Biomechanics of the Neck in Rear Impacts for improved Seat Design

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Biomechanics of the Neck in Rear Impacts for improved Seat Design"

Transcription

1 Biomechanics of the Neck in Rear Impacts for improved Seat Design Dr.-Ing. Tjark Kreuzinger Regulatory & Technical Affairs Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA Studiedag BEPALING VAN MENSELIJKE SCHADE DOOR SLINGERLETSELS VAN DE NEK , Leuven

2 Agenda 1. Background 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries 3. Injury vs. Injury Criteria 4. Human Model THUMS 5. Designing Headrest with THUMS

3 Agenda 1. Background 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries 3. Injury vs. Injury Criteria 4. Human Model THUMS 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS

4 1. Background Development towards Real-World Safety 9. Effectiveness Analysis in the Field 1. Traffic Accident Analysis (Macro Data) Society Stage Today s Talk 2. Traffic Accident Analysis (Micro Data) Traffic Stage Driver Stage 3. Driver Behavior Analysis 4.System Concept System Stage 5. System Requirements 8. Effectiveness Estimation 7. System Test 6. Function Test

5 1. Background From Injury to Injury Criteria for Whiplash Injury Symptom Injury Mechanism For Whiplash Sensor Threshold (estimated) Injury Criteria

6 Agenda 1. Background 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries 3. Injury vs. Injury Criteria 4. Human Model THUMS 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS

7 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries Biomechanics of Whiplash injuries Injury criteria review Symptoms: Neck pain, headache, vision disorder, dizziness, unconsciousness, neurological symptoms and other Dummy Requirements and Injury Criteria for a Low-speed Rear Impact Whiplash Dummy. EEVC WG12 report, p.29, September 2007 Schmitt, K.U. Trauma Biomechanics, 2 nd Edition, p.91

8 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries Biomechanics of Whiplash injuries Injury criteria review Physiological damage (injured body region): Yoganandan et al. (2000) reported injuries to several ligaments, the intervertebral discs and the facet joint structures. Taylor et al. (1998) and Svensson et al. (2000) reported damage in cervical spinal root ganglia Brault et al. (2000) reported muscle injuries Dummy Requirements and Injury Criteria for a Low-speed Rear Impact Whiplash Dummy. EEVC WG12 report, p.29, September 2007 But muscle stiffness following the impact typically last only a few days Whiplash associated disorders: a comprehensive review, p. 31. Anderson et al. Centre for Automotive Safety Research. University of Adelaide. April 2006.

9 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries Biomechanics of Whiplash injuries Injury criteria review Injury mechanism: Hyperextension of the neck not relevant any more Muscle strains unlikely and pain only last for a few days Spinal column pressure pulses could cause ganglion damage Cervical spine motion - has been shown to be able to lead to facet joint impingement Neck shear force can cause excessive facet joint strain. Neck compression can cause the facet capsules to stretch and possibly torn, resulting in inflammation and pain. Whiplash associated disorders: a comprehensive review, p Anderson et al. Centre for Automotive Safety Research. University of Adelaide. April 2006.

10 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries Biomechanics of Whiplash injuries Injury criteria review Several injury criteria (response measurement) Item Who? Year Where? Associated injury mechanism '96 IRCOBI NIC Bostrom - Pressure pulses in spinal ganglia Nkm Schmitt '01 ESV - Excessive load (some relation with facet injury) Heitplatz LNL '03 ESV - Excessive load (some relation with facet injury) Kullgren MIX '03 ESV - (combination of NIC and Nkm) WIC Muñoz '05 ESV - (excessive load?)

11 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries Biomechanics of Whiplash injuries Injury criteria review Several injury criteria (kinematic measurement) Item Who? Year Where? Associated injury mechanism IV-NIC Panjabi '99 IRCOBI - Facet joint (excessive IV rotation) VT1 Muser '00 IRCOBI - (excessive load in rebound phase) NDC Viano '02 SAE PWI Mallory '05 ESV Head RV T-HRC - (Kinematic measurement for excessive load) - (Head rotation) - (excessive load in rebound phase) - (Head to headrest contact timing)

12 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries Biomechanics of Whiplash injuries Injury criteria review None of the proposed injury criteria were found to have a definite biomechanical basis and their validity in predicting the risk needs to be established. None of the criteria can be recommended on a strictly biomechanical basis. Dummy Requirements and Injury Criteria for a Low-speed Rear Impact Whiplash Dummy. EEVC WG12 report, p.29, September 2007 However, some valuable insight can be gained from a biomechanical review of Whiplash injuries.

13 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries Biomechanics of Whiplash injuries Injury criteria review Half of Whiplash injuries are cervical joint injury, Barnsley 1995, Manchikanti 2004 Shear and compression at cervical joint capsule causes injury, Yang and Begeman 1996 Largest angle displacement is found between C5 and C6 in Voluntary test, Ono 1997, Stemper 2007 Largest strain is found at joint capsule between C5 and C6 in cadaver test, Deng 2000, Pearson 2004 Peak angle displacement between C5 and C6 in voluntary test, Ono

14 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries Biomechanics of Whiplash injuries Injury criteria review Physiological damage (injured body region) The structures most likely to be injured in whiplash are the facet capsule, the intervertebral discs and the upper cervical ligaments. Injuries to other structures may occur but the available evidence appears to suggest that these are less common Whiplash associated disorders: a comprehensive review, p. 31. Anderson et al. Centre for Automotive Safety Research. University of Adelaide. April Conclusion: Need to measure Human Threshold

15 Agenda 1. Background 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries 3. Injury vs. Injury Criteria 4. Human Model THUMS 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS

