NCAP New Car Assessment Programme

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1 New Car Assessment Programme Harald Zellmer Autoliv B.V. & Co. KG, Elmshorn, Germany International Course on Transportation Planning and Safety New Delhi December 2010 PRIVATE/PROPRIETARY : New Car Assessment Programme Introduction US Euro Japan China AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

2 : New Car Assessment Programme Introduction US Euro Japan China AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Fatalities of Car Occupants USA USA: Annual average of fatal occupant injuries Accident Type Frontal Impact Side Impact Rear Impact Rollover Other Total Percentage No. Casualties Source: Donald Friedman, Carl E. Nash, Justin Caplinger: RESULTS FROM TWO SIDED QUASI- STATIC (M216) AND REPEATABLE DYNAMIC ROLLOVER TESTS (JRS) RELATIVE TO FMVSS 216 TESTS, 2007 ESV Conference, Paper Number AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

3 History of US NHTSA established in response to Title II of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act of Its goal is to improve occupant protection by providing consumers with a measure of the relative safety of passenger vehicles to aid consumers in their purchasing decisions. The agency established a frontal impact test program whose protocol is based on Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 208 Occupant Crash Protection except that the frontal test is conducted at 56 km/h (35 mi/h), rather than 48 km/h (30 mi/h) as required by FMVSS No Model year (MY) 1979 vehicles were the first tested and rated using this protocol. The five-star rating system was first used for MY 1994 vehicles. AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi History of US The agency began testing and rating vehicles for side impact protection in the 1997 MY. As with the frontal program, the test protocol was based on an existing Federal standard, FMVSS No. 214 Side Impact Protection, and again the test speed was increased by 8 km/h (5 mi/h). Starting with the 2001 MY, the agency began using to rate vehicles for rollover resistance based on a static measurement of a vehicle s track width and the height of its center of gravity. Beginning with the 2004 MY, rollover resistance ratings have been based on both the static measurements of a vehicle and the results of a dynamic test (fishhook test). AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

4 History of US In June 2008 the agency announced major changes to the program starting from MY 2011 vehicles: - The rating in frontal impact is changed, - A pole side impact is introduced, - A new overall Vehicle Safety Score will combine the star ratings from the front, side, and rollover programs. Additional text will be added to the Star-Rating to inform consumers of the availability (optional or standard equipment) of three crash avoidance technologies: - ESC (Electronic Stability Control) - FCW (Forward Collision Warning) - LDW (Lane Departure Warning) AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Frontal Impact FMVSS Dummys H-III 50% belted and unbelted 2 Dummys H-III 5% belted and unbelted Belted loadcases full frontal barrier 0-30 at 56 km/h Unbelted loadcases full frontal barrier 0-30 or Offset Deformable Barrier (ODB) with reduces impact velocity AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

5 Frontal Impact FMVSS 208 Dummy Criteria HIC15 < 700 (700) NIJ < 1,0 Thorax: a 3ms < 60g, Defl. < 63 mm (52 mm) Femurs axial < 10,2 kn (< 6,8 kn) no "Submarining Figures put in parentheses are for H-III 5% Dummy AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US until Model Year 2009 HIC Legal limits Like FMVSS mph = 56 km/h Driver HIII-50% Passenger HIII-50% belted Star rating ***** **** *** ** * CHEST ACCELERATION [g] AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

6 US Changes for Model Year 2011 Combined Rating = (5/12)*RRS(front) + (4/12)*RRS(side) + (3/12)*RRS(roll) AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US Changes for Model Year 2011 Head Neck 20% 20% Risk curves for 50th percentile male Probability of AIS3 Injury Probability of AIS3 Injury 15% 10% 5% 0% HIC (15) Chest 20% 15% 10% 5% Probability of AIS3 Injury Probability of AIS2 Injury 15% 10% 5% 0% 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 Nij Femur 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% % Chest deflection [mm] Femur Force [kn] AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

7 US Changes for Model Year 2011 Combining Injury Risk from Different Body Regions The joint probability of injury to an occupant is obtained by combining the risk of injury to each body region assuming the injury to different body regions are independent events. Therefore, the probability of serious injury, P joint for both AM50 (50 th %) and AF05 (5 th %) is given by: P joint = 1 (1 P head ) x (1 P neck ) x (1 P chest ) x (1 P femur ) For Pjoint < 20 %: Pjoint ~ Phead + Pneck + Pchest + Pfemur Error Pjoint=20% < 8% from total, i.e. 1.5 points Error Pjoint=10% < 4% from total, i.e. 0.4 points AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US Changes for Model Year 2011 Combined Rating = (5/12)*RRS(front) + (4/12)*RRS(side) + (3/12)*RRS(roll) AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

