# EFFECT OF VEHICLE DESIGN ON HEAD INJURY SEVERITY AND THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

2 frontal side impacts to the point of impact on the bicycle with the car. This paper extends their work to cover other vehicles in the traffic stream. In addition, Head Injury Criterion values calculated by MADYMO TM were compared for the cases of impacts of bicyclists with the Car, the SUV and the bus in impact of the vehicle-front with bicycle-side configuration. MODEL DEVELOPMENT We need to build models for the rider, bicycle and the vehicles for these simulations and define interactions between them Bicycle model The bicycle model in Mukherjee [3] and has a system of four rigid bodies: the frame, the front fork, and the two wheels. The frame and the front fork were connected by a revolute joint; for which the rotation axis is in the plane of symmetry of the bicycle. Front and rear wheel were connected by revolute joints to the front fork and the frame, respectively. Rotation axes are perpendicular to the plane of symmetry. A sketch of the bicycle with key dimensions is as shown below in Figure 1. The results reported from tests and analysis [[6], [7]] have been used to determine the mechanical properties of the wheel reproduced in Table 1. The radial stiffness of the tyre has been obtained from the stress strain curve for the bicycle tyres [[7]]. Contacts between the road and the tyres of the car were defined using the tyre model in MADYMO TM and using internal tyre pressure, wheel diameter and wheel thickness. Figure 1 Dimensions of a Bicycle Table 1 Bicycle tyre mechanical properties Quantity Value Outer rim radius (to centroid of rim) 39.4 mm Inner hub radius (to centre of spoke holes) 18. mm Spoke diameter 2.1 mm Area of spokes in one plane mm 2 Elastic modulus of rim 7 kn/mm 2 21 Elastic modulus of spokes kn/mm 2 Area of rim mm 2 2 nd moment of area of rim (for bending in the plane of wheel) 1469 mm 2 Car Model For carrying out the simulations of car-bicycle impacts, the model developed in [3] was used. For the MADYMO input file, the car frame has been modelled as a single rigid body i.e. all ellipsoids are rigidly connected to each other. The vehicle model consists of 4 multi body tree structures, representing the front left, front right, rear left, and rear right vehicle suspension. Mukherjee 2

4 SIMULATIONS OF SUV-BICYCLE IMPACTS Simulations have been performed for the SUV front impacting the bicycle Figure 3 shows a series of snapshots for the case where the SUV moving at a speed of 2 km/hr impacts with a.3m offset of the bicycle pedal. Due to the characteristics of the shape of the SUV such as height and angle of inclination of the hood the phenomenon observed T= ms T=1ms T=2ms T=3ms T= 4ms T=5ms T=6ms T=7ms Figure 3 Motion of bicycle rider in frontal-side crash (SUV velocity = 2 km/hr, Point of impact at offset -.3 m) during crashes are qualitatively different. The riders do not roll up the windscreen towards the roof of the vehicle. The simulations were carried out with the speed of the cycle as 1 km/h with the impact speed of the SUV varying between 5 km/h to 65 km/h. The distance of point of impact of bicycle saddle from the vehicle centre was also varied, and is measured positive in the direction of bicycle motion as shown in Figure 4 below Direction of SUV Velocity Direction of Bicycle Velocity Offset from car centre Figure 4 Frontal Side impact orientation Variation of throw distances with vehicle speed The throw distances for various speeds of the SUV are plotted in Figure 5. The results reinforce the Mukherjee 4

5 obvious conclusion that the throwing distance is predicted to increase as the car speed increases. The sudden changes in slopes of these otherwise monotonically varying curves can be associated with significant qualitative change in the kinematics of the bicycle rider at certain points. A qualitative change is for example the cyclist landing on the hood in the centre and instead of tumbling off, he may continue riding on the hood before rolling either in front of the vehicle or on the side. In case, the bicyclist lands in front of the vehicle, the probability of the vehicle running over is high. Throwing Distance (m) Car Speed (m/sec) Figure 5: SUV throwing distance variation for frontal side impact THrowing Distance (m) Bicycle Speed (km/hr) Figure 6 : Variation in throwing distance with bicycle speed at m offset speed variation between 5 and 25 m/s with the magnitude first decreasing then increasing. This can be attributed to the fact that as bicycle speed decreases, the drag in the direction of the bicycle motion will decrease leading to higher distances, whereas the impulse in the direction of the vehicle will decrease as the vehicle comes in contact for a lesser duration and length thus decreasing the distance. Variation of throw distances with vehicle speed in frontal-oblique impacts The frontal oblique collision occurs when the bicycle front tyre hits the front of the car at an angle as shown in Figure 7. This could occur in real life when one of the vehicles turning into the path of the other vehicle. For the simulation, the angle of approach is taken as 45 and point of impact as car centre. The throw distances for this configuration are plotted against the vehicle speed in Figure 8. The sudden increase in throwing distance at low car speeds is attributed the change in kinematics of the bicyclist. In this situation due to low speeds, the impact does not impart a large momentum but instead the rider travels on top of the hood before rolling down in front of the vehicle. However, we again see the general trend of increase in throw distance with speed. The behavior as seen for the SUV frontal oblique crashes taking place at an angle of 45 o is similar to those as seen in frontal crashes. The major difference is that the bicyclists rises to a higher distance and can reach the roof of the vehicle Variation of throw distances with bicycle speed The throw distances for different bicycle speeds have been plotted in Figure 6. The variation in throw distances is between 11 and 16 m for bicycle Mukherjee 5