16 Seat Concepts vs. Injury Risk & Rating THATCHAM Rating Number Risk Risk reduction Make/Model Year Rating report 1 month permanent 1 month permanent 1 month permanent Avensis A % 1.6% 39.3% 82.4% Corolla P % 4.8% -25.1% 46.8% Corolla Verso P % 4.8% 27.1% 47.3% Prius M % 0.0% 100.0% 100.0% Rav M % 2.0% 38.8% 77.9% WIL (l&ll) > % 4.0% 11.8% 55.6% SAHR > % 3.5% 41.8% 61.2% WHIPS > % 4.0% 27.1% 56.1% All others w. RHR > % 6.0% -5.6% 33.2% Std.from > % 7.9% -12.3% 12.7% All before 98 -> % 9.0% 0.0% 0.0% 16.0% 14.0% 12.0% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% Injury Risk 1 month permanent WIL (l&ll) SAHR WHIPS All others w. RHR Std.from 98 All before % 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% -10.0% -20.0% Injury Risk Reduction 1 month permanent WIL (l&ll) SAHR WHIPS All others w. RHR Std.from 98 All before 98 FOLKSAM Insurance data, 2009

17 3. Injury vs. Injury Criteria IIWPG Rating & Relative LT Risk W/O, Cars after 97 With Anti_whiplash Whiplash System W/O, Cars before Relative LT Risk (%) Slight differences Good Acceptable Marginal Poor Not tested Bostrom, Kullgren (IRCOBI 2007)

18 Agenda 1. Background 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries 3. Injury vs. Injury Criteria 4. Human Model THUMS 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS

19 4. Human Model THUMS THUMS Total Human Model for Safety Jointly developed with Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc. Skull Shoulder blade Collarbone Brain Upper arm bone Lung Liver Heart Stomach Intestines Knee Foot (Pictures can show different versions)

20 THUMS development THUMS is jointly developed by Toyota Motor Corporation and Toyota Central R&D Labs It represents an average size adult male of 175 cm height and 77 kg weight (Other size or gender models are developed if necessary) Version 1, finalised in 2000, was aiming to simulate major bones and ligaments Version 2, finalised in 2004, enhanced facial bone fracture simulation Version 3, finalised in 2008, introduced an enhanced brain model Version 4, finalised in 2009, is able to simulate internal organ injuries

21 Pedestrian Impact with THUMS

22 Tibia Bone fracture of Pedestrian

23 Agenda 1. Background 2. WHIPLASH Symptoms vs. Injuries 3. Injury vs. Injury Criteria 4. Human Model THUMS 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS

24 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS THUMS neck structure Detailed Model facet joint capsular Cervical vertebrae THUMS Human

25 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS THUMS simulation of Rear Impact - WIL

26 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS THUMS simulation of Rear Impact - WIL ll

27 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS Mechanism of cervical facet joint capsular strain H/R contact Max H/R reaction force Max Joint capsule strain H/R separate Max S/B force 0ms 66ms 100ms 148ms Rotation of upper cervical vertebra Rotation and translation of upper cervical vertebra Translation of lower cervical vertebra Tension force Tension and shear force Shear force Conclusion: The peak strain happens during end of head contact

28 5. Improved Headrest Design with THUMS Headrest Design with THUMS WIL WIL ll Active WIL Vertebral injury index (including ligaments) WIL=1 WIL WIL ll Active WIL

29 Thank you

Euro NCAP Whiplash Rating - Toyota Position & Proposal. May 2011

Euro NCAP Whiplash Rating - Toyota Position & Proposal. May 2011 Euro NCAP Whiplash Rating - Toyota Position & Proposal May 2011 1 Content Background and Priority J-NCAP Extended Review Overall Conclusion 2 Schedule 2011 February June 7 14 21 28 Folksam Chalmers TNO

More information

Assessing the Female Neck Injury Risk

Assessing the Female Neck Injury Risk Content 1 Assessing the Female Neck Injury Risk 3 Thesis About why Females are at Greater Risk of Sustaining Whiplash Injuries Assessing the Female Neck Injury Risk 4 High Speed X-Ray Motion Analysis of

More information

A STUDY OF CURRENT NECK INJURY CRITERIA USED FOR WHIPLASH ANALYSIS. PROPOSAL OF A NEW CRITERION INVOLVING UPPER AND LOWER NECK LOAD CELLS.

A STUDY OF CURRENT NECK INJURY CRITERIA USED FOR WHIPLASH ANALYSIS. PROPOSAL OF A NEW CRITERION INVOLVING UPPER AND LOWER NECK LOAD CELLS. A STUDY OF CURRENT NECK INJURY CRITERIA USED FOR WHIPLASH ANALYSIS. PROPOSAL OF A NEW CRITERION INVOLVING UPPER AND LOWER NECK LOAD CELLS. D. Muñoz 1, A. Mansilla 1,2, F. López-Valdés 1,2. R. Martín 1

More information

ABSTRACT INJURY CRITERION TO ASSESS WHIPLASH INJURY IN FMVSS NO. 202 DYNAMIC TEST OPTION

ABSTRACT INJURY CRITERION TO ASSESS WHIPLASH INJURY IN FMVSS NO. 202 DYNAMIC TEST OPTION KINEMATICALLY BASED WHIPLASH INJURY CRITERION Shashi Kuppa, James Saunders, Jason Stammen National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Ann Mallory Transportation Research Center Inc. U.S.A 05-0211 ABSTRACT

More information

Injury Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine in Car Collisions - Some needs for further research

Injury Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine in Car Collisions - Some needs for further research Injury Biomechanics of the Cervical Spine in Car Collisions - Some needs for further research Mats Y. Svensson Crash Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden http://www.mvd.chalmers.se/~mys/

More information

Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts. Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes

Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts. Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes Maria Krafft, Anders Kullgren Folksam Anders Lie, Claes Tingvall Swedish National Road Administration June 24 Summary

More information

Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts. Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes

Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts. Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes Assessment of Whiplash Protection in Rear Impacts Crash Tests and Real-life Crashes Maria Krafft, Anders Kullgren Folksam Anders Lie, Claes Tingvall Swedish National Road Administration June 2004 Summary