8 US Changes for Model Year 2011 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US Changes for Model Year 2011 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

9 Side impact FMVSS Loadcases: Crab barrier, 54 km/h (= 48 km/h relative speed) 2 dummies EuroSID 2 Car-to-pole impact, 32 km/h, 1 dummy SID IIs AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US Changes for Model Year 2011 Increased speed compared to FMVSS km/h AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

10 US Changes for Model Year 2011 Static and dynamic requirement (fishhook test) AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US Changes for Model Year 2011 Source: AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

11 US Changes for Model Year 2011 fishhook test Source: AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US Changes for Model Year 2011 Source: AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

12 US Changes for Model Year 2011 The information is based on data from all vehicles tested under NHTSA s rollover resistance ratings system (Static Stability Factor only). For example, the passenger cars that were tested have 4- or 5-star ratings, and an average chance of rollover of approximately 12% if involved in a single-vehicle crash. The range for passenger cars is approximately 6% to 19%. Source: AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US Changes for Model Year 2011 Combined Crashworthiness Rating The combined Vehicle Safety Score (VSS), is the weighted average of the Relative Risk Scores (RSS) in front, side and Rollover Crashes. The Vehicle Safety Score for the Combined Crashworthiness Rating is: Combined Rating = (5/12)*RRS(front) + (4/12)*RRS(side) + (3/12)*RRS(roll) 5 Stars 4 Stars 3 Stars 2 Stars 1 Star VSS VSS< VSS< VSS< VSS<2.67 VSS 2.67 Probability P< P< P< P<0.40 P 0.4 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

13 : New Car Assessment Programme Introduction US Euro Japan China AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Fatalities on the Road in EU15 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

14 Euro Euro claims that it provides motoring consumers with a realistic and independent assessment of the safety performance of some of the most popular cars sold in Europe. Established in 1997 and now backed by seven European Governments, the European Commission and motoring and consumer organisations in every EU country, Euro has become a catalyst for encouraging significant safety improvements to new car design. For more information: AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Euro Phase in from 2009 Four Assessment Areas: Occupant Safety Child Occupant Safety Pedestrian Safety Safety Assist Occupant Safety consists of: ECE-R94 Deformable Barrier 64 km/h! ECE-R 95 Side Impact Side Pole Impact Low Speed Rear Impact AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

15 Frontal Impact ECE-R 94 2 Dummys H-III, 50% belted Offset Deformable Barrier (ODB), 40% overlap Impact velocity 56 km/h AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Frontal Impact ECE-R 94 Represents Car-to-Car Crash with a collission speed of each 50 km/h and 50 % overlap AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

16 Frontal Impact ECE-R 94 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Euro Frontal Impact Impact speed raised to 64 km/h compaired to 56 km/h in ECE-R 94 Occupant rating by body part scores for head neck chest lower extremities each max. 4 points Source: Euro AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

17 3.3 Consumer Tests Euro Frontal Impact Injury score rating Body part scores are displayed as shown here When there are more than one criteria for the body part the lowest value (in points) is used ODB test Body region Criteria Unit Good +4 pts Adequate +3 pts Marginal +2 pts Poor +1 pts Weak 0 pts Head HIC > > > >1000 A(3ms) [g] 72 >72-77 >77-82 >82-88 >88 Neck Shear* [kn] 1,9 >1,9-2,3 >2,3-2,7 >2,7-3,1 >3,1 Tension* [kn] 2,7 >2,7-2,9 >2,9-3,1 >3,1-3,3 >3,3 Extension [Nm] 42 >42-47 >47-52 >52-57 >57 Chest Deflection [mm] 22 >22-31 >31-41 >41-50 >50 VC [m/s] 0,5 >0,5-0,67 >0, >0,84-1,0 >1,0 Upper leg & Compr.* [kn] 3,8 >3,8-5,05 >5,05-6,3 >6,3-7,56 >7,56 Knee Deflection [mm] 6 >6-9 >9-12 >12-15 >15 Lower leg Index 0.4 >0.4-0,7 >0,7-1,0 >1,0-1,3 >1,3 Compr. [kn] 2 >2-4 >4-6 >6-8 >8 Foot/Ankle PSCS [mm] 100 > > > >200 * Time based limits, only one value shown here. See test protocol for details AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Euro AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

