Advanced Forward-Looking Safety Systems Working Group. Advanced Forward-Looking Safety Systems Working Group

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1 Advanced Forward-Looking Safety Systems Working Group INFO STAND 1: Accident Analysis

2 Advanced Forward-Looking Safety Systems Working Group Results of Accident Analysis vfss Workshop Walter Niewöhner (DEKRA) Dr. Johann Gwehenberger (AZT)

3 Content Work of AG1 Accident Research Derivation (basis of work + involved partners) Pedestrian accidents Generell statistics + scenarios Rear-end collisions Generell statistics + scenarios

4 Involved persons Dr. Johann Gwehenberger (AZT) Claus-Henry Pastor (BASt) Walter Niewöhner (DEKRA) Uwe Nagel (Daimler) Raimondo Sferco (Ford) Roland Schäfer (Ford) Dr. Matthias Kühn (GDV) Michael Stanzel (VW)

5 Used data sources StBA IRTAD GIDAS UDB AZT-DB DEKRA - Federal Statistical Office of Germany - International Road Traffic Accident Database - German In-Depth Accident Study - Accident Database of German Insurance Association - Accident Database of Technology Center of Allianz Insurance - Accident Database of DEKRA CARE - Community of European road accident database APROSYS AKTIV - European research project - German research project

6 Accidents with pedestrians a major problem worldwide Fatalities Other road without deaths Pedestrians Fatal Killed pedestrians Fatalities oad deaths without Pedestrians Fatal Killed pedestrians x Austria (09) Belgium (08) Czech Republic (09) Denmark (including Iceland) (08) Finland (08) France (08) Germany (08) Greece (08) Hungary (08) Ireland (09) Italy (08) Luxembourg (08) Netherlands (09) Norway (08) Poland (09) Portugal (09) Slovenia (08) Spain (08) Sweden (08) Switzerland (08) United Kingdom (08) Australia (08) Canada (07) Israel (09) Japan (09) Korea (08) New Zealand (08) USA (08) Source: International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD)

7 Accidents in Germany 2008 Injured persons 31,044 Day 11,110 Night 22,272 11,151 65,025 25, ,730 14,398 5,185 n= ,393 n= Other Pedestrian Bicycle Two-wheeler Car Source StBA

8 Accidents in Germany 2008 Fatally injured persons 227 Day 117 Night , n= n=1722 Other Pedestrian Bicycle Two-wheeler Car EU: 52.6% of the fatal pedestrian accidents occured at night (mean value of 18 countries in 2008) Source StBA

9 Accidents in Europe 2008 Shares of selected accident situations (pedestrian vs car) Crossing without GIDAS UDV AZT UK (APROSYS) up to n=1,065 n=243 n=30 (unknown) min. max. obstruction Crossing with obstruction Turning Along carriageway in/against direction % = all frontal collisions between passenger cars and pedestrians

10 Obstruction in crossing accidents Source GIDAS, (n=868)

11 Deceleration of cars in crossing accidents Source GIDAS, (n=868)

12 Initial speed of cars in crossing accidents Source GIDAS

13 Typical scenarios of car-pedestrian accidents (1 of 3) S1 car moving ahead, speed of the car from 45 to 50kph; car moving ahead, speed of car between 45 and 50km/h, adult adult pedestrian, pedestrian; height: height* ø172cm, ø172cm, pedestrian pedestrian crossing from crossing the right from and walking the right at and normal walking speed at (5km/h), normal driver speed reaction (5kph), with driver reaction braking manoeuvre with a braking manoeuvre S2 car car moving moving ahead, ahead, speed speed of of car the between car from 55 and 55 to 60km/h, 60kph adult child, pedestrian, height* height: ø120cm ø120cm, pedestrian crossing from the left pedestrian and running crossing (8-10km/h), from driver the reaction left and with running braking (8-10kph), driver manoeuvre, reaction noticable with a frequent braking at manoeuvre, darkness or noticeable dusk/dawn frequent at darkness or dusk/dawn Source: UDB

14 Typical scenarios of car-pedestrian accidents (2 of 3) S3 S4 car turning to the left, speed of the car from 20 to 25kph car turning to the left, speed of car between 20 and 25km/h, adult adult pedestrian; pedestrian, height: height* ø172cm, ø172cm, pedestrian pedestrian crossing crossing from the from right, the moving right, direction moving with direction respect w.r.t. to the the car car 2-3o clock (2-3 oclock, o`clock) walking at normal speed speed (5km/h), (5kph), driver driver reaction reaction with with a braking a braking manoeuvre manoeuvre car car turning turning to to the the right, right, speed speed of car of the between car from 10 and 10 15km/h, to 15kph adult adult pedestrian; pedestrian, height: height* ø172cm, ø172cm, pedestrian pedestrian crossing crossing from the from right, the moving right, direction moving with direction respect w.r.t. to the the car car 3 o clock, (3 o`clock), walking at normal speed speed (5km/h), (5kph), driver driver reaction reaction with with a braking a braking manoeuvre manoeuvre Source: UDB