More information

Evaluation of Seat Performance Criteria for Future Rear-end Impact Testing

Evaluation of Seat Performance Criteria for Future Rear-end Impact Testing EEVC WG12 Report Document Number 578 final version Evaluation of Seat Performance Criteria for Future Rear-end Impact Testing May 2013 Authors Johan Davidsson, Chalmers University of Technology Anders

More information

Biomechanics of whiplash injury

Biomechanics of whiplash injury Chinese Journal of Traumatology 2009; 12(5):305-314. 305. Review Biomechanics of whiplash injury CHEN Hai-bin 陈 海 斌 *, King H YANG and WANG Zheng-guo 王 正 国 Despite a large number of rear-end collisions

More information

A NEW NECK INJURY CRITERION CANDIDATE FOR REAR-END COLLISIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS

A NEW NECK INJURY CRITERION CANDIDATE FOR REAR-END COLLISIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS A NEW NECK INJURY CRITERION CANDIDATE FOR REAR-END COLLISIONS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT SHEAR FORCES AND BENDING MOMENTS K.-U. Schmitt 1,2, M. H. Muser 2 and P. Niederer 1 1 Institute of Biomedical Engineering,

More information

COMPARISON OF BIORID INJURY CRITERIA BETWEEN DYNAMIC SLED TESTS AND VEHICLE CRASH TESTS

COMPARISON OF BIORID INJURY CRITERIA BETWEEN DYNAMIC SLED TESTS AND VEHICLE CRASH TESTS COMPARISON OF BIORID INJURY CRITERIA BETWEEN DYNAMIC SLED TESTS AND VEHICLE CRASH TESTS David A. Aylor David S. Zuby Insurance Institute for Highway Safety United States Paper No. 11-235 ABSTRACT The Insurance

More information

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION AN EVALUATION OF EXISTING AND PROPOSED INJURY CRITERIA WITH VARIOUS DUMMIES TO DETERMINE THEIR ABILITY TO PREDICT THE LEVELS OF SOFT TISSUE NECK INJURY SEEN IN REAL WORLD ACCIDENTS Frank Heitplatz Raimondo

More information

Whiplash Associated Disorder

Whiplash Associated Disorder Whiplash Associated Disorder Bourassa & Associates Rehabilitation Centre What is Whiplash? Whiplash is a non-medical term used to describe neck pain following hyperflexion or hyperextension of the tissues

More information

WHIPLASH. July 2008. Adapted from BP digital services presentation. S. Petmecky

WHIPLASH. July 2008. Adapted from BP digital services presentation. S. Petmecky WHIPLASH Adapted from BP digital services presentation July 2008 S. Petmecky What is Whiplash Injury? Definition: Whiplash is an acute injury of at least crushed moderate intensity which causes a strain

More information

Neck injuries in car collisions - Injury mechanisms

Neck injuries in car collisions - Injury mechanisms Injuries and symptoms Neck injuries in car collisions - Injury mechanisms Mats Svensson Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden The symptoms of injury following neck trauma in rear-end collisions

More information

Thatcham International Whiplash Research

Thatcham International Whiplash Research Thatcham International Whiplash Research Matthew Avery Research Manager - Crash Thatcham Motor Insurance Repair Research Centre Thatcham, Berkshire Occupant Safety Frontal Crash Testing- consumer tests

More information

INFLUENCE OF CRASH SEVERITY ON VARIOUS WHIPLASH INJURY SYMPTOMS: A STUDY BASED ON REAL-LIFE REAR-END CRASHES WITH RECORDED CRASH PULSES

INFLUENCE OF CRASH SEVERITY ON VARIOUS WHIPLASH INJURY SYMPTOMS: A STUDY BASED ON REAL-LIFE REAR-END CRASHES WITH RECORDED CRASH PULSES INFLUENCE OF CRASH SEVERITY ON VARIOUS WHIPLASH INJURY SYMPTOMS: A STUDY BASED ON REAL-LIFE REAR-END CRASHES WITH RECORDED CRASH PULSES Maria Krafft*, Anders Kullgren*, Sigrun Malm**, Anders Ydenius* *Folksam

More information

Neck Pain Overview Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment Options

Neck Pain Overview Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment Options Neck Pain Overview Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment Options Neck pain is one of the most common forms of pain for which people seek treatment. Most individuals experience neck pain at some point during

More information

A multi-body head and neck model for low speed rear impact analysis

A multi-body head and neck model for low speed rear impact analysis 12th IFToMM World Congress, Besançon (France), June18-21, 27 A multi-body head and neck model for low speed rear impact analysis S. Himmetoglu *, M. Acar, A.J. Taylor, K. Bouazza-Marouf Mechanical and

More information

Side Impact Causes Multiplanar Cervical Spine Injuries

Side Impact Causes Multiplanar Cervical Spine Injuries Side Impact Causes Multiplanar Cervical Spine Injuries 1 The Journal of Trauma, Injury, infection and Critical Care Volume 63(6), December 2007, pp 1296-1307 Maak, Travis G. MD; Ivancic, Paul C. PhD; Tominaga,

More information

On Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain After Whiplash. Spine December 1, 2011; Volume 36, Number 25S, pp S194 S199

On Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain After Whiplash. Spine December 1, 2011; Volume 36, Number 25S, pp S194 S199 On Cervical Zygapophysial Joint Pain After Whiplash 1 Spine December 1, 2011; Volume 36, Number 25S, pp S194 S199 Nikolai Bogduk, MD, PhD FROM ABSTRACT Objective To summarize the evidence that implicates

More information

Neck Injuries and Disorders

Neck Injuries and Disorders Neck Injuries and Disorders Introduction Any part of your neck can be affected by neck problems. These affect the muscles, bones, joints, tendons, ligaments or nerves in the neck. There are many common

