# Pedestrian protection - Pedestrian in collision with personal car

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Pedestrian protection - Pedestrian in collision with personal car Authors: Jiří Svoboda, Ing; Zdeněk Šolc, Ing. Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Automotive and Aerospace Engineering, Technická 4, Praha 6, Czech Republic Tel:

2 Summary The paper is aimed to the area of pedestrian protection. The object of the research is the pedestrian in collision with front end of the personal car. The target is to summarise current approach to problem pedestrian protection, discuss prepared pedestrian protection directive and its benefit of pedestrian protection in contrast to mathematics simulation of collision between pedestrian and vehicle. The contact points of different parts of the human body on front vehicle end are determined on the basis of the statistics data concerning pedestrian - vehicle collision occurred in Europe. The courses of typical collision at different velocity are derived. The statistic data are considered as assumption for next research. The mathematic simulation for different vehicle front-end shapes and different velocity is carrying out to confirm statistic results and shove influence response of different initial conditions to the pedestrian kinematics. Introduction Road accident statistics indicate that a significant proportion of casualties involve pedestrians and cyclists who are injured as a result of contact with a moving vehicle, notably passenger cars frontal structures. Most accidents take place in urban areas where serious or fatal injuries can be sustained at relatively low speeds, particularly in the case of children. Although there is a clear case for the implementation of measures to separate pedestrians from vehicular traffic and, where this is not feasible, to reduce the speed of traffic, there is nevertheless scope to mitigate the severity of injuries to pedestrians by improving the frontal structures of vehicles. Accident statistic The official statistics of road accidents originate on the basic of police recordings. They contain both common information like number of the light or serious injured, killed pedestrian in certain period and more detail information like region, date, time and cause of accident. Picture 1 shoves an example of the accident statistic. It is percent share of the killed pedestrian relates to over all the killed persons in road traffic in different European countries. The data shoves how series problem pedestrian protection is. The number of the killed pedestrian is between % while number of collision of pedestrian with car represents 4-8% from the over all number of the traffic accidents. The result indicates to high risk of pedestrian death in collision with car. Majority of the collision ware occurred in urban areas. Number of the killed pedestrians in urban areas was 68% from over all number of the killed pedestrians. Number of injured pedestrians in urban areas is much more significant than number of pedestrians injured outside them (91% serious injured and 95% slight injured) The data contained in the official accident statistics are not enough for research of pedestrian behaviour during impact. It is necessary to know collision velocity, contact points of different part of pedestrian body on vehicle structure etc. Car producers and independent institutions have created their own statistics that contained these data. Information obtained from databases of syndicate VW and DEKRA is used at research. The databases contained: Collision velocity in urban areas as well as outside them Contact points of different part of pedestrian body on vehicle body List of pedestrian injury occurred and its number List of pedestrian injury occurred leading to death and its number

5 small family cars are accessed by means of test criteria. Every tested car are not meat the criteria of tests. Two stars (from four) is average assessment of the cars. The results shove no significant difference in the pedestrian load during collision with different class car. Tests using figurines Laboratory tests Up to this time the figurine Hybrid II 50% man has been the most often used figurine to crash test pedestrian vehicle. Extent of impact velocities km/h was determined on above mentioned statistic results. The most often occurrence of collisions was in urban areas where velocity limit is 50 km/h. Technical arrangements leading to pedestrian protection are effective to velocity 50 km/h. Observed parameters: trajectory, velocity and acceleration of body parts (most often Head and chest), contact points and velocity individual parts of figurine on vehicle body. Performance standard given by the Head Injury Criterion is the most often used for predicting of head injury: HIC = ( 2 1) a t t t () t. dt ( t 2 1) < 1000 The HIC is determined by tracing resultant acceleration signal. The deceleration values are considered in g s. Time frame 15 ms is considered in case of contact head with hard structure. In the no contact case the time frame is 36 ms. Another criteria traced during collision: Criterion of a 3ms the injury criterion is computed by tracing the resultant linear acceleration signal using a time window with a width of 3 ms. The highest acceleration level with a duration of at least 3ms is called criterion of a 3ms. Thorax Trauma Index definition of TTI for 50 th percentile dummy with a mass of 75 kg is: TTI = 0,5.( RIBg + T12g) RIB g maximum absolute value in g s of the 4 th and 8 th rib on struck side in lateral direction T12 g - maximum absolute value in g s of the 12 th thoracic vertebra in lateral direction The result of crash test of the Fiat Cinquecento is worth a mention. The test has carried out by DEKRA Accident Research in the work frame of testing of different car class and year of manufacture. Contact of head with windscreen in third phase of primary collision is typical for modern compact cars. At first sight it can be considered less pedestrian friendly than impact to bonnet top but measured values of head deceleration in contrast of them measured when head strikes bonnet indicate different result. Because of the low rigid bonnet fits the high rigid engine structure placed under during deformation the resultant deformation of bonnet is lower than windscreen deformation. Larger deformation of windscreen in comparison with bonnet is important factor of less deceleration peak. Table 1 contains list of tested cars and points of head contact with car structure Mathematics simulation max

