Rear Impact Dummy Biofidelity

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1 GTR 7 Informal Working Group February 28 March Brussels, Belgium Rear Impact Dummy Biofidelity Kevin Moorhouse, Ph.D. NHTSA Yun-Seok Kang Ohio State University

2 Objectives & Tasks Evaluate biofidelity of available RIDs (BioRID, RID3D, HyIII) Choose biofidelity test condition Develop experimental seat for rear impact sled testing Conduct sled tests PMHS (Post-Mortem Human Subjects) Dummies (BioRID II, RID3D, Hybrid III) Assess biofidelity and repeatability of dummies Investigate the mechanism of injury Develop and validate 3-D cervical spine kinematic instrumentation Identify injurious kinematics (if possible) Choose appropriate dummy & injury criterion Assess efficacy of various ICs (if possible)

3 Objectives & Tasks Evaluate biofidelity of available RIDs (BioRID, RID3D, HyIII) Choose biofidelity test condition Develop experimental seat for rear impact sled testing Conduct sled tests PMHS (Post-Mortem Human Subjects) Dummies (BioRID II, RID3D, Hybrid III) Assess biofidelity and repeatability of dummies Investigate the mechanism of injury Develop and validate 3-D cervical spine kinematic instrumentation Identify injurious kinematics (if possible) Choose appropriate dummy & injury criterion Assess efficacy of various ICs (if possible)

4 Objectives & Tasks Evaluate biofidelity of available RIDs (BioRID, RID3D, HyIII) Choose biofidelity test condition Develop experimental seat for rear impact sled testing Conduct sled tests PMHS (Post-Mortem Human Subjects) Dummies (BioRID II, RID3D, Hybrid III) Assess biofidelity and repeatability of dummies Investigate the mechanism of injury Develop and validate 3-D cervical spine kinematic instrumentation Identify injurious kinematics (if possible) Choose appropriate dummy & injury criterion Assess efficacy of various ICs (if possible)

5 Pulses: Low & Moderate speed Low (16.7kph/8.5g)-ATD Low (16.7kph/8.5g)-PMHS Moderate (24kph/1.5g)-ATD Moderate (24kph/1.5g) - PMHS Acceleration[g] Time [msec]

6 Objectives & Tasks Evaluate biofidelity of available RIDs (BioRID, RID3D, HyIII) Choose biofidelity test condition Develop experimental seat for rear impact sled testing Conduct sled tests PMHS (Post-Mortem Human Subjects) Dummies (BioRID II, RID3D, Hybrid III) Assess biofidelity and repeatability of dummies Investigate the mechanism of injury Develop and validate 3-D cervical spine kinematic instrumentation Identify injurious kinematics (if possible) Choose appropriate dummy & injury criterion Assess efficacy of various ICs (if possible)

7 Experimental Seat Design goals for experimental seat: Repeatable & Reproducible Two seats side-by-side Capable of measuring/evaluating external biofidelity 6 load cells in seat back 4 load cells in seat pan 4 load cells in head restraint Able to match the yielding seat back motion of a typical OEM seat Durable and Reusable Withstand multiple tests without degradation in response

8 Head restraint Diameter :17 mm Damper One-way damper ( 2) Experimental Seat Angular rate sensor Mass : 5.5 kg Seat -Mass: 3 kg -Padding / cushions / seat cover of 1999 Toyota Camry seat Seat instrumentation HR LCs SB LCs Spring Stiffness: 135 N/m ( 2) SP LCs

9 R&R Steel Ballast: Experimental Seat Driver- Seat back rotation Passenger- Seat back rotation Rotation[Deg] DTS Test1 DTS Test2 DTS Test3 DTS Test4 DTS Test5 TEMA Test1 TEMA Test2 TEMA Test3 TEMA Test4 TEMA Test5 Rotation[Deg] DTS Test#1 DTS Test#2 DTS Test#4 DTS Test#5 TEMA Test#1 TEMA Test#2 TEMA Test#3 TEMA Test#4 TEMA Test# Time [msec] Time [msec] Repeatability (driver): CV = 3.4 % (DTS); CV = 3.5 % (Video) Repeatability (passenger): CV = 2.7 % (DTS); CV = 2.7 % (Video) Reproducibility: CV = 3. % (DTS); CV = 3. % (Video)