More information

ENHANCEMENT OF SEAT PERFORMANCE IN LOW-SPEED REAR IMPACT

ENHANCEMENT OF SEAT PERFORMANCE IN LOW-SPEED REAR IMPACT ENHANCEMENT OF SEAT PERFORMANCE IN LOW-SPEED REAR IMPACT Harald Zellmer Michael Stamm Alexander Seidenschwang Autoliv GmbH, Elmshorn, Germany Anton Brunner Winterthur Insurance Corp., Dep. of Accident

More information

Whiplash and Whiplash- Associated Disorders

Whiplash and Whiplash- Associated Disorders Whiplash and Whiplash- Associated Disorders North American Spine Society Public Education Series What Is Whiplash? The term whiplash might be confusing because it describes both a mechanism of injury and

More information

Whiplash Testing and Assessment Summary of Current Activities in Europe

Whiplash Testing and Assessment Summary of Current Activities in Europe 136 B. Lorenz Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt), Passive Safety & Biomechanics, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany R. Sferco Ford Motor Company, Vehicle Safety, Automotive Safety Office (ASO), Köln, Germany

More information

Minutes. GTR No. 7 / BioRID TEG. Group of Experts Whiplash Injury Criteria Meeting

Minutes. GTR No. 7 / BioRID TEG. Group of Experts Whiplash Injury Criteria Meeting Minutes GTR No. 7 / BioRID TEG Group of Experts Whiplash Injury Criteria Meeting Date & Timing: Location: Minutes drafted by: Participants: Documents: Monday September 8 th 2014, 13:00-17:30 (CET) and

More information

Relationship of Dynamic Seat/Head Restraint Ratings to Real-world Neck Injury Rates

Relationship of Dynamic Seat/Head Restraint Ratings to Real-world Neck Injury Rates Relationship of Dynamic Seat/Head Restraint Ratings to Real-world Neck Injury Rates Charles M. Farmer, Laurie A. Hellinga, Jo Ann K. Wells, David S. Zuby Basic method Collect insurance claims for late

More information

X-Plain Neck Exercises Reference Summary

X-Plain Neck Exercises Reference Summary X-Plain Neck Exercises Reference Summary Introduction Exercising your neck can make it stronger, more flexible and reduce neck pain that is caused by stress and fatigue. This reference summary describes

More information

THE EFFECT OF WHIPLASH PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN REAL-LIFE CRASHES AND THEIR CORRELATION TO CONSUMER CRASH TEST PROGRAMMES

THE EFFECT OF WHIPLASH PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN REAL-LIFE CRASHES AND THEIR CORRELATION TO CONSUMER CRASH TEST PROGRAMMES THE EFFECT OF WHIPLASH PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN REAL-LIFE CRASHES AND THEIR CORRELATION TO CONSUMER CRASH TEST PROGRAMMES Anders Kullgren Maria Krafft Folksam Research and Karolinska Institutet, Sweden Anders

More information

SpineFAQs. Whiplash. What causes this condition?

SpineFAQs. Whiplash. What causes this condition? SpineFAQs Whiplash Whiplash is defined as a sudden extension of the cervical spine (backward movement of the neck) and flexion (forward movement of the neck). This type of trauma is also referred to as

More information

WHIPLASH INJURIES, NOT ONLY A PROBLEM IN REAR-END IMPACT

WHIPLASH INJURIES, NOT ONLY A PROBLEM IN REAR-END IMPACT WHIPLASH INJURIES, NOT ONLY A PROBLEM IN REAR-END IMPACT Hans Cappon Michiel van Ratingen Jac Wismans TNO Automotive The Netherlands Wolf Hell and Dina Lang German Institute for Vehicle Safety (GDV) Germany

More information

Whiplash: a review of a commonly misunderstood injury

Whiplash: a review of a commonly misunderstood injury 1 Whiplash: a review of a commonly misunderstood injury The American Journal of Medicine; Volume 110; 651-656; June 1, 2001 Jason C. Eck, Scott D. Hodges, S. Craig Humphreys This review article has 64

More information

WHIPLASH INJURIES By Prof RP Grabe, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Pretoria

WHIPLASH INJURIES By Prof RP Grabe, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Pretoria 1 WHIPLASH INJURIES By Prof RP Grabe, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Pretoria In a recent publication in Spine the Quebec task force mentions that very little is available in the literature

More information

FE ANALYSIS OF HEAD-NECK RESPONSES DURING WHIPLASH

FE ANALYSIS OF HEAD-NECK RESPONSES DURING WHIPLASH Abstract FE ANALYSIS OF HEAD-NECK RESPONSES DURING WHIPLASH Ee-Chon Teo, Qing-Hang Zhang, *Peter Vee-Sin Lee, *Kian-Wee Tan, Hong-Wan Ng School of Mechanical and Production Engineering, Nanyang Technological

More information

Temple Physical Therapy

Temple Physical Therapy Temple Physical Therapy A General Overview of Common Neck Injuries For current information on Temple Physical Therapy related news and for a healthy and safe return to work, sport and recreation Like Us

More information

Long-term medical consequences to children injured in car crashes and influence of crash directions

Long-term medical consequences to children injured in car crashes and influence of crash directions Long-term medical consequences to children injured in car crashes and influence of crash directions Katarina Bohman 1,2), Helena Stigson 2,3), Maria Krafft 3,4) 1) Autoliv Research, 2) Karolinska Institutet,

More information

Summary Report: Requirements and Assessment of Low-Speed Rear Impact Whiplash Dummies

Summary Report: Requirements and Assessment of Low-Speed Rear Impact Whiplash Dummies Summary Report: Requirements and Assessment of Low-Speed Rear Impact Whiplash Dummies WG12 report October 2008 Report published on the EEVC web site: www.eevc.org Report obtained from EEVC web site www.eevc.org