6 The Madymo code is used for simulation of behaviour of figurine during collision with the passenger car. The database of mathematical models of figurines used in automotive branch is implemented in the code. The Madymo is chosen due to its intention on solving problems in field of passive safety at high level of precision. Due to it is the most frequent the first type of collision is modelled (chapter: Description of typical collision injury origin). According the statistic the most accidents take place in urban areas therefore the behaviour of figurine is observed at low velocities to 50 km/h. Extra attention is focused to the velocity 40 km/h to be possible compare the simulation results with the results obtained from tests and appreciate them in contrast to the method pedestrian protection directive. The model of collision between pedestrian and passenger car consists of three systems and interactions between them: System of roadway inertial coordinate system System of pedestrian System of car Following factors are considered at physical analysis of collision: Pedestrian Shape Mass, centre of mass, moments of inertia of each body part Resistance against motion in joints Motion state (position, velocity of each body part) Car Shape Stiffness and hysteresis of contact surfaces Driving state (velocity and acceleration) Roadway Stiffness Model of pedestrian Multibody technique is used for modelling of the figurines. Surface of figurine is created by ellipsoids to resultant shape corresponds with shape of pedestrian. Each body (defined - mass, centre of mass and moment of inertia) represents certain part of human body and each joint represents any important joint in human body or its group (four joints created spine). Characteristics (stiffness, hysteresis etc.) are defined in each joint to limit motion of connected bodies. The figurine Hybrid II model of 50% man is used in simulations to be possible compare results with laboratory tests and validate model according them. Simulations using the model of 6 th year child are carried out as well. The modified database model of 50% is used because original database figurines are designed for simulation of passenger during frontal impact. The results obtained by original figurine models are not corresponded with reality. Initial posture and contacts interactions are modified and any new contact interactions are defined. Model of car The simulations are carried out with three cars: Škoda Fabia, Škoda Octavia and Fiat Cinquecento. One body represents the car. Surface of car is created by ellipsoids to resultant shape corresponds with shape of real car. The deformation characteristic is added to each ellipsoid according which part the ellipsoid represents. Forward motion (velocity and acceleration) is forced to the car. Driving state of car at tine of figurine hitting is intensive braking (deceleration 6,5 ms -2 )

10 HIC a 3ms a 3ms a 3ms TTI adult g 13,7g 40,9g 40,2 child 51 20,2g 29,4g 15,5g 32,2 adult 86 34,4g 19,4g 32,7g 31 child 265,4 47g 49,8g 16,1g 23 adult 602,3 75,4g 36,4g 31,4g 49,8 child 758,2 94,1g 56,2g 51,2g 49,3 adult 1439,5 84,5g 50,2g 48,6g 35,6 child ,7g 180,4g 48,7g 97,4 adult 1095,1 105g 61,7g 72,7g 132,2 child ,9g 110,3g 95,1g 123,6 Table 2: injury criteria obtained from simulation of collision: pedestrian Škoda Fabia % S H CZ A FIN Year Picture 1: The share of pedestrians of all road users killed in traffic collision Velocity (m/s) Chest velocity Head velocity Thorax velocity Picture 2: Velocity of body parts obtained by simulation, comparison with test result

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359

### An Example of the Crash Protection Provided by a Driver Airbag in an Offset Frontal Crash Test. David S. Zuby Joseph M. Nolan Susan L.

An Example of the Crash Protection Provided by a Driver Airbag in an Offset Frontal Crash Test David S. Zuby Joseph M. Nolan Susan L. Meyerson July 1997 ABSTRACT A comparison of two severe frontal offset

### European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and Crash Test Ratings of New Vehicles

European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and Crash Test Ratings of New Vehicles Car safety is now an important issue that many people consider when buying a new car. There are crash test standards

### EFFECT OF VEHICLE DESIGN ON HEAD INJURY SEVERITY AND THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES

EFFECT OF VEHICLE DESIGN ON HEAD INJURY SEVERITY AND THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES S. Mukherjee A. Chawla D. Mohan M. Singh R. Dey Transportation Res. and Injury Prevention program Indian

### Impact Kinematics of Cyclist and Head Injury Mechanism in Car to Bicycle Collision

Impact Kinematics of Cyclist and Head Injury Mechanism in Car to Bicycle Collision Tadasuke Katsuhara, Hiroshi Miyazaki, Yuichi Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi Yasuki Abstract The number of cyclist fatalities is the