18 Euro Phase in from 2009 Side Impact Source: Euro AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Euro Phase in from 2009 Low Speed Rear Impact Dummy: BioRID version G Pulses: Dv 16 km/h 4.5g mean trapetzoid Dv 16 km/h 5.5g mean triangular Dv 24 km/h 6.5g mean trapetzoid Whiplash assessment criteria: NIC max, N km, Head Rebound, Time to head restraint contact Fx and Fz upper neck, T1g Seat Stability Geometry assessment AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

19 Euro Phase in from 2009 Child Occupant Protection Source: In the frontal and side impact barrier tests, dummies representing 1½ and 3 year old children are placed in the rear of the car in the type of child restraint, recommended by the car manufacturer. AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Euro Phase in from 2009 Pedestrian Protection Source: Euro A series of tests are carried out to replicate accidents involving child and adult pedestrians where impacts occur at 40kph (25mph). Impact sites are then assessed and rated fair, weak and poor. As with other tests, these are based on European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee guidelines AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

20 Euro Phase in from 2009 Safety Assist Additional score for: - Seat belt reminders - Electronic stability control (ESC) - Speed limitation device AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Euro Phase in from 2009 > 80% > 70% > 60% > 55% > 45% < 45% Pedestrian Protection Lower values in introduction phase 2009/10 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

21 VW Golf, Euro the first new Changes 5-star car even in 2012! Total Rating = 84% Tested in October % 84% 61% 71% *) AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi VW Golf, Euro the first new Changes 5-star car Adult Occupant Protection 97% 8.0 pts 7.7 pts 34.7 from 36 Pedestrian protection 61% Safety Assist 71% 21.9 from 36 5 from 7 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

22 All star cars Total 84% % % % % % % Honda CR-Z 85% Suzuki Swift 83% AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Status Recent & Upcoming Euro Changes Box 1 (Adult Occupant Protection) Reimplement capping in pole impact New positioning procedure for pole impact Working group established to review the occupant protection assessment, report excpected end of 2012 Box 2 (Child Occupant Protection) Child seats for 1.5 & 3 year old children to be rated separately based on sled test results Q6 dummy / 5 % HIII(?) dummy in the frontal test Q6 dummy / WorldSID 5% dummy in the side test Implementation probably not before 2014 Box 3 (Pedestrian Protection) Moderate changes to the protocol Tests to be done outside bumper corners Child headform weight increased to 3.5 kg Child headform impact area WAD 1700 mm Box 4 (Safety Assist) ESC might be removed due to becoming mandatory in EU Reward system for new and emerging safety technologies implemented in 2010 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Status November

23 : New Car Assessment Programme Introduction US Euro Frontal Impact Comparison Japan China AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi US/Euro Comparison frontal impact requirements US 56 km/h rigid full overlap barrier Dummy HIII 50% male driver side Dummy HIII 5% female passenger side Euro 64 km/h offset deformable barrier 2 Dummys HIII 50% injury rating by injury risk injury rating by body region HIC(15) Head HIC Nij, tension/ Neck shear, tension/ compression extension deflection Chest deflection force Femur force % Tibia tibia index injury limits in red are difficult to achieve frontal counts 42% in total rating frontal counts 22% in total rating AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

24 : New Car Assessment Programme Introduction US Euro Japan China AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Japan Combination of US and Euro Frontal 55 km/h Frontal 64 km/h Side 55 km/h AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

25 Japan Frontal Impact Target Figures AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Japan AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

26 Japan Detailed data on cars tested available in the internet, follow the link at the end of this presentation AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Japan Recent Changes: Rear Seat Occupant Protection AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

27 Presented at ESV-Conference 2009 Abstract In June of 2008, it became mandatory in Japan for rear seat occupants to wear a seat belt under the new Road Traffic Act. Rear seat occupants involved in frontal collision traffic accidents in Japan are mainly women. Considering this situation, we will start to evaluate rear seat occupant safety performance in frontal collision tests using a Hybrid III AF05 dummy. The evaluation includes not only this dynamic collision test but also the usability of the rear seatbelt and seatbelt reminder for passengers including those in the rear seat, which is not mandated by the law. We will show in detail the methods for rear occupant protection in a frontal collision and the ease of use of rear seatbelt, which will be the first introduction worldwide by Japan. AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi With the Road Traffic Act revision of 2008, making rear seatbelts mandatory, the rate has begun to improve (road: 8.8% 30.8%; Expressway:13.5% 62.5%; see Figs. 2 and 3). Under these circumstances, the safety assessment for rear occupants with seat belts now has increasing significance. AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