More information

THUMS User Community

THUMS User Community THUMS User Community Project Overview Th. Fuchs 1, K. Zhou 1, Prof. Dr. S. Peldschus 1,2 1 Biomechanics Group, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Munich 2 Hochschule Furtwangen University Stuttgart,

More information

Development of Whiplash Associated Disorders for Male and Female Car Occupants in Cars Launched Since the 80s in Different Impact Directions

Development of Whiplash Associated Disorders for Male and Female Car Occupants in Cars Launched Since the 80s in Different Impact Directions Development of Whiplash Associated Disorders for Male and Female Car Occupants in Cars Launched Since the 80s in Different Impact Directions Anders Kullgren, Helena Stigson and Maria Krafft Abstract The

More information

www.italy-ontheroad.it HEADREST Headrest General information and advices. The most frequent road car accident is collision from the back, that is a crash at the back of the vehicle caused by another vehicle,

More information

Closed Automobile Insurance Third Party Liability Bodily Injury Claim Study in Ontario

Closed Automobile Insurance Third Party Liability Bodily Injury Claim Study in Ontario Page 1 Closed Automobile Insurance Third Party Liability Bodily Injury Claim Study in Ontario Injury Descriptions Developed from Newfoundland claim study injury definitions No injury Death Psychological

More information

Biomechanics of Neck Injuries Resulting from Rear-End Vehicle Collisions

Biomechanics of Neck Injuries Resulting from Rear-End Vehicle Collisions Received: 09.09.2013 / Accepted: 27.11.2013 DOI: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.9218-13.1 Review Biomechanics of Neck Injuries Resulting from Rear-End Vehicle Collisions Otomobil Kazalarında Boyun Yaralanmaları

More information

Chronic whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders: An evidence-based approach

Chronic whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders: An evidence-based approach Chronic whiplash and whiplash-associated disorders: An evidence-based approach 1 Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons October 2007;15(10):596-606 Schofferman J, Bogduk N, Slosar P. FROM

More information

Proposing a 2D Dynamical Model for Investigating the parameters Affecting Whiplash Injuries

Proposing a 2D Dynamical Model for Investigating the parameters Affecting Whiplash Injuries Proposing a 2D Dynamical Model for Investigating the parameters Affecting Whiplash Injuries Seyed Mohammad Rajaai i, and Mohammad H Farahani ii ABSTRACT: This paper proposes a 2D dynamical model for evaluating

More information

Avoid The Dreaded Back Injury by Proper Lifting Techniques

Avoid The Dreaded Back Injury by Proper Lifting Techniques Avoid The Dreaded Back Injury by Proper Lifting Techniques If you ve ever strained your back while lifting something, you ll know the importance of lifting safely. Agenda Introduction About the Back The

More information

Any rapid head movement can cause a Whiplash. ALTERNATIVE CARE CHIROPRACTIC Reston, Virginia

Any rapid head movement can cause a Whiplash. ALTERNATIVE CARE CHIROPRACTIC Reston, Virginia ALTERNATIVE CARE CHIROPRACTIC Reston, Virginia P ROV E N R E L I E F F RO M W H I P L A S H Any rapid head movement can cause a Whiplash injury. Although whiplash is commonly associated with car accidents

More information

Soft-tissue injuries of the neck in automobile accidents: Factors influencing prognosis

Soft-tissue injuries of the neck in automobile accidents: Factors influencing prognosis Soft-tissue injuries of the neck in automobile accidents: Factors influencing prognosis 1 Mason Hohl, MD FROM ABSTRACT: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American) December 1974;56(8):1675-1682 Five years

More information

THE LUMBAR SPINE (BACK)

THE LUMBAR SPINE (BACK) THE LUMBAR SPINE (BACK) At a glance Chronic back pain, especially in the area of the lumbar spine (lower back), is a widespread condition. It can be assumed that 75 % of all people have it sometimes or

More information

DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL INFORMATION

DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL INFORMATION AUSTRALIAN TRANSPORT SAFETY BUREAU DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL INFORMATION Title and Subtitle Development of an Anti-Whiplash Seat Authors Michael Yuen, Mr. Lynne E. Bilston, Dr. Performing Organisation The Prince

More information

Spinal Anatomy. * MedX research contends that the lumbar region really starts at T-11, based upon the attributes of the vertebra.

Spinal Anatomy. * MedX research contends that the lumbar region really starts at T-11, based upon the attributes of the vertebra. Spinal Anatomy Overview Neck and back pain, especially pain in the lower back, is one of the most common health problems in adults. Fortunately, most back and neck pain is temporary, resulting from short-term

More information

PERFORMANCE OF SEATS WITH ACTIVE HEAD RESTRAINTS IN REAR IMPACTS

PERFORMANCE OF SEATS WITH ACTIVE HEAD RESTRAINTS IN REAR IMPACTS PERFORMANCE OF SEATS WITH ACTIVE HEAD RESTRAINTS IN REAR IMPACTS Liming Voo Bethany McGee Andrew Merkle Michael Kleinberger Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory United States of America

More information

Whiplash Associated Disorder

Whiplash Associated Disorder Whiplash Associated Disorder The pathology Whiplash is a mechanism of injury, consisting of acceleration-deceleration forces to the neck. Mechanism: Hyperflexion/extension injury Stationary vehicle hit

More information

A NEW TEST METHOD FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NECK INJURIES IN REAR-END COLLISIONS

A NEW TEST METHOD FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NECK INJURIES IN REAR-END COLLISIONS A NEW TEST METHOD FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF NECK INJURIES IN REAR-END COLLISIONS Hans Cappon, Mat Philippens, Jac Wismans TNO Automotive The Netherlands Paper # 242 ABSTRACT Whiplash injuries due to rear-end

More information

Larry J. Kleefeld D.C. Arcata Chiropractic Office. Whiplash. A Patient's Guide to Whiplash. Introduction. Anatomy

