 MATH FACTS 3. Vectors 3.. Definition We use the overhead arrow to denote a column vector, i.e., a linear segment with a direction. For example, in three-space, we write a vector in terms

More information

Mathematics Course 111: Algebra I Part IV: Vector Spaces

Mathematics Course 111: Algebra I Part IV: Vector Spaces Mathematics Course 111: Algebra I Part IV: Vector Spaces D. R. Wilkins Academic Year 1996-7 9 Vector Spaces A vector space over some field K is an algebraic structure consisting of a set V on which are

More information

Vectors 2. The METRIC Project, Imperial College. Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, 1996.

Vectors 2. The METRIC Project, Imperial College. Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, 1996. Vectors 2 The METRIC Project, Imperial College. Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, 1996. Launch Mathematica. Type

More information

Lecture 11: Introduction to Constitutive Equations and Elasticity

Lecture 11: Introduction to Constitutive Equations and Elasticity Lecture : Introduction to Constitutive quations and lasticity Previous lectures developed the concepts and mathematics of stress and strain. The equations developed in these lectures such as Cauchy s formula

More information

1 of 79 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering EOSC 433

1 of 79 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering EOSC 433 Stress & Strain: A review xx yz zz zx zy xy xz yx yy xx yy zz 1 of 79 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering EOSC 433 Disclaimer before beginning your problem assignment: Pick up and compare any set

More information

13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT

13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT 710 Chapter Thirteen A FUNDAMENTAL TOOL: VECTORS 62. Use the following steps and the results of Problems 59 60 to show (without trigonometry) that the geometric and algebraic definitions of the dot product

More information

2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model

2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model 2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model The story of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and intersystem crossing is essentially a choreography of the twisting motion which causes reorientation or rephasing

More information

Mechanics 1: Conservation of Energy and Momentum

Mechanics 1: Conservation of Energy and Momentum Mechanics : Conservation of Energy and Momentum If a certain quantity associated with a system does not change in time. We say that it is conserved, and the system possesses a conservation law. Conservation

More information

Vector algebra Christian Miller CS Fall 2011

Vector algebra Christian Miller CS Fall 2011 Vector algebra Christian Miller CS 354 - Fall 2011 Vector algebra A system commonly used to describe space Vectors, linear operators, tensors, etc. Used to build classical physics and the vast majority

More information

Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors

Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors Fall 2005 Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors These notes were written by J. Peraire as a review of vectors for Dynamics 16.07. They have been adapted for Unified Engineering by R. Radovitzky. References [1] Feynmann,

More information

Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3) There are two main ways to introduce the dot product

Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3) There are two main ways to introduce the dot product Dot product and vector projections (Sect. 12.3) Two definitions for the dot product. Geometric definition of dot product. Orthogonal vectors. Dot product and orthogonal projections. Properties of the dot

More information

Lecture 3 Fluid Dynamics and Balance Equa6ons for Reac6ng Flows

Lecture 3 Fluid Dynamics and Balance Equa6ons for Reac6ng Flows Lecture 3 Fluid Dynamics and Balance Equa6ons for Reac6ng Flows 3.- 1 Basics: equations of continuum mechanics - balance equations for mass and momentum - balance equations for the energy and the chemical

More information

MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS

MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS MATRIX ALGEBRA AND SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS Systems of Equations and Matrices Representation of a linear system The general system of m equations in n unknowns can be written a x + a 2 x 2 + + a n x n b a

More information

Chapter 6. Orthogonality

Chapter 6. Orthogonality 6.3 Orthogonal Matrices 1 Chapter 6. Orthogonality 6.3 Orthogonal Matrices Definition 6.4. An n n matrix A is orthogonal if A T A = I. Note. We will see that the columns of an orthogonal matrix must be

More information

Structure of the Root Spaces for Simple Lie Algebras

Structure of the Root Spaces for Simple Lie Algebras Structure of the Root Spaces for Simple Lie Algebras I. Introduction A Cartan subalgebra, H, of a Lie algebra, G, is a subalgebra, H G, such that a. H is nilpotent, i.e., there is some n such that (H)

More information

DETERMINANTS. b 2. x 2

DETERMINANTS. b 2. x 2 DETERMINANTS 1 Systems of two equations in two unknowns A system of two equations in two unknowns has the form a 11 x 1 + a 12 x 2 = b 1 a 21 x 1 + a 22 x 2 = b 2 This can be written more concisely in

More information

MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product.

MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product. MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product. Vectors: geometric approach B A B A A vector is represented by a directed segment. Directed segment is drawn as an arrow. Different arrows represent

More information

Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body

Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body G.1 EE1.el3 (EEE1023): Electronics III Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body Dr Philip Jackson http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/teaching/courses/ee1.el3/ G.2 Moments, torque and

More information

Calculus C/Multivariate Calculus Advanced Placement G/T Essential Curriculum

Calculus C/Multivariate Calculus Advanced Placement G/T Essential Curriculum Calculus C/Multivariate Calculus Advanced Placement G/T Essential Curriculum UNIT I: The Hyperbolic Functions basic calculus concepts, including techniques for curve sketching, exponential and logarithmic

More information

1 VECTOR SPACES AND SUBSPACES

1 VECTOR SPACES AND SUBSPACES 1 VECTOR SPACES AND SUBSPACES What is a vector? Many are familiar with the concept of a vector as: Something which has magnitude and direction. an ordered pair or triple. a description for quantities such

More information

ELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA

ELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA ELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA A.1. VECTORS AND SCALAR QUANTITIES We have now proposed sets of basic dimensions and secondary dimensions to describe certain aspects of nature, but more than just dimensions

More information

Brief Review of Tensors

Brief Review of Tensors Appendix A Brief Review of Tensors A1 Introductory Remarks In the study of particle mechanics and the mechanics of solid rigid bodies vector notation provides a convenient means for describing many physical

More information

Lecture L22-2D Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy

Lecture L22-2D Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy J. Peraire, S. Widnall 6.07 Dynamics Fall 008 Version.0 Lecture L - D Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy In this lecture, we will revisit the principle of work and energy introduced in lecture L-3 for

More information

Vector Spaces; the Space R n

Vector Spaces; the Space R n Vector Spaces; the Space R n Vector Spaces A vector space (over the real numbers) is a set V of mathematical entities, called vectors, U, V, W, etc, in which an addition operation + is defined and in which

More information

Coefficient of Potential and Capacitance

Coefficient of Potential and Capacitance Coefficient of Potential and Capacitance Lecture 12: Electromagnetic Theory Professor D. K. Ghosh, Physics Department, I.I.T., Bombay We know that inside a conductor there is no electric field and that

More information

Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis

Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis 2. Polar coordinates A point P in a polar coordinate system is represented by an ordered pair of numbers (r, θ). If r >

More information

Extrinsic geometric flows

Extrinsic geometric flows On joint work with Vladimir Rovenski from Haifa Paweł Walczak Uniwersytet Łódzki CRM, Bellaterra, July 16, 2010 Setting Throughout this talk: (M, F, g 0 ) is a (compact, complete, any) foliated, Riemannian

More information

CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1. Tensor Notation.

CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1. Tensor Notation. CBE 6333, R. Levicky 1 Tensor Notation. Engineers and scientists find it useful to have a general terminology to indicate how many directions are associated with a physical quantity such as temperature

More information

A QUICK GUIDE TO THE FORMULAS OF MULTIVARIABLE CALCULUS

A QUICK GUIDE TO THE FORMULAS OF MULTIVARIABLE CALCULUS A QUIK GUIDE TO THE FOMULAS OF MULTIVAIABLE ALULUS ontents 1. Analytic Geometry 2 1.1. Definition of a Vector 2 1.2. Scalar Product 2 1.3. Properties of the Scalar Product 2 1.4. Length and Unit Vectors

More information

Let s first see how precession works in quantitative detail. The system is illustrated below: ...

Let s first see how precession works in quantitative detail. The system is illustrated below: ... lecture 20 Topics: Precession of tops Nutation Vectors in the body frame The free symmetric top in the body frame Euler s equations The free symmetric top ala Euler s The tennis racket theorem As you know,

More information

Vector Calculus: a quick review

Vector Calculus: a quick review Appendi A Vector Calculus: a quick review Selected Reading H.M. Sche,. Div, Grad, Curl and all that: An informal Tet on Vector Calculus, W.W. Norton and Co., (1973). (Good phsical introduction to the subject)

More information

v w is orthogonal to both v and w. the three vectors v, w and v w form a right-handed set of vectors.