6 Throwing Distance (m) Figure 7: The frontal oblique impact configuration Car Speed (m/sec) Figure 8: Variation in throwing distance with car speed in frontal oblique crashes (angle =45 degree) SIMULATIONS OF BUS-BICYCLE IMPACTS Simulations of the a flat-fronted bus front impacting a bicycle were carried out and Figure 9 shows a series of snapshots for the case where the bus moving at a speed of 5 km/hr impacts with a.3m offset of the bicycle pedal. The kinematics of impact of the bicyclist with the bus is quite different from that in case of the SUV and the Car. The first impact usually takes place with the leg or the saddle which is followed by the rest of the body impacting the bus front. However, due to the flat shape of the bus, bicyclist is not launched very high in the air, as was the case with SUV and the car. The flatter trajectory leads to lower throw distances. Variation of throw distances with vehicle speed The throw distances for various speeds of the bus are plotted in Figure 1. The spread in the case of the buses is much less and this can attributed to the fact the bus front is similar along its length and the impacting surface does not vary much with offset. The expected trend of monotonically increasing throw distances is observed. The magnitude of the Figure 9: Motion of bicycle rider in frontal-side crash (Bus velocity = 5 km/hr, Point of impact at offset. m) Mukherjee 6

7 throw distances at high speeds is lower than the SUV and the car due to the difference in the crash phenomena as explained earlier. The variation in throwing distance with bicycle speed observed in simulation is not significant. Throw Distance (m) m.5m 1 -.5m 8.8m 6 -.8m Bus Speed (m/sec) Figure 1 Throw distances in bus-bicycle impacts for different offsets For all the impact configurations, the nature of the curves obtained for throwing distance is similar to that seen in simulations of small cars. A comparison between the regression curves obtained from the SUV and Car simulations for frontal side impact shows similar behavior in comparison to Otte s accident reconstruction data. These regression curves were obtained by assuming a quadratic fit similar in nature to Otte s curve. The point of intersection in the case of the SUV shifts to the right as shown in Figure 12. For the frontal side impact with the SUV different kinematic situations were observed. At low speeds and negative offsets, the bicyclist lands on top of the bonnet of the vehicle and continues riding before impacting the windscreen and slowly rolling off. In some high velocity cases it was observed that the bicyclist impacts the region of the bonnet closer to the edge, thus bouncing off it without colliding with the windscreen. A completely different kinematic phenomenon is seen in case of busbicycle impacts. In this case, the bicyclist is not pushed higher into the air as he impacts with a flat surface. Hence, throw distances in case of the busbicycle impacts are expected to be lower as compared to the SUV and the car. Looking at the coefficients of the regression curves, it can be seen that the quadratic coefficient is much smaller in case of the buses. The throw distances would thus increase slowly at higher speeds. It can be seen that at higher speeds the throw distances for the buses are less than those of the car and the SUV. HIC BUS SUV Car 4 THROW DISTANCE REGRESSION CURVES 2 Throwing Ditance (m) Car Speed (m/sec) Figure 3: HIC variation with speed of vehicle 3 25 Otte' SUV 2 Car 15 Bus Vehicle Speed(m/sec) Figure 12: Throwing distance and vehicle type COMPARISON OF HIC VALUES The HIC values calculated in MADYMO TM were compared for the three cases of impacts of the bicyclists with the Car, the SUV and the Bus. The Mukherjee 7