10 Objectives & Tasks Evaluate biofidelity of available RIDs (BioRID, RID3D, HyIII) Choose biofidelity test condition Develop experimental seat for rear impact sled testing Conduct sled tests PMHS (Post-Mortem Human Subjects) Dummies (BioRID II, RID3D, Hybrid III) Assess biofidelity and repeatability of dummies Investigate the mechanism of injury Develop and validate 3-D cervical spine kinematic instrumentation Identify injurious kinematics (if possible) Choose appropriate dummy & injury criterion Assess efficacy of various ICs (if possible)

11 Test Matrix Test Number Three repeats at each speed Test Speed Dummies Driver Side Dummy Passenger Side Dummy 1 L Hybrid III 5 th BioRID II 2 L Hybrid III 5 th BioRID II 3 L RID3D BioRID II 4 L RID3D BioRID II 5 L RID3D Hybrid III 5 th 6 M RID3D Hybrid III 5 th 7 M RID3D Hybrid III 5 th 8 M RID3D BioRID II 9 M RID3D BioRID II 7 PMHS at each speed Test Number PMHS Test Speed Driver Side Dummy 1 M PMHS 1 2 L (4) PMHS 2 3 L/M PMHS 3 4 L/M PMHS 4 5 L/M PMHS 5 6 L/M PMHS 6 7 L/M PMHS 7 8 L/M PMHS 8 1 M Hybrid III 5 th BioRID II

12 Internal Biofidelity Measures Accelerometers (x, z) Accelerometers (x, z) & angular rate sensor (y) Load cell Aluminum tetrahedron -9au -3aω -6aω ω y (DTS3LL) A z2 (ACC-2LR) A y (ACC-3UP) x 3 z A z (ACC-2UP) 2 y A ω z (DTS2LL) y3 (ACC-3LR) A x (ACC-1UP) <RID3D> <BioRID II> <Hybrid III> ω x (DTS1LL) A x1 (ACC-1LR) <PMHS> 1 RID 3D BioRID II Hybrid III PMHS Head Two Acc (x, z) Two Acc (x, z) Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) One ARS (y) One ARS (y) 6aω T1 Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) T8 None Two Acc (x, z) None Two Acc (x, z) T12 Two Acc (x, z) None None L1 None Two Acc (x, z) None Pelvis Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) Two Acc (x, z) Two Acc (x, z) One ARS (y) RID 3D BioRID II Hybrid III PMHS Skull Cap Fx, Fz Fx, Fz None None Upper neck Fx, Fz, My Fx, Fz, My Fx, Fz, My None Lower neck Fx, Fz, My Fx, Fz, My Fx, Fz, My None Lumbar Fx, Fz, My Fx, Fz, My Fx, Fz, My None Muscle Substitute (front) Muscle Substitute (rear) None Fx None None None Fx None None

13 Sled Tests Low Speed (8.5 g, 16.7 kph FMVSS 22) RID3D PMHS 1 BioRID II Hybrid III

14 Sled Tests Moderate Speed (1.5 g, 24. kph) RID3D PMHS1 BioRID II Hybrid III

15 Methodology Create Biomechanical Targets from PMHS data Calculate mean and standard deviation curves Phase shift optimally aligned (Donnelly & Moorhouse, 21) Calculate ATD mean curves Calculate biofidelity ranking Updated NHTSA Biofidelity Ranking System Calculate Repeatability Peak %CV Average time-based %CV

16 Methodology Create Biomechanical Targets from PMHS data Calculate mean and standard deviation curves Phase shift optimally aligned (Donnelly & Moorhouse, 21) Calculate ATD mean curves Calculate biofidelity ranking Updated NHTSA Biofidelity Ranking System Calculate Repeatability Peak %CV Average time-based %CV

17 Methodology (Phase Alignment) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS

18 Methodology (Phase Alignment) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

19 Methodology (Phase Alignment) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS

20 Methodology (Phase Alignment) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS

21 Methodology (Phase Alignment) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

22 Methodology (Phase Alignment) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

23 Methodology (Phase Alignment) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

24 Methodology Create Biomechanical Targets from PMHS data Calculate mean and standard deviation curves Phase shift optimally aligned (Donnelly & Moorhouse, 21) Calculate ATD mean curves Calculate biofidelity ranking Updated NHTSA Biofidelity Ranking System Calculate Repeatability Peak %CV Average time-based %CV