15 Typical scenarios of car-pedestrian accidents (3 of 3) S5 S6 car moving ahead, speed of the car from 45 to 50kph, car moving ahead, speed of car between 45 and 50km/h, child; child, height*: height: ø120cm ø120cm pedestrian pedestrian crossing crossing from from the right the and right and running running (8-10km/h), (8-10kph), view view obstruction obstruction by parking/stationary by parking / stationary vehicles, driver vehicles, reaction driver with reaction braking manoeuvre with a braking manoeuvre car moving in line or in opposite direction to the car moving in line or in opposite direction to the pedestrian, pedestrian, typical is darkness, typical high is darkness, speed of the high car speed (>70km/h), of the very car (>70km/h), often fatally very and severely often fatally injured and pedestrians severely injured pedestrians Source: UDB

16 Time to collision values of cars in pedestrian crossing accidents Point of first visibility TTC > 2.0s (~ 60% of all pedestrians) Test proposal for discussion: TTC 1.3s advantage disadvantage short TTC high share of included accidents less time for speed reduction (braking) long TTC warning possible (driver in the loop) more time for speed reduction low share of included accidents Source: DEKRA

17 Summary of pedestrian accidents High worldwide importance of pedestrian accidents High number of car-pedestrian accidents at daylight, but higher number of fatalities in the darkness The crossing accident is the main frequent scenario Aspects as pedestrian size, covered/uncovered, speed and braking of the vehicle have a significant influence

18 Relevance of Accident Types, Car - Car Accidents (1) All Accident Types Minor Injured Occupants Severly Injured Occupants Fatally Injured Occupants Driving Accident 5% 7% 5% 17% 4% Turning Accident 39% 18% 27% 17% 35% 38% Turning into / Crossing Accident Resting Traffic 2% 29% 2% 32% 0% 18% 5% Longitudinal Traffic Other Accident N = 293,826 Accidents N = 36,561 Accidents N = 2,139 Accidents Accidents in longitudinal traffic (orange) are: dominant at accidents with light injuries the second most important accident type at fatal accidents Source: StBA data analysed by BASt

19 Relevance of Accident Types, Car - Car Accidents (2) Accident Type Longitudinal Traffic r Injured Minor Occupants Injured Severely Injured Occupants Severly Injured Occupants Occupants 6% 2% 3% 10% 14% 8% 3% 6% 31% d Fatally Injured Occupantst 1% 9% 9% 8% 44% 8% 65% 72% Resting Traffic Vehicle driving ahead or waiting (traffic-caused) Parallel driving in same direction Encountering vehicles on roadway Leaving the carriageway Other Accident Typical accidents in longitudinal traffic: More severe consequences (KSI) in accidents with oncoming traffic More frequent (including minor) injuries* in rear-end collisions * - e.g. (cervical spine problems) Source: StBA data analysed by BASt

20 Share of rear-end collisions Car Accidents 100% (n=2,151) All other accidents (e.g. accidents with VRU`s, with crossing traffic, single accidents) 68%(±2%) 17%(±2%) 15%(±2%) Rear collisions Collisions with oncoming vehicles* Longitudinal traffic (only 2-track vehicles) Source: UDB The majority of rear-end collisions occurs on dry roads, in urban areas with speeds below 50km/h.

21 Classification of rear-end collisions First group Second group conflict with a vehicle in front (target vehicle) Target vehicle is using the same lane since several seconds conflict with a target vehicle which h is suddenly entering the lane ( cut-in situation )

22 Speed of subject vehicle 30,0% 25,0% Initial Speed and Collision Speed of the Bullet Vehicle (n=1492) Initial Speed Collision Speed 20,0% 15,0% 10,0% 0% 5,0% 0,0% > 80 unknown km/h Source: GIDAS 40% of the cars have collision speeds of 40km/h or below The majority of impacts happen after initial speeds below 50km/h

23 Braking of subject vehicle 30% 25% 24,2% Deceleration of the Bullet Vehicle (n=1492) 27,9% 23,3% 20% 16,5% 15% 10% 5% 5,5% 0% 0,7% 1,9% accelerated no breaking 0,1-2,0 m/s² 2,1-4,0 m/s² 4,1-6,0 m/s² > 6,0 m/s² unknown ¼ of the subject vehicles do not brake before the impact Source: GIDAS ¼ of the subject vehicles brake with a deceleration above 6 m/s² for ¼ of the subject vehicles there is no information about braking ¼ of the subject vehicles are braking with decelerations of 0.1 m/s² m/s²

24 Conclusion Three typical scenarios in rear-end collisions are identified Scenario Subject vehicle Target vehicle (Relevance: 100% = all rear impacts) 1. Frontal impact to rear of stationary target (46,6%) V 0 = 50 km/h V 0 = V c = 0 km/h 2. Frontal impact to rear of not braking target (14,1%) 3. Frontal impact to rear of braking target (22,4%) V 0 = 90 km/h V 0 = 50 km/h distance to target d = 15m V 0 = V c = 45 km/h b v = 0 m/s² V 0 = 50 km/h b v = 6,2 m/s² => V c =10km/h

25 Summary of rear-end collisions Frequent scenario, but less consequences than in pedestrian accidents Three typical scenarios subject vehicle driving towards a 1 stationary target vehicle 2 moving target vehicle - constant speed 3 moving target vehicle - braking Work in progress (open questions)

26 Thank you for your attention

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