Larry J. Kleefeld D.C. Arcata Chiropractic Office. Whiplash. A Patient's Guide to Whiplash. Introduction. Anatomy Larry J. Kleefeld D.C. Arcata Chiropractic Office Whiplash A Patient's Guide to Whiplash Introduction Whiplash is defined as a sudden extension of the cervical spine (backward movement of the neck) and

More information

A Patient s Guide to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

A Patient s Guide to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) A Patient s Guide to Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) Introduction Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH) is a phenomenon that more commonly affects older males. It is associated

More information

MARTIN CHARLES HILLIER

MARTIN CHARLES HILLIER HEAD ACCELERATION AND ASSOCIATED PAIN FELT IN THE NECK REGION DURING A SIMULATED AUTOMOBILE LOW VELOCITY REAR-END COLLISION AS A FUNCTION OF SEAT BACK ANGLE By MARTIN CHARLES HILLIER A THESIS PRESENTED

More information

LinearDampingSeattoReduceWhiplashInjuryinRearendCollision

LinearDampingSeattoReduceWhiplashInjuryinRearendCollision Global Journal of Researches in Engineering: B Automotive Engineering Volume 14 Issue 3 Version 1.0 Year 2014 Type: Double Blind Peer Reviewed International Research Journal Publisher: Global Journals

More information

SAE / Government Meeting. Washington, D.C. May 2005

SAE / Government Meeting. Washington, D.C. May 2005 SAE / Government Meeting Washington, D.C. May 2005 Overview of the Enhancements and Changes in the CIREN Program History of Phase One Established 1997 (7 centers) Four Federal centers Three GM centers

More information

Extended Disability Income. Fixed cease age. Extended Disability Income. Whole Life UP TO 24 MONTHS. Pre-retirement.

Extended Disability Income. Fixed cease age. Extended Disability Income. Whole Life UP TO 24 MONTHS. Pre-retirement. For intermediaries Sanlam Risk Cover January 2015 Temporary Disability Income benefit (OIT3) Primary Income Protector benefits Waiting period Sickness Temporary Disability Income Including fixed payment

More information

Biomechanics of the Lumbar Spine

Biomechanics of the Lumbar Spine Biomechanics of the Lumbar Spine Biomechanics of the Spine 6 degrees of freedom Extension & Flexion Translation Rotation Compression & Distraction The disc/annulus/all/pll complex is the major restraint

More information

1 REVISOR 5223.0070. (4) Pain associated with rigidity (loss of motion or postural abnormality) or

1 REVISOR 5223.0070. (4) Pain associated with rigidity (loss of motion or postural abnormality) or 1 REVISOR 5223.0070 5223.0070 MUSCULOSKELETAL SCHEDULE; BACK. Subpart 1. Lumbar spine. The spine rating is inclusive of leg symptoms except for gross motor weakness, bladder or bowel dysfunction, or sexual

More information

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POSTURE AND HEALTH

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POSTURE AND HEALTH THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POSTURE AND HEALTH Roger Sperry, Ph.D. (Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981) discovered that 90% of the brain's activity is used to balance your body within the gravitational

More information

SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME

SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME SUSTAINABLE SURFACE TRANSPORT (SST)-2008-RTD-1 ADSEAT Adaptive seat to reduce neck injuries for female and male occupants Project no. 233904 Summary from 1 st Periodic Report

More information

An Example of the Crash Protection Provided by a Driver Airbag in an Offset Frontal Crash Test. David S. Zuby Joseph M. Nolan Susan L.

An Example of the Crash Protection Provided by a Driver Airbag in an Offset Frontal Crash Test. David S. Zuby Joseph M. Nolan Susan L. An Example of the Crash Protection Provided by a Driver Airbag in an Offset Frontal Crash Test David S. Zuby Joseph M. Nolan Susan L. Meyerson July 1997 ABSTRACT A comparison of two severe frontal offset

More information

Chicago Chiropractic & Sports Injury Centers

Chicago Chiropractic & Sports Injury Centers 1of6 Cervical (Lordotic Lordotic) Curve Correction for `Anterior Head Carriage` The soft forward [lordotic] curve at the middle of the cervical spine is critical as a shock absorber for the full weight

More information

Manchester Claims Association Chronic Whiplash

Manchester Claims Association Chronic Whiplash Manchester Claims Association Chronic Whiplash Thursday 03 rd July 2014 Scot Darling, Chief Medical Officer Premex Services Limited, Premex House, Futura Park, Middlebrook, Bolton BL6 6SX. T 01204 478300

More information

Cervical Whiplash. Spine University 228 West Main, Suite C Missoula, MT 59802 Phone: info@spineuniversity.com. Compliments of: Spine University

Cervical Whiplash. Spine University 228 West Main, Suite C Missoula, MT 59802 Phone: info@spineuniversity.com. Compliments of: Spine University A Patient s Guide to Cervical Whiplash 228 West Main, Suite C Missoula, MT 59802 Phone: info@spineuniversity.com DISCLAIMER: The information in this booklet is compiled from a variety of sources. It may

More information

Field Accident Data Analysis of 2 nd Row Children and Individual Case Reviews

Field Accident Data Analysis of 2 nd Row Children and Individual Case Reviews Field Accident Data Analysis of 2 nd Row Children and Individual Case Reviews David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau ProBiomechanics LLC SAE 2008-01 01-18511851 CSS 38% U 50% Front 45% Background Children

More information

Lower Back Pain An Educational Guide

Lower Back Pain An Educational Guide Lower Back Pain An Educational Guide A publication from the Center of Pain Medicine and Physiatric Rehabilitation 2002 Medical Parkway Ste 150 1630 Main St Ste 215 Annapolis, MD 21401 Chester, MD 21619

More information

EUROPEAN NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME (Euro NCAP) ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL ADULT OCCUPANT PROTECTION