v w is orthogonal to both v and w. the three vectors v, w and v w form a right-handed set of vectors. 3. Cross product Definition 3.1. Let v and w be two vectors in R 3. The cross product of v and w, denoted v w, is the vector defined as follows: the length of v w is the area of the parallelogram with

More information

APPLIED MATHEMATICS ADVANCED LEVEL

APPLIED MATHEMATICS ADVANCED LEVEL APPLIED MATHEMATICS ADVANCED LEVEL INTRODUCTION This syllabus serves to examine candidates knowledge and skills in introductory mathematical and statistical methods, and their applications. For applications

More information

Chapter 13. Gravitation

Chapter 13. Gravitation Chapter 13 Gravitation 13.2 Newton s Law of Gravitation In vector notation: Here m 1 and m 2 are the masses of the particles, r is the distance between them, and G is the gravitational constant. G = 6.67

More information

Math 215 HW #6 Solutions

Math 215 HW #6 Solutions Math 5 HW #6 Solutions Problem 34 Show that x y is orthogonal to x + y if and only if x = y Proof First, suppose x y is orthogonal to x + y Then since x, y = y, x In other words, = x y, x + y = (x y) T

More information

1 Introduction to Matrices

1 Introduction to Matrices 1 Introduction to Matrices In this section, important definitions and results from matrix algebra that are useful in regression analysis are introduced. While all statements below regarding the columns

More information

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4) Two main ways to introduce the cross product

Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4) Two main ways to introduce the cross product Cross product and determinants (Sect. 12.4) Two main ways to introduce the cross product Geometrical definition Properties Expression in components. Definition in components Properties Geometrical expression.

More information

Nonlinear Iterative Partial Least Squares Method

Nonlinear Iterative Partial Least Squares Method Numerical Methods for Determining Principal Component Analysis Abstract Factors Béchu, S., Richard-Plouet, M., Fernandez, V., Walton, J., and Fairley, N. (2016) Developments in numerical treatments for

More information

Continuous Groups, Lie Groups, and Lie Algebras

Continuous Groups, Lie Groups, and Lie Algebras Chapter 7 Continuous Groups, Lie Groups, and Lie Algebras Zeno was concerned with three problems... These are the problem of the infinitesimal, the infinite, and continuity... Bertrand Russell The groups

More information

(Most of the material presented in this chapter is taken from Thornton and Marion, Chap. 7)

(Most of the material presented in this chapter is taken from Thornton and Marion, Chap. 7) Chapter 4. Lagrangian Dynamics (Most of the material presented in this chapter is taken from Thornton and Marion, Chap. 7 4.1 Important Notes on Notation In this chapter, unless otherwise stated, the following

More information

Review of Vector Calculus

Review of Vector Calculus Review of Vector Calculus S. H. (Harvey) Lam January 8th, 2004 5:40PM version Abstract This review is simply a summary of the major concepts, definitions, theorems and identities that we will be using

More information

Linear Algebra: Vectors

Linear Algebra: Vectors A Linear Algebra: Vectors A Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A Motivation A 3 A2 Vectors A 3 A2 Notational Conventions A 4 A22 Visualization A 5 A23 Special Vectors A 5 A3 Vector

More information

Vector and Tensor Algebra (including Column and Matrix Notation)

Vector and Tensor Algebra (including Column and Matrix Notation) Vector and Tensor Algebra (including Column and Matrix Notation) 2 Vectors and tensors In mechanics and other fields of physics, quantities are represented by vectors and tensors. Essential manipulations

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1 NON-CONCURRENT COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEMS 1. Be able to determine the effects

More information

Engineering Mechanics I. Phongsaen PITAKWATCHARA

Engineering Mechanics I. Phongsaen PITAKWATCHARA 2103-213 Engineering Mechanics I Phongsaen.P@chula.ac.th May 13, 2011 Contents Preface xiv 1 Introduction to Statics 1 1.1 Basic Concepts............................ 2 1.2 Scalars and Vectors..........................