9 REFERENCES [1] Mohan, D.[24], "The Road Ahead: Traffic Injuries and Fatalities in India", World Health Day, 14th April 24, New Delhi, pp [2] Carsten, O.M.J. et al [1992], Drive Project V131, An Intelligent Traffic System for Vulnerable Road Users. Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds. [3] S. Mukherjee, A. Chawla, D. Mohan, S. Chandrawat, V. Agarwal, Predicting throw distance variations in bicycle crashes, International Journal of Vehicle Safety, Vol. 1, No. 4, 26 [4] ISO13232, (1996), Motorcycles test and analysis procedures for research evaluation of rider crash protective devices fitted to motor cycles, International Organization of Standardization. [5] Otte D., Possibilites and Limitation for protective measures for injury reduction of vulnerable road users, IJCrash 22, Vol 7 No.4, pp [6] Burgoyne, C.J. and Dilmaghanian, R. (1993) Bicycle Wheel as Prestressed Structure. Journal of Engineering Mechanics, 119(3), pp [7] Gavin, H.P., "Bicycle Wheel Spoke Patterns and Spoke Fatigue," Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol. 112, no. 8, (1996) pp [8] JENCAP DATA, New Car Assessment Japan, Choosing a safer car, March 24, Ministry of Land Infra Structure and Transport and Natinal Agency for Automotive Safety and Vixtim s Aid, Japan. [9] Otte, D. [198], A review of different kinematics forms in two-wheel accidents their influence on effectiveness of protective measures, SAE STAPP [1] Otte, D. [1989], Injury mechanism and crash kinematics of cyclists in accidents an analysis of real accidents, SAE STAPP Mukherjee 9

### Predicting throw distance variations in bicycle crashes

304 Int. J. Vehicle Safety, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2006 Predicting throw distance variations in bicycle crashes S. Mukherjee and A. Chawla* Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology,

### PREDICTING THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES

PREDICTING THROW DISTANCE VARIATIONS IN BICYCLE CRASHES MUKHERJEE S, CHAWLA A, MOHAN D, CHANDRAWAT S, AGARWAL V TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH AND INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAMME INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY NEW

### Numerical analysis of real-world cyclist crashes: impact speed, collision mechanism and movement trajectories

Numerical analysis of real-world cyclist crashes: impact speed, collision mechanism and movement trajectories T.Y. Pang 1, H. Sakeran 1, A. Short 2, A.S. McIntosh 1, G. Rechnitzer 2, K.Thai 1 1 School

### A Road Crash Reconstruction Technique

A Road Crash Reconstruction Technique Mukherjee S, non-member Chawla A 1, member Lalaram Patel, non-member Abstract The purpose of reconstruction is to identify the critical factors involved in a road

### FE SIMULATIONS OF MOTORCYCLE CAR FRONTAL CRASHES, VALIDATION AND OBSERVATIONS

FE SIMULATIONS OF MOTORCYCLE CAR FRONTAL CRASHES, VALIDATION AND OBSERVATIONS A. CHAWLA, S. MUKHERJEE, D. MOHAN, Dipan BOSE, Prakash RAWAT, Transportation Research & Injury Prevention Programme Indian

### Impact Kinematics of Cyclist and Head Injury Mechanism in Car to Bicycle Collision

Impact Kinematics of Cyclist and Head Injury Mechanism in Car to Bicycle Collision Tadasuke Katsuhara, Hiroshi Miyazaki, Yuichi Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi Yasuki Abstract The number of cyclist fatalities is the

### Pedestrian protection - Pedestrian in collision with personal car

Pedestrian protection - Pedestrian in collision with personal car Authors: Jiří Svoboda, Ing; Zdeněk Šolc, Ing. Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Automotive

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET) International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359

### Influence of the front part of the vehicle and cyclist s sitting position on the severity of head injury in side collision

Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics Vol. 15, No. 1, 2013 Original paper DOI: 10.5277/abb130113 Influence of the front part of the vehicle and cyclist s sitting position on the severity of head injury

### ACCIDENTS AND NEAR-MISSES ANALYSIS BY USING VIDEO DRIVE-RECORDERS IN A FLEET TEST

ACCIDENTS AND NEAR-MISSES ANALYSIS BY USING VIDEO DRIVE-RECORDERS IN A FLEET TEST Yuji Arai Tetsuya Nishimoto apan Automobile Research Institute apan Yukihiro Ezaka Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and

### Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study. Chiara Orsi

Accident configurations and injuries for bicyclists based on the German In-Depth Accident Study Chiara Orsi Centre of Study and Research on Road Safety University of Pavia State of the art Vulnerable road

### Problem Set 1. Ans: a = 1.74 m/s 2, t = 4.80 s

Problem Set 1 1.1 A bicyclist starts from rest and after traveling along a straight path a distance of 20 m reaches a speed of 30 km/h. Determine her constant acceleration. How long does it take her to