### DEVELOPMENT OF HELICOPTER SAFETY DEVICES

25 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT OF HELICOPTER SAFETY DEVICES Wayne Lam, Cees Bil *RMIT University Keywords: helicopter, crash, simulation, MADYMO Abstract Recent investigations

### PREDICTING THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES

PREDICTING THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES MUKHERJEE S, CHAWLA A, MOHAN D, CHANDRAWAT S, AGARWAL V TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAMME INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NEW

### Predicting throw distance variations in bicycle crashes

304 Int. J. Vehicle Safety, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2006 Predicting throw distance variations in bicycle crashes S. Mukherjee and A. Chawla* Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,

### Car Crash Design Lab

Car Crash Design Lab This activity is designed to utilize your prior knowledge of physics and physical systems in order select critical safety features of a car. In this lab you are asked to select components

### The momentum of a moving object has a magnitude, in kg m/s, and a... (1)

Q. (a) Complete the following sentence. The momentum of a moving object has a magnitude, in kg m/s, and a.... () (b) A car being driven at 9.0 m/s collides with the back of a stationary lorry. The car

### Tram interface crashworthiness

Tram interface crashworthiness R.H. Grzebieta*, G. Rechnitzer** Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Australia 3168, email: grzebieta@eng.monash.edu.au Abstract Monash University

### AUTORIZOVANÝ SOFTWARE PED2D SOFTWARE FOR 2D CAR TO PEDESTRIAN FRONTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS

ODBOR MODELOVÁNÍ HETEROGENNÍCH MATERIÁLŮ A BIOMECHANICKÝCH SYSTÉMŮ AUTORIZOVANÝ SOFTWARE PED2D SOFTWARE FOR 2D CAR TO PEDESTRIAN FRONTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS Autor: Ing. Luděk Hynčík, Ph.D. Číslo projektu:

### Skoda Octavia 66% 82% ADULT OCCUPANT. Total 34 pts 93% Skoda Octavia 1.6 'Ambition', LHD SIDE IMPACT REAR IMPACT (WHIPLASH) 2,6 pts WHIPLASH

Skoda Octavia Skoda Octavia 1.6 'Ambition', LHD 93% 86% 82% 66% ADULT OCCUPANT Total 34 pts 93% 15,9 pts HEAD Driver airbag contact Passenger airbag contact CHEST Driver Passenger CAR 8 pts POLE 6,4 pts

### Numerical analysis of real-world cyclist crashes: impact speed, collision mechanism and movement trajectories

Numerical analysis of real-world cyclist crashes: impact speed, collision mechanism and movement trajectories T.Y. Pang 1, H. Sakeran 1, A. Short 2, A.S. McIntosh 1, G. Rechnitzer 2, K.Thai 1 1 School

### Volvo Trucks view on Truck Rollover Accidents

Volvo Trucks view on Truck Rollover Accidents Mario Ligovic, Volvo Truck Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden INTRODUCTION Rollover is the most common heavy truck accident type. Experiencing a rollover is like

### Skoda Superb 86% 86% 71% 76% SPECIFICATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT TEST RESULTS. Large Family Car. Child Occupant. Adult Occupant. Safety Assist.

Skoda Superb Large Family Car 2015 Adult Occupant Child Occupant 86% 86% Pedestrian Safety Assist 71% 76% SPECIFICATION Tested Model Skoda Superb 2.0 TDI 'Ambition', LHD Body Type 5 door liftback Year

### Investigation for New Side Impact Test Procedures in Japan

Investigation for New Side Impact Test Procedures in Japan Hideki Yonezawa Naruyuki Hosokawa Yoshinori Tanaka Yasuhiro Matsui Shunsuke Takagi National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory Takahiro

### The Increasing Role of SUVs in Crash Involvement in Germany

Gesamtverband der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e. V. The Increasing Role of SUVs in Crash Involvement in Germany Dr. Axel Malczyk German Insurers Accident Research ICROBI Dublin, 12.09.2012 Gesamtverband

### Motorcycle accident reconstruction in VL Motion

Motorcycle accident reconstruction in VL Motion Presenter Nicola Cofelice ESR 14 AGENDA 1 Motorcycle accident reconstruction - Overview 2 Research progress 3 What s next? copyright LMS International -

### Driver (Single Stage), Passenger (Single Stage) Driver (single), Passenger (single)

Citroen C1 Tested Model: Toyota Aygo 1 x-play, LHD 80% 80% 62% 56% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model Tested Model: Toyota Aygo 1 x-play, LHD Body type 5 door hatchback Year of publication

### CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY J. W. WATSON. Experimentation and Simulation. School of Applied Science. PhD

CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY J. W. WATSON Investigation of Cyclist and Pedestrian Impacts with Motor Vehicles using Experimentation and Simulation School of Applied Science PhD CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF

### On Predicting Lower Leg Injuries. for the EuroNCAP Front Crash

On Predicting Lower Leg Injuries for the EuroNCAP Front Crash Thomas Hofer, Altair Engineering GmbH Peter Karlsson, Saab Automobile AB Niclas Brännberg, Altair Engineering AB Lars Fredriksson, Altair Engineering

### ENHANCEMENT OF SEAT PERFORMANCE IN LOW-SPEED REAR IMPACT

ENHANCEMENT OF SEAT PERFORMANCE IN LOW-SPEED REAR IMPACT Harald Zellmer Michael Stamm Alexander Seidenschwang Autoliv GmbH, Elmshorn, Germany Anton Brunner Winterthur Insurance Corp., Dep. of Accident

### Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts. Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes

Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes Maria Krafft, Anders Kullgren Folksam Anders Lie, Claes Tingvall Swedish National Road Administration June 24 Summary

### AUDI A3 Sportback e-tron

AUDI A3 Sportback e-tron AUDI A3 Sportback e-tron 1.4 TFSI + e-engine 'Ambition', RHD 82% 78% 66% 68% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model AUDI A3 Sportback e-tron 1.4 TFSI + e-engine 'Ambition',

### Safety performance comparisons of different types of child seats in high speed impact tests

Safety performance comparisons of different types of child seats in high speed impact tests Jia Hu Dazhi Wang Michael Mellor Guoqiang Chen Dayong Wang Zheng Li Yongguang Wang Xing Su Jianyong Ma Xiaodong

### Driver (Single Stage), Passenger (Single Stage) Driver (single), Passenger (single)

Skoda Fabia Skoda Fabia 1.2 TSI 'Ambition', LHD 81% 81% 69% 69% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model Skoda Fabia 1.2 TSI 'Ambition', LHD Body type 5 door hatchback Year of publication 2014

### Thoracic Injury Criterion for Frontal Crash Applicable to All Restraint Systems

Stapp Car Crash Journal, Vol. 47 (October 2003), pp. 323-348 Copyright 2003 The Stapp Association Stapp Car Crash Journal 2003-22-0015 Thoracic Injury Criterion for Frontal Crash Applicable to All Restraint

### Influence of the front part of the vehicle and cyclist s sitting position on the severity of head injury in side collision

Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics Vol. 15, No. 1, 2013 Original paper DOI: 10.5277/abb130113 Influence of the front part of the vehicle and cyclist s sitting position on the severity of head injury

### Effects of a Forward Displaced Position on Driver Injury Levels in Frontal Crashes

5th International Conference on Advanced Engineering Materials and Technology (AEMT 2015) Effects of a Forward Displaced Position on Driver Injury Levels in Frontal Crashes Xiao Luo a, Wenjing Du b, Shucai

### Suzuki Vitara SPECIFICATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT TEST RESULTS. Supermini. Year Of Publication 2015. Driver Passenger Rear FRONTAL CRASH PROTECTION

Suzuki Vitara Supermini Adult Occupant Child Occupant Pedestrian Safety Assist SPECIFICATION Tested Model Suzuki Vitara 1.6 GL+, LHD Body Type 5 door hatchback Year Of Publication 2015 Kerb Weight 1114kg

### AP-90-0004. Final report for the work on Motorcyclist Accidents (SP4) Project no. FP6-PLT-506503 APROSYS

Final report for the work on Motorcyclist Accidents (SP4) AP-90-0004 Project no. FP6-PLT-506503 APROSYS Integrated Project on Advanced Protection Systems Intrument: Integrated Project Thematic Priority

### Cyclist kinematics in car impacts reconstructed in simulations and full scale testing with Polar dummy

Cyclist kinematics in car impacts reconstructed in simulations and full scale testing with Polar dummy Margriet van Schijndel 1, Stefanie de Hair 2, Carmen Rodarius 3, Rikard Fredriksson 4 Abstract For

### BMW 2 Series Active Tourer

BMW 2 Series Active Tourer BMW 2 Series Active Tourer 1.5 Base, LHD 84% 85% 60% 70% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model BMW 2 Series Active Tourer 1.5 Base, LHD Body type 5 door hatchback

### Honda Jazz 85% 93% 73% 71% SPECIFICATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT TEST RESULTS. Supermini. Child Occupant. Adult Occupant. Safety Assist.

Honda Jazz Supermini 2015 Adult Occupant Child Occupant 93% 85% Pedestrian Safety Assist 73% 71% SPECIFICATION Tested Model Body Type Honda Jazz 1.3 'Comfort', LHD 5 door hatchback Year Of Publication

### Driver (Single Stage), Passenger (Single Stage) Driver (dual), Passenger (dual)

Kia Sorento Kia Sorento 2.2 diesel GLS, LHD 90% 83% 67% 71% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model Kia Sorento 2.2 diesel GLS, LHD Body type 5 door SUV Year of publication 2014 Kerb weight 1843kg

### VW Tiguan 84% 96% 72% 68% SPECIFICATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT TEST RESULTS. Standard Safety Equipment. Child Occupant. Adult Occupant.