EUROPEAN NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME (Euro NCAP) ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL ADULT OCCUPANT PROTECTION EUROPEAN NEW CAR ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME (Euro NCAP) ASSESSMENT PROTOCOL ADULT OCCUPANT PROTECTION June 2011 Copyright Euro NCAP - This work is the intellectual property of Euro NCAP. Permission is granted

More information

Pathoanatomical Changes of the Brachial Plexus and of C5-C6 Following Whiplash-Type Injury: A Case Report

Pathoanatomical Changes of the Brachial Plexus and of C5-C6 Following Whiplash-Type Injury: A Case Report Pathoanatomical Changes of the Brachial Plexus and of C5-C6 Following Whiplash-Type Injury: A Case Report 1 Journal Of Whiplash & Related Disorders Vol. 1, No, 1, 2002 Gunilla Bring, Halldor Jonsson Jr.,

More information

A Patient s Guide to Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

A Patient s Guide to Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement A Patient s Guide to Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement Each year, hundreds of thousands of adults are diagnosed with Cervical Disc Degeneration, an upper spine condition that can cause pain and numbness

More information

If you or a loved one have suffered because of a negligent error during spinal surgery, you will be going through a difficult time.

If you or a loved one have suffered because of a negligent error during spinal surgery, you will be going through a difficult time. If you or a loved one have suffered because of a negligent error during spinal surgery, you will be going through a difficult time. You may be worried about your future, both in respect of finances and

More information

Impact Kinematics of Cyclist and Head Injury Mechanism in Car to Bicycle Collision

Impact Kinematics of Cyclist and Head Injury Mechanism in Car to Bicycle Collision Impact Kinematics of Cyclist and Head Injury Mechanism in Car to Bicycle Collision Tadasuke Katsuhara, Hiroshi Miyazaki, Yuichi Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi Yasuki Abstract The number of cyclist fatalities is the

More information

Biomechanics of Lifting and Lower Back Pain S.N. Robinovitch

Biomechanics of Lifting and Lower Back Pain S.N. Robinovitch Biomechanics of Lifting and Lower Back Pain S.N. Robinovitch Outline Epidemiology of lower back pain Strength of spinal segments Lifting models: muscle and intervertebral joint forces (compression and

More information

Cervical Whiplash: Considerations in the Rehabilitation of Cervical Myofascial Injury. Canadian Family Physician

Cervical Whiplash: Considerations in the Rehabilitation of Cervical Myofascial Injury. Canadian Family Physician Cervical Whiplash: Considerations in the Rehabilitation of Cervical Myofascial Injury 1 Canadian Family Physician Volume 32, September 1986 Arthur Ameis, MD Dr. Ames practices physical medicine and rehabilitation,

More information

ADSEAT. An EU funded project within the 7th Framework Programme. Adaptive Seat to Reduce Neck Injuries for Female and Male Occupants

ADSEAT. An EU funded project within the 7th Framework Programme. Adaptive Seat to Reduce Neck Injuries for Female and Male Occupants ADSEAT An EU funded project within the 7th Framework Programme Adaptive Seat to Reduce Neck Injuries for Female and Male Occupants Citizens who annually suffer whiplash injuries in the EU 800 000 Socio-economic

More information

INVESTIGATION OF LOWER SPINE COMPRESSION FRACTURES IN FRONTAL CRASHES

INVESTIGATION OF LOWER SPINE COMPRESSION FRACTURES IN FRONTAL CRASHES INVESTIGATION OF LOWER SPINE COMPRESSION FRACTURES IN FRONTAL CRASHES Rodney W. Rudd, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Company Logo Here Overview Lower spine includes: 10 th through 12 th

More information

BAILEY CHIROPRACTIC LIFE CENTER

BAILEY CHIROPRACTIC LIFE CENTER BAILEY CHIROPRACTIC LIFE CENTER Jason A. Bailey, D.C. 224 Southpark Circle East St. Augustine, FL 32086 904-342-4941 Name: Male Female Today s Date: Address: City/State/Zip: Home Phone: ( ) Cell Phone:

More information

Motor Vehicle Collision Form

Motor Vehicle Collision Form Patients Name: Date: / / 1) Please choose the date of the MVC: / / 2) Please the time of the MVC: : am / pm 3) Please enter the number of vehicles involved in the MVC: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 4) In dollars,

More information

ACCIDENT HISTORY QUESTIONNAIRE

ACCIDENT HISTORY QUESTIONNAIRE ACCIDENT HISTORY QUESTIONNAIRE PATIENT INFORMATION Name Date Address City State Zip Code DOB Age SS# Marital Status Sex Male Female How did you hear about the office? Home Phone Work Phone Employer Occupation

More information

Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College

Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Nervous System: Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves (Chapter 13) Lecture Materials for Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. Suffolk County Community College Primary Sources for figures and content: Eastern Campus Marieb,

More information

WHIPLASH! Therapeutic Massage by Lucy Lucy Dean, LMT, NMT, MMT. Helpful and effective treatment with Neuromuscular Therapy. What does Whiplash mean?

WHIPLASH! Therapeutic Massage by Lucy Lucy Dean, LMT, NMT, MMT. Helpful and effective treatment with Neuromuscular Therapy. What does Whiplash mean? WHIPLASH! Helpful and effective treatment with Neuromuscular Therapy Therapeutic Massage by Lucy Lucy Dean, LMT, NMT, MMT What does Whiplash mean? Whiplash is a non-medical term used to describe neck pain

More information

Handicap after acute whiplash injury A 1-year prospective study of risk factors

Handicap after acute whiplash injury A 1-year prospective study of risk factors 1 Handicap after acute whiplash injury A 1-year prospective study of risk factors Neurology 2001;56:1637-1643 (June 26, 2001) Helge Kasch, MD, PhD; Flemming W Bach, MD, PhD; Troels S Jensen, MD, PhD From

More information

Neck Exercises for Car Accident Victims 3 Steps to a Healthier Neck

Neck Exercises for Car Accident Victims 3 Steps to a Healthier Neck Neck Exercises for Car Accident Victims 3 Steps to a Healthier Neck DR BARRY L. MARKS CHIROPRACTOR AUTHOR LECTURER Neck Exercises for Car Accident Victims 3 Steps to a Healthier Neck 2012 Dr. Barry L.