25 Methodology Create Biomechanical Targets from PMHS data Calculate mean and standard deviation curves Phase shift optimally aligned (Donnelly & Moorhouse, 21) Calculate ATD mean curves Calculate biofidelity ranking Updated NHTSA Biofidelity Ranking System Calculate Repeatability Peak %CV Average time-based %CV

26 Methodology (Biofidelity) Biomechanical Target Mean PMHS response ± one standard deviation NHTSA Bio Rank (Rhule et al., 22, 29) B m j= 1 V = m j j= 1 n k = 1 V j n R j,k B = biofidelity rank V = test condition weight R = response measurement comparison value (DCV/CCV) j = test condition k = response measurement m = # of test conditions n = # of response measurements per test condition

27 Methodology (Biofidelity) Biomechanical Target Mean PMHS response ± one standard deviation NHTSA Bio Rank (Rhule et al., 22, 29) B m j= 1 V = m j j= 1 n k = 1 V j n R j,k B = biofidelity rank V = test condition weight R = response measurement comparison value (DCV/CCV) j = test condition k = response measurement m = # of test conditions n = # of response measurements per test condition

28 Methodology (Biofidelity) Biomechanical Target Biomechanical Target Mean PMHS response ± one standard deviation NHTSA Bio Rank (Rhule et al., 22) B m j= 1 V = m j j= 1 n k = 1 V j n R j,k R = DCV / B = biofidelity CCVrank V = test Mean condition + 1 SDweight R = response 1 SD measurement comparison value (DCV/CCV) j = test Mean condition k = response n measurement m = # of test conditions n = # of Mean response 1 SD 1 measurements per test condition

29 Methodology (Biofidelity) Biomechanical Target Mean PMHS response ± one standard deviation NHTSA Bio Rank (Rhule et al., 22) B m j= 1 V = m j j= 1 n k = 1 V j n R j,k R = DCV / B = biofidelity CCVrank V = test condition weight R = response measurement comparison value (DCV/CCV) t j = test = condition e 2 DCV ( Dummy(t) MeanPMHS(t) ) k = response ts measurement m = # of test conditions n = # of response measurements per test condition

30 Methodology (Biofidelity) Biomechanical Target Mean PMHS response ± one standard deviation NHTSA Bio Rank (Rhule et al., 22) B m j= 1 V = m j j= 1 n k = 1 V j n R j,k R = DCV / B = biofidelity CCVrank V = test condition weight R = response te measurement comparison value 2 CCV = (DCV/CCV) ( MeanPMHS(t) + SD(t) MeanPMHS(t) ) ts te j = test condition 2 = ( SD(t) ) k = response measurement ts te m = # of test conditions = VariancePMHS(t) ts n = # of response measurements per test condition

31 Methodology (Biofidelity) Biomechanical Target Mean PMHS response ± one standard deviation NHTSA Bio Rank (Rhule et al., 22, 29) B m j= 1 V = m j j= 1 n k = 1 V j n R j,k B = biofidelity rank V = test condition weight R = response measurement comparison value (DCV/CCV) j = test condition k = response measurement m = # of test conditions n = # of response measurements per test condition

32 Methodology Create Biomechanical Targets from PMHS data Calculate mean and standard deviation curves Phase shift optimally aligned (Donnelly & Moorhouse, 21) Calculate ATD mean curves Calculate biofidelity ranking Updated NHTSA Biofidelity Ranking System Calculate Repeatability Peak %CV Average time-based %CV

33 Methodology (Repeatability) Peak analysis (Rhule 25) Coefficient of variation R&R rating C.V. % Excellent to 5 Good >5 to 8 Acceptable >8 to 1 Poor >1

34 Methodology (Repeatability) Peak analysis (Rhule 25) Coefficient of variation R&R rating C.V. % Excellent to 5 Good >5 to 8 Acceptable >8 to 1 Poor >1 Time based analysis (J Shaw 26) Average C.V. across time Upper 5% only