More information

1 Vectors: Geometric Approach

1 Vectors: Geometric Approach c F. Waleffe, 2008/09/01 Vectors These are compact lecture notes for Math 321 at UW-Madison. Read them carefully, ideally before the lecture, and complete with your own class notes and pictures. Skipping

More information

MATH 240 Fall, Chapter 1: Linear Equations and Matrices

MATH 240 Fall, Chapter 1: Linear Equations and Matrices MATH 240 Fall, 2007 Chapter Summaries for Kolman / Hill, Elementary Linear Algebra, 9th Ed. written by Prof. J. Beachy Sections 1.1 1.5, 2.1 2.3, 4.2 4.9, 3.1 3.5, 5.3 5.5, 6.1 6.3, 6.5, 7.1 7.3 DEFINITIONS

More information

CHAPTER 8 FACTOR EXTRACTION BY MATRIX FACTORING TECHNIQUES. From Exploratory Factor Analysis Ledyard R Tucker and Robert C.

CHAPTER 8 FACTOR EXTRACTION BY MATRIX FACTORING TECHNIQUES. From Exploratory Factor Analysis Ledyard R Tucker and Robert C. CHAPTER 8 FACTOR EXTRACTION BY MATRIX FACTORING TECHNIQUES From Exploratory Factor Analysis Ledyard R Tucker and Robert C MacCallum 1997 180 CHAPTER 8 FACTOR EXTRACTION BY MATRIX FACTORING TECHNIQUES In

More information

5.3 The Cross Product in R 3

5.3 The Cross Product in R 3 53 The Cross Product in R 3 Definition 531 Let u = [u 1, u 2, u 3 ] and v = [v 1, v 2, v 3 ] Then the vector given by [u 2 v 3 u 3 v 2, u 3 v 1 u 1 v 3, u 1 v 2 u 2 v 1 ] is called the cross product (or

More information

Numerical Analysis Lecture Notes

Numerical Analysis Lecture Notes Numerical Analysis Lecture Notes Peter J. Olver 5. Inner Products and Norms The norm of a vector is a measure of its size. Besides the familiar Euclidean norm based on the dot product, there are a number

More information

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE

VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, FORCE velocity Velocity v is a vector, with units of meters per second ( m s ). Velocity indicates the rate of change of the object s position ( r ); i.e., velocity tells you how

More information

Essential Mathematics for Computer Graphics fast

Essential Mathematics for Computer Graphics fast John Vince Essential Mathematics for Computer Graphics fast Springer Contents 1. MATHEMATICS 1 Is mathematics difficult? 3 Who should read this book? 4 Aims and objectives of this book 4 Assumptions made

More information

Geometry of Vectors. 1 Cartesian Coordinates. Carlo Tomasi

Geometry of Vectors. 1 Cartesian Coordinates. Carlo Tomasi Geometry of Vectors Carlo Tomasi This note explores the geometric meaning of norm, inner product, orthogonality, and projection for vectors. For vectors in three-dimensional space, we also examine the

More information

Vectors VECTOR PRODUCT. Graham S McDonald. A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors. Table of contents Begin Tutorial

Vectors VECTOR PRODUCT. Graham S McDonald. A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors. Table of contents Begin Tutorial Vectors VECTOR PRODUCT Graham S McDonald A Tutorial Module for learning about the vector product of two vectors Table of contents Begin Tutorial c 2004 g.s.mcdonald@salford.ac.uk 1. Theory 2. Exercises

More information

1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19. 6. If θ is the angle (between 0 and π) between two non-zero vectors u and v,

1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19. 6. If θ is the angle (between 0 and π) between two non-zero vectors u and v, 1.3. DOT PRODUCT 19 1.3 Dot Product 1.3.1 Definitions and Properties The dot product is the first way to multiply two vectors. The definition we will give below may appear arbitrary. But it is not. It

More information

Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature. E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000)

Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature. E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000) Some Comments on the Derivative of a Vector with applications to angular momentum and curvature E. L. Lady (October 18, 2000) Finding the formula in polar coordinates for the angular momentum of a moving

More information

3. INNER PRODUCT SPACES

3. INNER PRODUCT SPACES . INNER PRODUCT SPACES.. Definition So far we have studied abstract vector spaces. These are a generalisation of the geometric spaces R and R. But these have more structure than just that of a vector space.

