# Impact Kinematics of Cyclist and Head Injury Mechanism in Car to Bicycle Collision

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3 simulation matrix. The car model and the bicycle model were placed at the positions just before collision with the initial speeds assumed respectively. The gravity was applied to the entire model. The ground (road) was modeled as a rigid plane assuming a friction coefficient of 0.3. The friction coefficient among the other parts was also assumed to be 0.3. Fig. 1. Cyclist collision simulation model. TABLE I SIMULATION PARAMETERS Fig. 2. Impact position (Sedan, front veiw). Simulation of Various Car to Bicycle Collision Cases Next, the study simulated car to bicycle collisions in various conditions. The parameters were the car body type, car speed, bicycle speed, impact direction and the impact position. Table II shows the ranges of the parameters. The car speed was changed from 2.78 m/s (10 km/h) to 16.7 m/s (60 km/h) at an interval of 2.78 m/s (10 km/h). The bicycle speed was changed from 1.39 m/s (5 km/h) to 6.94 m/s (25 km/h) at an interval of 1.39 m/s (5 km/h). The impact directions were front, lateral, rear, diagonal front and diagonal rear. The impact

4 position was changed from 1,200 mm to 600 mm at an interval of 200 mm. Note that the negative position values mean that the bicycle passed the front centerline of the car. According to ITARDA and Maki et al, 90% of car to cyclist fatal accidents occur at a car speed of 16.7 m/s (60 km/h) and lower, at a bicycle speed of 6.94 m/s (25 km/h) and lower [1][5]. The impact directions were selected reflecting these accident trends. The initial impact positions were taken for the range where the car body impacted the cyclist. A total of 800 cases were conducted. TABLE II SIMULATION PARAMETERS FOR 800 CASES Head Injury Index In each case, the skull fracture risk and the brain injury risk were predicted. It was postulated that skull fracture occurred when the calculated HIC15 value exceeded 700. Although the model was capable of simulating occurrence of skull fracture by eliminating elements in the skull part, the study used HIC15 in order to estimate loading level to the head. Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI) is one of the most severe forms of brain injury observed in traffic accidents. The risk of DAI was estimated using a strain index called Cumulative Strain Damage Measure (CSDM). The index value is the cumulative amount of volume of elements having a maximum principal strain over 25%. When the calculated CSDM value exceeded 42.5%, the model predicted the occurrence of DAI. The values were based on the research by Takhounts et al. [10]. Table III summarizes the head injury index and criterion values. TABLE III HEAD INJURY INDEX AND CRITERION Simulation of Common Car to Bicycle Collision Cases III. RESULTS Impact Kinematics of Cyclist Fig. 3 shows the side views of impact kinematics of the cyclists at every 40 ms in the sedan impact cases (Cases 1 and 2). The black solid line in each frame indicated the head trajectories with respect to the car. At 40 ms, the cyclist lower legs were impacted by the grill. At 80 ms, the pelvis ran up onto the hood. The lower legs kept contacting the grill. At 120 ms, the lower legs left the grill, the upper body twisted and the cyclist turned his back on the car. At 160 ms, the head impacted the car body. No significant difference in kinematics was found

5 between Cases 1 and 2. In Case 1, the head impacted the windshield glass, while it impacted the A pillar in Case 2. The head trajectory was straight up to 80 ms and drew an arc after that. Fig. 4 shows the top views of impact kinematics of the cyclists at every 40 ms in the sedan impact cases (Cases 1 and 2). The black solid line in each frame indicated the head trajectories with respect to the car. In both cases, the cyclist s head moved diagonally toward the windshield glass. The trajectory lines were basically straight. After the upper body started twisting at 80 ms, the head trajectory slightly changed its direction. However, the head displacement due to the direction change was almost negligible. No significant difference in kinematics was found between Cases 1 and 2. Fig. 3. Cyclist behavior with respect to the car in sedan cases (Side view). Fig. 4. Cyclist behavior with respect to the car in sedan cases (Top view). Fig. 5 shows the side views of impact kinematics of the cyclist at 40 ms, 70 ms, 100 ms and 130 ms in the SUV impact cases (Cases 3 and 4). The black solid line in each frame indicated the head trajectory with respect to the car. At 40 ms, the cyclist lower legs were impacted by the grill. At 70 ms, the pelvis was impacted by the front end of hood. After 70 ms, the upper body rotated around the pelvis and moved toward the hood. At 100 ms, the left shoulder impacted the hood. The lower legs kept contacting the grill and the pelvis was on the hood. After 100 ms, the head rotated around the left shoulder drawing an arc. At 130 ms, the head impacted the rear end of the hood. No significant difference in kinematics was found between Cases 3 and 4. The upper body was twisted in both cases. The twisting angle was slightly greater in Case 4, but the difference in head displacement was

10 turned his back on the car. The kinematics up to this time was similar to those in Case 1 described above. At 160 ms, the head trajectory drew an arc around the pelvis. At 200 ms, the head did not impact the A pillar but passed by. At 400 ms, the cyclist turned upside down. At 600 ms, the cyclist landed on the ground with the legs. The cyclist kept rotating and the shoulder touched the ground at 760 ms. Finally the head impacted the ground at 770 ms. The model predicted occurrence of skull fracture in this case. Fig. 13. Head contact points with respect to the car (800 cases). Fig. 14. Ground impact behavior with respect to the car in sedan case