35 External Biofidelity Parameters Measured Signals SB Upper Left SB Upper Right SB Center Left SB Center Right SB Lower Left SB Lower Right SP Rear Left SP Rear Right SP Front Left SP Front Right HR Contact Time HR Fx Top HR Fx Bottom HR Fz Left HR Fz Right Lap Belt Tension

36 External Biofidelity Parameters Measured Signals SB Upper Left SB Upper Right SB Center Left SB Center Right SB Lower Left SB Lower Right SP Rear Left SP Rear Right SP Front Left SP Front Right HR Contact Time HR Fx Top HR Fx Bottom HR Fz Left HR Fz Right Lap Belt Tension Included in BioRank Sum SB Total Sum SP Total HR Contact Time Sum HR Fx Sum HR Fz

37 Internal Biofidelity Parameters Measured Signals Head Acc x Head Acc z Head Ang Vy T1 Acc x T1 Acc z T1 Ang Vy T8 Acc x T8 Acc z T12 Acc x T12 Acc z Pelvis Acc x Pelvis Acc z Pelvis Ang Vy

38 Internal Biofidelity Parameters Measured Signals Head Acc x Head Acc z Head Ang Vy T1 Acc x T1 Acc z T1 Ang Vy T8 Acc x T8 Acc z T12 Acc x T12 Acc z Pelvis Acc x Pelvis Acc z Pelvis Ang Vy Included in BioRank Head Acc Res Head Rotation T1 Acc Res T1 Rotation T8 Acc Res T12 Acc Res Pelvis Acc Res Pelvis Rotation HIC Head to T1 Rotation

39 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total Seat Back Load 1-1 Force [N] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

40 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total Seat Back Load 1 Force [N] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS R R

41 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total Seat Back Load 1 Force [N] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

42 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total Seat Pan Load 2-2 Force [N] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

43 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total Seat Pan Load 2 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Force [N] R R

44 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total Seat Pan Load 2 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Force [N] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

45 External Biofidelity Low Speed HR Contact Time HR Contact Time (Low Speed) PMHS 113. ± 7.4 ms HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII Mean HR Contact Time (Low Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R Peak C.V

46 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total HR Load (Front) 5-5 Force [N] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

47 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total HR Load (Front) 5 Force [N] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS R R

48 External Biofidelity Low Speed Total HR Load (Front) 5 Force [N] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

49 External Biofidelity Low Speed Results External Biofidelity (Low Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R Sum SB Total Sum SP Total HR Contact Time Sum HR Fx Sum HR Fz N/A N/A N/A Mean

50 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Head Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

51 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Head Acceleration (Resultant) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R

52 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Head Acceleration (Resultant) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

53 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Head Rotation Rotation [deg] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

54 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Head Rotation HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] R R

55 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Head Rotation Rotation [deg] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

56 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T1 Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

57 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T1 Acceleration (Resultant) 5 4 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R

58 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T1 Acceleration (Resultant) 5 4 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

59 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T1 Rotation Rotation [deg] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

60 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T1 Rotation 5 4 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] R R

61 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T1 Rotation 5 4 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

62 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T8 Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS8 Mean

63 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T8 Acceleration (Resultant) BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R N/A N/A 1.

64 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T8 Acceleration (Resultant) BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg) N/A N/A N/A N/A

65 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T12/L1 Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

66 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T12/L1 Acceleration (Resultant) 12 1 RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R N/A

67 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed T12/L1 Acceleration (Resultant) 12 1 RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg) N/A N/A

68 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Pelvis Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

69 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Pelvis Acceleration (Resultant) 25 2 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R

70 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Pelvis Acceleration (Resultant) 25 2 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

71 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Pelvis Rotation Rotation [deg] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

72 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Pelvis Rotation HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] R R

73 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Pelvis Rotation Rotation [deg] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

74 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Head to T1 Rotation 5 25 Rotation [deg] PMHS2 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

75 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Head to T1 Rotation 5 25 Rotation [deg] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII Mean R R

76 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed HIC PMHS 39.1 ± 8.5 HIC (Low Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII Mean HIC (Low Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R Peak C.V

77 Internal Biofidelity Low Speed Results Internal Biofidelity (Low Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R Head Acc Res Head Rotation T1 Acc Res T1 Rotation T8 Acc Res N/A N/A 1. T12 Acc Res N/A Pelvis Acc Res Pelvis Rotation Head to T HIC Mean