VW Tiguan Standard Safety Equipment 2016 Adult Occupant Child Occupant 96% 84% Pedestrian Safety Assist 72% 68% SPECIFICATION Tested Model Body Type VW Tiguan 2.0 TDI 110 kw, LHD 5 door SUV Year Of Publication

### Driver (Single Stage), Passenger (Single Stage) Driver (single), Passenger (single) Driver, Passenger, Rear (outboard seats)

VW Golf Sportsvan VW Golf Sportsvan 1.6 TDI Comfortline, LHD 87% 85% 62% 73% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model VW Golf Sportsvan 1.6 TDI Comfortline, LHD Body type 5 door MPV Year of publication

### Driver (Single Stage), Passenger (Single Stage) Driver (double), Passenger (single)

Nissan X Trail Nissan X Trail 1.6 diesel Acenta, LHD 86% 83% 75% 75% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model Nissan X Trail 1.6 diesel Acenta, LHD Body type 5 door SUV Year of publication 2014

### Mazda MX-5 84% 80% 64% 93% SPECIFICATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT TEST RESULTS. Roadster sports. Child Occupant. Adult Occupant. Safety Assist.

Mazda MX-5 Roadster Sport 2015 Adult Occupant Child Occupant 84% 80% Pedestrian Safety Assist 93% 64% SPECIFICATION Tested Model Body Type Mazda MX-5 1.5 SE-L, RHD 2 door roadster Year Of Publication 2015

### Motorcycle Airbag System

PRESS INFORMATION September 2005 Motorcycle Airbag System Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Introduction Honda has been proactive in fostering driver and rider training as well as developing and implementing active

### Bicycle safety in bicycle to car accidents

Bicycle safety in bicycle to car accidents TNO report: TNO-033-HM-2008-00354 / April 15th, 2008 Carmen Rodarius Justyna Mordaka Ton Versmissen The Netherlands TNO report TNO-033-HM-2008-00354 Bicycle

### Dynamic Analysis of Child in Misused CRS During Car Accident

Dynamic Analysis of Child in Misused CRS During Car Accident T. KOIZUMI, N. TSUJIUCHI, and R. KAWAMURA Department of Mechanical Engineering Doshisha University Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 JAPAN Abstract

### Driver (Single Stage), Passenger (Single Stage) Driver (single), Passenger (single)

Hyundai i10 Hyundai i10 1.0 petrol Comfort, LHD 79% 80% 71% 56% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model Hyundai i10 1.0 petrol Comfort, LHD Body type 5 door hatchback Year of publication 2014

### COMPARISON OF BIORID INJURY CRITERIA BETWEEN DYNAMIC SLED TESTS AND VEHICLE CRASH TESTS

COMPARISON OF BIORID INJURY CRITERIA BETWEEN DYNAMIC SLED TESTS AND VEHICLE CRASH TESTS David A. Aylor David S. Zuby Insurance Institute for Highway Safety United States Paper No. 11-235 ABSTRACT The Insurance

### Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts. Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes

Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes Maria Krafft, Anders Kullgren Folksam Anders Lie, Claes Tingvall Swedish National Road Administration June 2004 Summary

### Mercedes-Benz C-Class

Mercedes-Benz C-Class Mercedes-Benz C-Class C220 'Avantgarde', LHD 92% 84% 77% 70% DETAILS OF TESTED CAR SPECIFICATIONS Tested model Mercedes-Benz C-Class C220 'Avantgarde', LHD Body type 4 door sedan

### A New Impact Scenario for P-V Tram Certification

A New Impact Scenario for P-V Tram Certification Authors Marco ANGHILERI * Luigi-M L CASTELLETTI * Matteo PIROLA * Fabio PISTOCHINI * and Stefano RAITI ** Affiliations * Politecnico di Milano, Department

### FIRST RESULTS FROM THE JAMA HUMAN BODY MODEL PROJECT

FIRST RESULTS FROM THE JAMA HUMAN BODY MODEL PROJECT Tomiji Sugimoto Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. Kunio Yamazaki Japan Automobile Research Institute Japan Paper Number 05-0291 ABSTRACT

### Alternative lower rail design to lower injury level of occupant caused by frontal crash

Alternative lower rail design to lower injury level of occupant caused by frontal crash W. Beek (0557959) MT06.20 Internal traineeship Supervisor: Dr. ir. W.J. Witteman Eindhoven University of Technology

### Statement before Massachusetts Legislature s Joint Committee on Insurance. Institute Research on Cosmetic Crash Parts. Stephen L. Oesch.