28 The report of Traffic Accident Case Study in 2007 by the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) provided an accident analysis of rear seat occupants belted in by a 3-point seat belt in Japan. It showed that frontal collisions caused the highest number of fatal or serious injuries for both car-to-car accidents (see Fig. 4) and single vehicle accidents (see Fig. 5). AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Japan decided to use the offset frontal collision test for rear occupant protection performance evaluation although car accelerations in full wrap collisions are higher. The front passenger dummy is removed as it could be a problem to install three dummies in a small car. As women have a high rate of occupancy in rear seats, it was decided to use the Hybrid III AF05 Dummy. AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

29 Referring to FMVSS 208 and the new US, the injury evaluation criteria were established. Dummy parts for evaluation include the head, neck, chest, abdomen and lower limbs. E.g. the target value for chest deflection is 23 mm (cf. Fig. 9), 48 mm would be the lower boundary. AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Points from table are weighted 12/15 Level 1: 0~6 Level 2: 6~7.5 Level 3: 7.5~9 Level 4: 9~10.5 Level 5: 10.5~12 AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

30 To evaluate usability the following is taken into account: 1. Accessibility of seat belt 2. Insertability of tongue into buckle 3. Identification of buckle 4. Wearing comfort AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Japan Rear Seat Results on 15 cars now available 13 cars rated 3 points, two cars received 4 points (out of 5) To be included in total rating in 2011 Results available in English: AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

31 : New Car Assessment Programme Introduction US Euro Japan China AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi China Modified Japan, reduced speed, rear seat occupants Full wrap ODB Frontal 50 km/h Frontal 56 km/h Side 50 km/h AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

32 China Assessment Procedure Crash testing Full wrap frontal collision ODB frontal collision Side MDB collision test Individual test evaluation Points for injury values and modifier Overall points for driver (and passenger) Points for injury values and modifier Overall points for driver (and passenger) Points for injury values and modifier Overall points for driver Additional score Seat belt reminder SAB and IC fitment Overall collision safety performance evaluation Star rating for driver and passenger Applicable vehicle type: passenger cars (include MPV, SUV & exclude mini-van) AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi China Assessment Procedure Before 2010 Additional Score (Total: 3) Seat Belt Reminder 1 Point: Driver safety belt reminder Audible signal shall be actuated in case of at least one of the following conditions: 1. Vehicle has already traveled forward for 60s 2. Vehicle has already traveled 500m forward 3. The forward velocity of vehicle has already exceeded 25km/h 1 Point: Passenger safety belt reminder No particular requirement for the type of signal Monitoring of seat occupation (else 0,5 points for reminder) Side Airbag & Curtain Airbag 1 Point: If side airbag & curtain airbag can deploy correctly in the side impact test Overall Collision Safety Performance Evaluation (Full Score:51) Remarks: No performance assessment for rear dummies AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

33 China Assessment Procedure from 2010 Add a 3 years old P3 child dummy on the second row. Additional Score (Total: 3) Seat Belt Reminder Change from max. 2 points to max. 1.5 point (0.5 point for driver side and 1 point for passenger side) Side Airbag & Curtain Airbag 1 Point: If side airbag & curtain airbag can deploy correctly in the side impact test ISOFIX Devices 0.5 point if car has two ISOFIXs at least & one of ISOFIX is at second row, ISOFIX at second row doesn t lose function during full-wrap frontal collision test. Overall Collision Safety Performance Evaluation (Full Score:51) Add one belted SIDII-S (D) dummy at second row seat of impacted side Publication of Fuel Consumption Test Result Fuel consumption test results to all of China test cars as China fuel consumption test procedure is published. Remarks: No performance assessment to rear dummies. But if seat belts or ISOFIX for rear dummies fail during tests, the car will have modifier. AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi China Second Revision 2012/ 13 ODB test speed increased to 64 km/h Injury assessment for rear seat dummy Total score 9 points Whiplash protection test Total score is 7 points Pedestrian protection test As an optional test, result not added to whole vehicle rating system Child restraint seat test Individual assessment to the performance of child seat Active safety systems Similar to new Euro AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

34 : New Car Assessment Programme Introduction US Euro Japan China AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi Useful Links Other Ratings AUTOLIV / Dr. H. Zellmer / New Delhi

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