78 Sled Pulse Moderate Speed (1.5 g, 24. kph) Acceleration [g] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Velocity [km/h] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS

79 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total Seat Back Load 2-2 Force [N] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

80 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total Seat Back Load 2 Force [N] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS R R

81 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total Seat Back Load 2 Force [N] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

82 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total Seat Pan Load 2-2 Force [N] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

83 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total Seat Pan Load 2 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Force [N] R R

84 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total Seat Pan Load 2 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Force [N] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

85 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed HR Contact Time HRContact Time (Moderate Speed) PMHS ± 11.5 ms HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII Mean HR Contact Time (Moderate Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R Peak C.V

86 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total HR Load (Front) Force [N] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

87 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total HR Load (Front) Force [N] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS R R

88 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total HR Load (Front) Force [N] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

89 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total HR Load (Top) Force [N] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

90 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total HR Load (Top) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Force [N] R R

91 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Total HR Load (Top) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Force [N] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg) N/A N/A N/A N/A

92 External Biofidelity Moderate Speed Results External Biofidelity (Moderate Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R Sum SB Total Sum SP Total HR Contact Time Sum HR Fx Sum HR Fz Mean

93 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Head Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

94 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Head Acceleration (Resultant) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R

95 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Head Acceleration (Resultant) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

96 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Head Rotation Rotation [deg] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

97 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Head Rotation 1 75 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] 5 25 R R

98 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Head Rotation 1 75 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] 5 25 %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

99 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T1 Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

100 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T1 Acceleration (Resultant) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R

101 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T1 Acceleration (Resultant) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

102 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T1 Rotation Rotation [deg] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

103 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T1 Rotation 8 6 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] 4 2 R R

104 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T1 Rotation 8 6 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] 4 2 %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

105 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T8 Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

106 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T8 Acceleration (Resultant) 7 6 BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R N/A N/A

107 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T8 Acceleration (Resultant) 7 6 BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg) N/A N/A N/A N/A

108 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T12/L1 Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

109 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T12/L1 Acceleration (Resultant) RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R N/A

110 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed T12/L1 Acceleration (Resultant) RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg) N/A N/A

111 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Pelvis Acceleration (Resultant) Acceleration [g] PMHS1 PMHS4 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

112 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Pelvis Acceleration (Resultant) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] R R

113 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Pelvis Acceleration (Resultant) 4 35 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Acceleration [g] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

114 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Pelvis Rotation Rotation [deg] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

115 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Pelvis Rotation 4 3 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] R R

116 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Pelvis Rotation 4 3 HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII PMHS Rotation [deg] %CV %CV (Peak) (Avg)

117 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Head to T1 Rotation 5 25 Rotation [deg] PMHS1 PMHS3 PMHS4 PMHS5 PMHS6 PMHS7 PMHS8 Mean

118 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Head to T1 Rotation 5 25 Rotation [deg] HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII Mean R R

119 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed HIC HIC (Moderate Speed) PMHS 62.3 ± 18. HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII Mean HIC (Moderate Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R Peak C.V

120 Internal Biofidelity Moderate Speed Results Internal Biofidelity (Moderate Speed) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R Head Acc Res Head Rotation T1 Acc Res T1 Rotation T8 Acc Res N/A N/A 2.47 T12 Acc Res N/A Pelvis Acc Res Pelvis Rotation Head to T HIC Mean

121 Final Biofidelity Results Final Biofidelity Results HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII R External (Low) Internal (Low) Total (Low) External (Moderate) Internal (Moderate) Total (Moderate)

122 Repeatability Results Repeatability (Peak CV) Repeatability (Avg CV) HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII % C.V. (Peak) Low Speed Moderate Speed HybridIII RID3D BioRIDII % C.V. (Avg) Low Speed Moderate Speed

123 Conclusions Biofidelity Low Speed External Biofidelity BioRID II Internal Biofidelity BioRID II, RID3D Total Biofidelity BioRID II Moderate Speed External Biofidelity BioRID II, RID3D Internal Biofidelity BioRID II Total Biofidelity BioRID II, RID3D Repeatability BioRID II had best overall repeatability (all dummies acceptable)

124 Questions? Thank you

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