11 Fig. 15 shows the distribution of head contact points with corresponding HIC15 levels for the two car types. The circle marks are the head contact points and their colors indicate the HIC15 level; red is over 700, yellow is between 500 and 700, green is between 300 and 500, and blue is under 300. Skull fracture can occur at the red marks. In the sedan cases, the red marks were mostly found on the A pillar and barely found on the header and the rear end of the hood. In the SUV cases, the red marks were distributed on the A pillar and the rear end of the hood. Fig. 15. Distribution of head contact points with HIC15 levels. Fig. 16 shows the distribution of head contact points with corresponding CSDM levels for the two car types. The square marks are the head contact points and their colors indicate the CSDM level; red is over 42.5%, yellow is between 30% and 42.5%, green is between 20% and 30%, blue is under 10%. DAI can occur at the red marks. In both sedan and SUV cases, the red marks were concentrated on the upper part of the A pillar. Fig. 16. Distribution of head contact points with CSDM levels. Fig. 17 shows the percentage of HIC15 level in Fig. 15. In the sedan, HIC over: 15.4%; HIC15 between

12 500 and 700: 6.7%; HIC15 between 300 and 500: 11.4%; HIC15 under 300: 66.5%. In the SUV, HIC over: 19.9%; HIC15 between 500 and 700: 12.2%; HIC15 between 300 and 500: 26.6%; HIC15 under 300: 41.3%. Fig. 18 shows the percentage of CSDM level in Fig. 16. In the sedan, CSDM 42.5% and over: 2.3%; between 30% and 42.5%: 2.3%; between 20% and 30%: 1.8%; under 20%: 93.6%. In the SUV, CSDM 42.5% and over: 2.6%; between 30% and 42.5%: 1.1%; between 20% and 30%: 3.6%; under 20%: 92.7%. Fig. 17. Percentage of HIC15 level. Fig. 18. Percentage of CSDM level. Table V shows the ranges of parameters when skull fractures occurred (high HIC15 level). In both sedan and SUV cases, the car speed was equal to or higher than 8.33 m/s (30 km/h). High HIC15 values were noted at any bicycle speed. The first impact position ranged from 1,000 mm to 800 mm and from 400 mm to 400 mm in the sedan cases, while it ranged from 1,200 mm to 600 mm in the SUV cases. As for the impact direction, high HIC15 values were found in front, side and diagonal front directions in the sedan cases, while those were found in front, side, rear and diagonal front directions in the SUV cases. Table VI shows the ranges of parameters when DAI occurred (high CSDM level). In both sedan and SUV cases, the car speed was equal to or higher than 13.9 m/s (50 km/h). High CSDM values were noted at any bicycle speed. The first impact position was limited to 800 mm and 200 mm in the sedan cases, while it scattered at 1,000 mm, 800 mm, 400 mm and 600mm in the SUV cases. As for the impact direction, high CSDM values were found in front and side directions in the sedan cases, while those were found in front, side and rear directions in the SUV cases. TABLE V SIMULATION PARAMETER OF HIC OVER

15 VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study was carried out as part of Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. s research activities. The authors would like to thank RIKEN, Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. and FUJITSU LIMITED. VIII. REFERENCES [1] ITARDA, Report of In Depth Accident Analysis, 2012 Edition (in Japanese). [2] Fredriksson R, Rosen E. Priorities for bicyclist protection in car impacts. A real life study of severe injuries and car sources. Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, 2012, (IRC12 83), Dublin, Ireland. [3] Depreitere B, Lierde C, et al. Bicycle related head injury: a study of 86 cases. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2004, 36: [4] Margriet S, Stefanie H, Carmen R, Rikard F. Cyclist kinematics in car impacts reconstructed in simulations and full scale testing with Polar dummy. Proceedings of IRCOBI Conference, 2012, (IRC12 85), Dublin, Ireland. [5] Maki T, Kajzer J, Mizuno K, Sekine Y. Comparative analysis of vehicle bicyclist and vehicle pedestrian accidents in Japan. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2003, 35: [6] Bellogi P, Lee I, Ahmed N. Car to Bicycle Side Crash Simulation. JSAE, 2005, :9 12. [7] Watanabe R, Katsuhara T, Miyazaki H, Kitagawa Y, Yasuki T. Research of the relationship of pedestrian injury to collision speed, car type, impact location and pedestrian sizes using human FE model (THUMS Version 4). Stapp Car Crash Journal, 2012, 56: [8] Abe H, et al. Data Book on Mechanical properties of living cells. Tissues and Organs. Springer Verlag, [9] Yamada H. Strength of biological materials. The Williams & Wilkins Company, [10] Takhounts E. On the development of the SIMon finite element head model. Stapp Car Crash Journal, 2003, SAE Paper No [11] Ashley W, Kerry D, Joel S. Modeling brain injury response for rotational velocities of varying directions and magnitudes. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2012, 40: [12] Marguiles S, Thibault L. A proposed tolerance criterion for diffuse axonal injury in man. Journal of Biomechanics, 1992, 25(8):

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