More information

α = u v. In other words, Orthogonal Projection

α = u v. In other words, Orthogonal Projection Orthogonal Projection Given any nonzero vector v, it is possible to decompose an arbitrary vector u into a component that points in the direction of v and one that points in a direction orthogonal to v

More information

Vector Algebra CHAPTER 13. Ü13.1. Basic Concepts

Vector Algebra CHAPTER 13. Ü13.1. Basic Concepts CHAPTER 13 ector Algebra Ü13.1. Basic Concepts A vector in the plane or in space is an arrow: it is determined by its length, denoted and its direction. Two arrows represent the same vector if they have

More information

Notes on Determinant

Notes on Determinant ENGG2012B Advanced Engineering Mathematics Notes on Determinant Lecturer: Kenneth Shum Lecture 9-18/02/2013 The determinant of a system of linear equations determines whether the solution is unique, without

More information

Adding vectors We can do arithmetic with vectors. We ll start with vector addition and related operations. Suppose you have two vectors

Adding vectors We can do arithmetic with vectors. We ll start with vector addition and related operations. Suppose you have two vectors 1 Chapter 13. VECTORS IN THREE DIMENSIONAL SPACE Let s begin with some names and notation for things: R is the set (collection) of real numbers. We write x R to mean that x is a real number. A real number

More information

6. Vectors. 1 2009-2016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu)

6. Vectors. 1 2009-2016 Scott Surgent (surgent@asu.edu) 6. Vectors For purposes of applications in calculus and physics, a vector has both a direction and a magnitude (length), and is usually represented as an arrow. The start of the arrow is the vector s foot,

More information

1D 3D 1D 3D. is called eigenstate or state function. When an operator act on a state, it can be written as

1D 3D 1D 3D. is called eigenstate or state function. When an operator act on a state, it can be written as Chapter 3 (Lecture 4-5) Postulates of Quantum Mechanics Now we turn to an application of the preceding material, and move into the foundations of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics is based on a series

More information

1 The basic equations of fluid dynamics

1 The basic equations of fluid dynamics 1 The basic equations of fluid dynamics The main task in fluid dynamics is to find the velocity field describing the flow in a given domain. To do this, one uses the basic equations of fluid flow, which

More information

Chapter 3. Gauss s Law

Chapter 3. Gauss s Law 3 3 3-0 Chapter 3 Gauss s Law 3.1 Electric Flux... 3-2 3.2 Gauss s Law (see also Gauss s Law Simulation in Section 3.10)... 3-4 Example 3.1: Infinitely Long Rod of Uniform Charge Density... 3-9 Example

More information

NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS

NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS TEST DESIGN AND FRAMEWORK September 2014 Authorized for Distribution by the New York State Education Department This test design and framework document

More information

28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE. v x. u y v z u z v y u y u z. v y v z

28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE. v x. u y v z u z v y u y u z. v y v z 28 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE 1.4 Cross Product 1.4.1 Definitions The cross product is the second multiplication operation between vectors we will study. The goal behind the definition

More information

Thnkwell s Homeschool Precalculus Course Lesson Plan: 36 weeks

Thnkwell s Homeschool Precalculus Course Lesson Plan: 36 weeks Thnkwell s Homeschool Precalculus Course Lesson Plan: 36 weeks Welcome to Thinkwell s Homeschool Precalculus! We re thrilled that you ve decided to make us part of your homeschool curriculum. This lesson

More information

THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY Chapter 8 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 8.1 Introduction In this chapter we present a vector algebra approach to three dimensional geometry. The aim is to present standard properties of lines and planes,

More information

Recall that two vectors in are perpendicular or orthogonal provided that their dot

Recall that two vectors in are perpendicular or orthogonal provided that their dot Orthogonal Complements and Projections Recall that two vectors in are perpendicular or orthogonal provided that their dot product vanishes That is, if and only if Example 1 The vectors in are orthogonal

More information

Volumetric Constraint Models for Anisotropic Elastic Solids

Volumetric Constraint Models for Anisotropic Elastic Solids CU-CAS-02-08 CENTER FOR AEROSPACE STRUCTURES Volumetric Constraint Models for Anisotropic Elastic Solids by C. A. Felippa and E. Oñate July 2002 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO CAMPUS BOX

More information

Chapter 11 Equilibrium

Chapter 11 Equilibrium 11.1 The First Condition of Equilibrium The first condition of equilibrium deals with the forces that cause possible translations of a body. The simplest way to define the translational equilibrium of

More information

Linear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus

Linear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus Linear Algebra Notes for Marsden and Tromba Vector Calculus n-dimensional Euclidean Space and Matrices Definition of n space As was learned in Math b, a point in Euclidean three space can be thought of

More information