Statement before Massachusetts Legislature s Joint Committee on Insurance Institute Research on Cosmetic Crash Parts Stephen L. Oesch INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY 1005 N. GLEBE RD. ARLINGTON,

### VW Caddy 78% 84% 58% 68% SPECIFICATION SAFETY EQUIPMENT TEST RESULTS. Small MPV. Child Occupant. Adult Occupant. Safety Assist.

VW Caddy Small MPV 2015 Adult Occupant Child Occupant 84% 78% Pedestrian Safety Assist 58% 68% SPECIFICATION Tested Model Body Type VW Caddy 2.0 TDI 'Trendline', LHD - 5 door hatchback Year Of Publication

### Classification of Crash Pattern Based on Vehicle Acceleration and Prediction Algorithm for Occupant Injury

M. Katagiri et al./international Journal of Automotive Engineering 4 (3) 9-6 Research Paper 3497 Classification of Crash Pattern Based on Vehicle Acceleration and Prediction Algorithm for Occupant Injury

### Q dummy family. Fahrzeugsicherheit Berlin e.v. Robert Kant, Christian Kleessen (Humanetics)

Computational models of Q dummy family Ines Lehmann, Heiko Johannsen (VFSB) Robert Kant, Christian Kleessen (Humanetics) Protection of children hld in cars, December 2 3, 2010, Munich Fahrzeugsicherheit

### MOTORCYCLE IMPACTS TO ROADSIDE BARRIERS REAL-WORLD ACCIDENT STUDIES, CRASH TESTS AND SIMULATIONS CARRIED OUT IN GERMANY AND AUSTRALIA

MOTORCYCLE IMPACTS TO ROADSIDE BARRIERS REAL-WORLD ACCIDENT STUDIES, CRASH TESTS AND SIMULATIONS CARRIED OUT IN GERMANY AND AUSTRALIA F. Alexander Berg Peter Rücker Marcus Gärtner Jens König DEKRA Automobil

### Characteristics of Crash Data from Event Data Recorders in Collisions with Narrow Objects

Characteristics of Crash Data from Event Data Recorders in Collisions with Narrow Objects Ryo Oga *, Nobuaki Takubo *, Kenshiro Kato *, Takaaki Terashima * *National Research Institute of Police Science,

### THUMS User Community

THUMS User Community Project Overview Th. Fuchs 1, K. Zhou 1, Prof. Dr. S. Peldschus 1,2 1 Biomechanics Group, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Munich 2 Hochschule Furtwangen University Stuttgart,

### EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS

4277(a) Semester 2, 2011 Page 1 of 9 THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS NOVEMBER 2011 Time allowed: TWO Hours Total marks: 90 MARKS INSTRUCTIONS All questions are to be answered. Use

A review of 2013 fatal collision statistics December 31 st 2013 The following report summarises the main trends that have emerged in 2013. This has been prepared by the Road Safety Authority following

### Tennessee State University

Tennessee State University Dept. of Physics & Mathematics PHYS 2010 CF SU 2009 Name 30% Time is 2 hours. Cheating will give you an F-grade. Other instructions will be given in the Hall. MULTIPLE CHOICE.

### 40,46 16,22 16,25. no fx thoracic sp. Fx lumbar spine. no fx lumbar. spine

Spine injuries in motor vehicle accidents an analysis of 34188 injured front passengers with special consideration of injuries of the thoracolumbar in relation to injury mechanisms C. W. Müller, D. Otte,

### DEVELOPMENT OF MOVING DEFORMABLE BARRIER IN JAPAN - PART 2 -

DEVELOPMENT OF MOVING DEFORMABLE BARRIER IN JAPAN - PART 2 - Masanori Ueno Takeshi Harigae Haruo Ohmae Japan Automobile Research Institute Takahiko Uchimura Eiji Fujiwara Japan Automobile Manufacturers

### STUDY ON STEERING COLUMN COLLAPSE ANALYSIS USING DETAILED FE MODEL

STUDY ON STEERING COLUMN COLLAPSE ANALYSIS USING DETAILED FE MODEL Tae Hee, Lee Byung Ryul, Ham Seong Oh, Hong Advanced Safety CAE Team / Hyundai Motor Co. Korea Paper No. 11-0262 ABSTRACT EASC(Energy

### Working Model 2D Exercise Problem 14.111. ME 114 Vehicle Design Dr. Jose Granda. Performed By Jeffrey H. Cho

Working Model 2D Exercise Problem 14.111 ME 114 Vehicle Design Dr. Jose Granda Performed By Jeffrey H. Cho Table of Contents Problem Statement... 1 Simulation Set-Up...2 World Settings... 2 Gravity...