More information

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS WITH NECK PAIN

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS WITH NECK PAIN ADVICE FOR PATIENTS WITH NECK PAIN Patient Information Leaflet Physiotherapy Department (Information sheet code SHOT/SHOA) A SMOKING FREE ENVIRONMENT WAHT-TH-007-1 - Version 1.2 Dear Patient This advice

More information

.org. Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) Anatomy. Cause

.org. Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) Anatomy. Cause Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) Page ( 1 ) Neck pain can be caused by many things but is most often related to getting older. Like the rest of the body, the disks and joints in the neck (cervical

More information

Cervical-Spine Injuries: Catastrophic Injury to Neck Sprain. Seth Cheatham, MD

Cervical-Spine Injuries: Catastrophic Injury to Neck Sprain. Seth Cheatham, MD Cervical-Spine Injuries: Catastrophic Injury to Neck Sprain Seth Cheatham, MD 236 Seth A. Cheatham, MD VCU Sports Medicine I have no financial disclosures Contact sports, specifically football, places

More information

Mike s Top Ten Tips for Reducing Back Pain

Mike s Top Ten Tips for Reducing Back Pain Mike s Top Ten Tips for Reducing Back Pain The following article explains ways of preventing, reducing or eliminating back pain. I have found them to be very useful to myself, my clients and my patients.

More information

Consideration on ACL/PCL Failure Evaluation

Consideration on ACL/PCL Failure Evaluation Transmitted by the expert from JAPAN Informal document No. GRSP-46-11 (46th GRSP, 8-11 December 2009 agenda item 4(a)) 1 Consideration on ACL/PCL Failure Evaluation December 2009 Geneva Anatomy 2 Valgus

More information

Options for Cervical Disc Degeneration A Guide to the Fusion Arm of the M6 -C Artificial Disc Study

Options for Cervical Disc Degeneration A Guide to the Fusion Arm of the M6 -C Artificial Disc Study Options for Cervical Disc Degeneration A Guide to the Fusion Arm of the M6 -C Artificial Disc Study Each year, hundreds of thousands of adults are diagnosed with Cervical Disc Degeneration, an upper spine

More information

Car & truck accidents require an experienced Louisville auto accident attorney

Car & truck accidents require an experienced Louisville auto accident attorney http://www.slechterlawfirm.com/car-truck-accidents/ Car & truck accidents require an experienced Louisville auto accident attorney Auto accidents happen fast. But the effects can sometimes last a lifetime,

More information

Finite Element Modelling of Biomechanical Dummies- The Ultimate Tool in Anti-Whiplash Safety Design?

Finite Element Modelling of Biomechanical Dummies- The Ultimate Tool in Anti-Whiplash Safety Design? Finite Element Modelling of Biomechanical Dummies- The Ultimate Tool in Anti-Whiplash Safety Design? Waldemar Z. Golinski The Nottingham Trent University Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

More information

The Neck: Whiplash & Central Ligament Sprains. Presented by Dr. Ben Benjamin

The Neck: Whiplash & Central Ligament Sprains. Presented by Dr. Ben Benjamin Debilitating Orthopedic Injury Sampler #1 The Neck: Whiplash & Central Ligament Sprains Presented by Dr. Ben Benjamin Instructor: Ben Benjamin, Ph.D. 2 1 Instructor: Ben Benjamin, Ph.D. drben@benbenjamin.com

More information

Stability of the spine modelled as an arch

Stability of the spine modelled as an arch Loughborough University Institutional Repository Stability of the spine modelled as an arch This item was submitted to Loughborough University's Institutional Repository by the/an author. Citation: XIAO,

More information

Medical Report Prepared for The Court on

Medical Report Prepared for The Court on Medical Report Prepared for The Court on Mr Sample Report Claimant's Address Claimant's Date of Birth Instructing Party Instructing Party Address Instructing Party Ref Solicitors Ref Corex Ref 1 The Lane

More information

Each year, hundreds of thousands of adults are diagnosed with Cervical Disc Degeneration, The Cervical Spine. What is the Cervical Spine?

Each year, hundreds of thousands of adults are diagnosed with Cervical Disc Degeneration, The Cervical Spine. What is the Cervical Spine? Each year, hundreds of thousands of adults are diagnosed with Cervical Disc Degeneration, an upper spine condition that can cause pain and numbness in the neck, shoulders, arms, and even hands. This patient

More information

The Prognosis Of Neck Injuries Resulting From Rear-end Vehicle Collisions. The Journal Of Bone And Joint Surgery (British)

The Prognosis Of Neck Injuries Resulting From Rear-end Vehicle Collisions. The Journal Of Bone And Joint Surgery (British) The Prognosis Of Neck Injuries Resulting From Rear-end Vehicle Collisions 1 S. H. Norris, I. Watt FROM ABSTRACT The Journal Of Bone And Joint Surgery (British) November 1983, Vol. 65-B. No. 5 Injury of

More information

INJURY BIOMECHANICS IN VULNERABLE POPULATIONS

INJURY BIOMECHANICS IN VULNERABLE POPULATIONS INJURY BIOMECHANICS IN VULNERABLE POPULATIONS Developing Tools to Study Injury in Children & Seniors Megan Mackenzie Toyota Technical Center Dr. Jonathan Rupp University of Michigan Transportation Research

More information

CIREN Improved Injury Causation Coding Methods; An Initial Review

CIREN Improved Injury Causation Coding Methods; An Initial Review CIREN Improved Injury Causation Coding Methods; An Initial Review Mark Scarboro, NHTSA This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright in the United States; it may be used or reprinted

More information