### The influence of passive safety systems on head injuries suffered by the vehicle s driver

The influence of passive safety systems on head injuries suffered by the vehicle s driver Oana V. Oţăt, Nicolae Dumitru, and Victor Oţăt Abstract - The present research paper underpins a thorough comparative

### Four-wheel drive vehicle crash involvement patterns

Four-wheel drive vehicle crash involvement patterns August 2006 Report Summary 06/05 Introduction This document is a summary of a larger research report prepared by the Monash University Accident Research

### Digges 1 INJURIES TO RESTRAINED OCCUPANTS IN FAR-SIDE CRASHES. Kennerly Digges The Automotive Safety Research Institute Charlottesville, Virginia, USA

INJURIES TO RESTRAINED OCCUPANTS IN FAR-SIDE CRASHES Kennerly Digges The Automotive Safety Research Institute Charlottesville, Virginia, USA Dainius Dalmotas Transport Canada Ottawa, Canada Paper Number

### MADYMO SIMULATION STUDY TO OPTIMIZE THE SEATING ANGLES AND BELT POSITIONING OF HIGH BACK BOOSTER SEATS

MADYMO SIMULATION STUDY TO OPTIMIZE THE SEATING ANGLES AND BELT POSITIONING OF HIGH BACK BOOSTER SEATS Rajiv Menon Yoganand Ghati Prashant Jain The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia United States Paper

### OPTIMIZATION OF SEAT BELT BUCKLE MOTION FOR REDUCING CHEST DEFLECTION, USING RIB EYE SENSORS

OPTIMIZATION OF SEAT BELT BUCKLE MOTION FOR REDUCING CHEST DEFLECTION, USING RIB EYE SENSORS Burkhard Eickhoff Werner Schrenk Harald Zellmer Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG, Elmshorn, Germany Martin Meywerk Helmut-Schmidt

### The Relationship between Speed and Car Driver Injury Severity

Road Safety Web Publication 9 The Relationship between Speed and Car Driver Injury Severity D. Richards and R. Cuerden Transport Research Laboratory April 2009 Department for Transport: London Although

### 2009 Car Safety Review.

9 Car Safety Review. What is ANCAP? Australasia s leading independent vehicle safety advocate. The Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) is supported by Australian and New Zealand Automobile

### CRASH TESTS TO ASSESS THE SECONDARY SAFETY OF A LARGE MPV

CRASH TESTS TO ASSESS THE SECONDARY SAFETY OF A LARGE MPV Alexander Berg Marcus Gärtner Peter Rücker DEKRA Automobil GmbH Germany Holger Kaiser DaimlerChrysler AG Germany Paper Number 07-0124 ABSTRACT

### NCAP New Car Assessment Programme

New Car Assessment Programme Harald Zellmer Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG, Elmshorn, Germany International Course on Transportation Planning and Safety New Delhi December 2010 PRIVATE/PROPRIETARY : New Car Assessment

### Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel

Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel Name: Lab Day: 1. A concrete block is pulled 7.0 m across a frictionless surface by means of a rope. The tension in the rope is 40 N; and the

### REDESIGN OF REAR END OF A CAR TO MINIMISE WHIPLASH INJURY

Abstract REDESIGN OF REAR END OF A CAR TO MINIMISE WHIPLASH INJURY *V. R. Kiran, Vinod K. Banthia, M. L. J. Suman Automotive & Aeronautical Engineering Department M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies,

### Advanced Forward-Looking Safety Systems Working Group. Advanced Forward-Looking Safety Systems Working Group

Advanced Forward-Looking Safety Systems Working Group INFO STAND 1: Accident Analysis Advanced Forward-Looking Safety Systems Working Group Results of Accident Analysis vfss Workshop Walter Niewöhner (DEKRA)

### A COMPARISON STUDY ON VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND INJURIES OF VULNERABLE ROAD USERS IN CHINA AND GERMANY

A COMPARISON STUDY ON VEHICLE TRAFFIC ACCIDENT AND INJURIES OF VULNERABLE ROAD USERS IN CHINA AND GERMANY Jikuang Yang Hunan University, Changsha China Dietmar Otte Hannover Medical University Germany

### Applications of Occupant Safety Simulation using MADYMO

Technical Paper Applications of Occupant Safety Simulation using MADYMO Takeo Ueda Yasuhito Tatenoi Toshikazu Nakanishi In recent years, simulation based on the combination of vehicle and human body CAE

### A name a commitment! These are the criteria which have characterized the development of dependable everyday cars up to the present time.

A name a commitment! Automobile development has been a ŠKODA commitment since 1905. Even in those days, the trade press wrote enthusiastically above the Laurin & Klement Model A: Solidly built, dependable

### EXPERIMENTAL CRASH TESTS INVOLVING PASSENGER CARS AND THE PROTOTYPE CONCRETE PROTECTIVE BARRIER

Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 17, No. 2 2010 EXPERIMENTAL CRASH TESTS INVOLVING PASSENGER CARS AND THE PROTOTYPE CONCRETE PROTECTIVE BARRIER Wacaw Borkowski, Zdzisaw Hryciów, Piotr Rybak,

### Deaths/injuries in motor vehicle crashes per million hours spent travelling, July 2008 June 2012 (All ages) Mode of travel

Cyclists CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 212 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport CRASH FACTSHEET November 213 Cyclists have a number of risk factors that do not affect car drivers. The

### East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan

East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan Foreword Road crashes are not inevitable - the deaths and injuries which occur each year need not happen. However, in order to reduce these incidents a major effort

### German Insurance Association No. 38. Compact accident research. Small-overlap frontal impacts involving passenger cars in Germany

German Insurance Association No. 38 Compact accident research Small-overlap frontal impacts involving passenger cars in Germany Imprint German Insurance Association Insurers Accident Research Wilhelmstraße

### cushion the impact! Children

e ack was on indshield Some facts When used properly, a seat belt, headrest and airbag can save your life. Seat belts reduce the risk of death or severe injury in a crash by half. How? Seat belts hold

### Investigation of bicycle accidents involving collisions with the opening door of parking vehicles and demands for a suitable driver assistance system.

Investigation of bicycle accidents involving collisions with the opening door of parking vehicles and demands for a suitable driver assistance system. M. Jänsch, D. Otte, H. Johannsen Abstract Vulnerable

### Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum

Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum Equipment: Ballistic pendulum apparatus, 2 meter ruler, 30 cm ruler, blank paper, carbon paper, masking tape, scale. Caution In this experiment a steel ball is projected horizontally

### US FMVSS 202 Final Rule

Comparison of Regulations FMVSS 202 (Current standard, Final Rule, and ) A. Application 1. Vehicles Front outboard seating positions in passenger cars, MPVs and trucks with a GVWR 4536 kg 2. Requirements

### LinearDampingSeattoReduceWhiplashInjuryinRearendCollision

Global Journal of Researches in Engineering: B Automotive Engineering Volume 14 Issue 3 Version 1.0 Year 2014 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals

### Centre for Automotive Safety Research. Vehicle Testing Laboratory

Centre for Automotive Safety Research Vehicle Testing Laboratory About the Vehicle Testing Laboratory The CASR Vehicle Testing Laboratory is a state of the art purpose-built testing facility located in

### Factors related to serious injury in post ncap european cars involved in frontal crashes

Loughborough University Institutional Repository Factors related to serious injury in post ncap european cars involved in frontal crashes This item was submitted to Loughborough University's Institutional

### Empfehlung für eine Vorschrift. zur Standardisierung und Kalibrierung von H-Punkt- und Kopfstützenmessgeräten

VDA - Spezifikation November 2009 Empfehlung für eine Vorschrift zur Standardisierung und Kalibrierung von H-Punkt- und Kopfstützenmessgeräten VDA xxx Certification of the H-Pt. and Backset measuring equipment

### HW Set VI page 1 of 9 PHYSICS 1401 (1) homework solutions

HW Set VI page 1 of 9 10-30 A 10 g bullet moving directly upward at 1000 m/s strikes and passes through the center of mass of a 5.0 kg block initially at rest (Fig. 10-33 ). The bullet emerges from the

### Make the right choice. Vehicle safety advice for older drivers

Make the right choice Vehicle safety advice for older drivers Why is it important to buy a safe car? Older drivers are the most likely of all driver age groups to sustain serious or life threatening injuries

### SEAT BELTS AND AIRBAGS

SEAT BELTS AND AIRBAGS Competence in Safety. A pioneer in automotive safety. Mercedes-Benz has been passionate about making cars each one even better than the last from day one. Since the first models

### Biomechanics of the Neck in Rear Impacts for improved Seat Design

Biomechanics of the Neck in Rear Impacts for improved Seat Design Dr.-Ing. Tjark Kreuzinger Regulatory & Technical Affairs Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA Studiedag BEPALING VAN MENSELIJKE SCHADE DOOR SLINGERLETSELS

### Newton s Laws. Physics 1425 lecture 6. Michael Fowler, UVa.

Newton s Laws Physics 1425 lecture 6 Michael Fowler, UVa. Newton Extended Galileo s Picture of Galileo said: Motion to Include Forces Natural horizontal motion is at constant velocity unless a force acts:

### SIMULATION OF VEHICLE-PEDESTRIAN INTERACTION. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the. requirements for the Degree

SIMULATION OF VEHICLE-PEDESTRIAN INTERACTION A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering in the University of Canterbury by T. J.