### Motorcycle Accident Investigation

1st Forum Workshop: Motorcyclist safety: how can better road engineering help? Motorcycle Accident Investigation João M. P. Dias jdias@dem dem.ist.utl.pt IDMEC Department of Mechanical Engineering Instituto

### Motorcycle Airbag System

PRESS INFORMATION September 2005 Motorcycle Airbag System Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Introduction Honda has been proactive in fostering driver and rider training as well as developing and implementing active

### 10.1 Quantitative. Answer: A Var: 50+

Chapter 10 Energy and Work 10.1 Quantitative 1) A child does 350 J of work while pulling a box from the ground up to his tree house with a rope. The tree house is 4.8 m above the ground. What is the mass

### B) 40.8 m C) 19.6 m D) None of the other choices is correct. Answer: B

Practice Test 1 1) Abby throws a ball straight up and times it. She sees that the ball goes by the top of a flagpole after 0.60 s and reaches the level of the top of the pole after a total elapsed time

### Characteristics of Crash Data from Event Data Recorders in Collisions with Narrow Objects

Characteristics of Crash Data from Event Data Recorders in Collisions with Narrow Objects Ryo Oga *, Nobuaki Takubo *, Kenshiro Kato *, Takaaki Terashima * *National Research Institute of Police Science,

### Dynamic Analysis of Child in Misused CRS During Car Accident

Dynamic Analysis of Child in Misused CRS During Car Accident T. KOIZUMI, N. TSUJIUCHI, and R. KAWAMURA Department of Mechanical Engineering Doshisha University Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 JAPAN Abstract

### ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol. 2, No. 1 (2007) 1-20 School of Engineering, Taylor s University College ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE

### Rotation: Kinematics

Rotation: Kinematics Rotation refers to the turning of an object about a fixed axis and is very commonly encountered in day to day life. The motion of a fan, the turning of a door knob and the opening

### PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCIDENT DATA. Irene Isaksson-Hellman If Insurance Company P&C Ltd.

PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE ACCIDENT DATA Irene Isaksson-Hellman If Insurance Company P&C Ltd. Vulnerable road users 2 Number Number Official accident statistics 45 35 4 3 35 25 3 25 2 2 15 15 1 1 5 5 5 4 5

### SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 1) A person on a sled coasts down a hill and then goes over a slight rise with speed 2.7 m/s.

### Influence of Crash Box on Automotive Crashworthiness

Influence of Crash Box on Automotive Crashworthiness MIHAIL DANIEL IOZSA, DAN ALEXANDRU MICU, GHEORGHE FRĂȚILĂ, FLORIN- CRISTIAN ANTONACHE University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest 313 Splaiul Independentei

### Bicycle safety in bicycle to car accidents

Bicycle safety in bicycle to car accidents TNO report: TNO-033-HM-2008-00354 / April 15th, 2008 Carmen Rodarius Justyna Mordaka Ton Versmissen The Netherlands TNO report TNO-033-HM-2008-00354 Bicycle

### Applications of Occupant Safety Simulation using MADYMO

Technical Paper Applications of Occupant Safety Simulation using MADYMO Takeo Ueda Yasuhito Tatenoi Toshikazu Nakanishi In recent years, simulation based on the combination of vehicle and human body CAE

### Cyclist kinematics in car impacts reconstructed in simulations and full scale testing with Polar dummy

Cyclist kinematics in car impacts reconstructed in simulations and full scale testing with Polar dummy Margriet van Schijndel 1, Stefanie de Hair 2, Carmen Rodarius 3, Rikard Fredriksson 4 Abstract For

### Motorcycle accident reconstruction in VL Motion

Motorcycle accident reconstruction in VL Motion Presenter Nicola Cofelice ESR 14 AGENDA 1 Motorcycle accident reconstruction - Overview 2 Research progress 3 What s next? copyright LMS International -

### No Brain Too Small PHYSICS. 2 kg

MECHANICS: ANGULAR MECHANICS QUESTIONS ROTATIONAL MOTION (2014;1) Universal gravitational constant = 6.67 10 11 N m 2 kg 2 (a) The radius of the Sun is 6.96 10 8 m. The equator of the Sun rotates at a

### CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY J. W. WATSON. Experimentation and Simulation. School of Applied Science. PhD

CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY J. W. WATSON Investigation of Cyclist and Pedestrian Impacts with Motor Vehicles using Experimentation and Simulation School of Applied Science PhD CRANFIELD UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF

### Investigation for New Side Impact Test Procedures in Japan

Investigation for New Side Impact Test Procedures in Japan Hideki Yonezawa Naruyuki Hosokawa Yoshinori Tanaka Yasuhiro Matsui Shunsuke Takagi National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory Takahiro

### Accidents Involving Motorcycles and Pedestrians in Portugal

158 J. P. Dias IDMEC Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal Notation TWMV Two wheels motor vehicle OV Other vehicle Accidents Involving

### Virtual CRASH 3.0 Staging a Car Crash

Virtual CRASH 3.0 Staging a Car Crash Virtual CRASH Virtual CRASH 3.0 Staging a Car Crash Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of

### REDESIGN OF REAR END OF A CAR TO MINIMISE WHIPLASH INJURY

Abstract REDESIGN OF REAR END OF A CAR TO MINIMISE WHIPLASH INJURY *V. R. Kiran, Vinod K. Banthia, M. L. J. Suman Automotive & Aeronautical Engineering Department M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies,

### INTRODUCTION. ICrash 2006, Athens Greece, 4th-7th July 2006

Real accidents involving vulnerable road users: in-depth investigation, numerical simulation and experimental reconstitution with PMHS. T Serre *, C Masson *, C Perrin **, S Chalandon *, M Llari *, M Py

### STUDY ON STEERING COLUMN COLLAPSE ANALYSIS USING DETAILED FE MODEL

STUDY ON STEERING COLUMN COLLAPSE ANALYSIS USING DETAILED FE MODEL Tae Hee, Lee Byung Ryul, Ham Seong Oh, Hong Advanced Safety CAE Team / Hyundai Motor Co. Korea Paper No. 11-0262 ABSTRACT EASC(Energy

### F N A) 330 N 0.31 B) 310 N 0.33 C) 250 N 0.27 D) 290 N 0.30 E) 370 N 0.26

Physics 23 Exam 2 Spring 2010 Dr. Alward Page 1 1. A 250-N force is directed horizontally as shown to push a 29-kg box up an inclined plane at a constant speed. Determine the magnitude of the normal force,

### Working Model 2D Exercise Problem 14.111. ME 114 Vehicle Design Dr. Jose Granda. Performed By Jeffrey H. Cho

Working Model 2D Exercise Problem 14.111 ME 114 Vehicle Design Dr. Jose Granda Performed By Jeffrey H. Cho Table of Contents Problem Statement... 1 Simulation Set-Up...2 World Settings... 2 Gravity...

### Pedestrian/Car Accident

Pedestrian/Car Accident by Frank Owen, Alpha Omega Engineering, Inc. (www.aoengr.com), all rights reserved August 2012 This example is taken from the book Technische Analyse von Verkehrsunfällen anhand

### Projectile Motion 1:Horizontally Launched Projectiles

A cannon shoots a clown directly upward with a speed of 20 m/s. What height will the clown reach? How much time will the clown spend in the air? Projectile Motion 1:Horizontally Launched Projectiles Two

### ASSESSING MOTORCYCLE CRASH-RELATED HEAD INJURIES USING FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATIONS

ISSN 1726-4529 Int j simul model 9 (2010) 3, 143-151 Professional paper ASSESSING MOTORCYCLE CRASH-RELATED HEAD INJURIES USING FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATIONS Toma, M. * ; Njilie, F. E. A. * ; Ghajari, M. **

### 2.0 External and Internal Forces act on structures

2.0 External and Internal Forces act on structures 2.1 Measuring Forces A force is a push or pull that tends to cause an object to change its movement or shape. Magnitude, Direction, and Location The actual

### Accidents with Pedestrians and Cyclists in Germany Findings and Measures

Accidents with Pedestrians and Cyclists in Germany Findings and Measures Siegfried Brockmann Unfallforschung der Versicherer (UDV) May 7th, Geneva 2 Content 2 Accident situation in Germany based on National

### Load and Impact Conditions for Head Injuries in Car-to-Pedestrian and Car-to-Cyclist Accidents A Comparison of Real Accidents and Simulations

Load and Impact Conditions for Head Injuries in Car-to-Pedestrian and Car-to-Cyclist Accidents A Comparison of Real Accidents and Simulations Yong Chen 1, Jikuang Yang 1, 2, Dietmar Otte 3 1 Research Center

### DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOFIDELIC PEDESTRIAN LEGFORM IMPACTOR - INTRODUCTION OF JAMA-JARI LEGFORM IMPACTOR Ver

DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOFIDELIC PEDESTRIAN LEGFORM IMPACTOR - INTRODUCTION OF JAMA-JARI LEGFORM IMPACTOR Ver. 22 - Atsuhiro Konosu Japan Automobile Research Institute Masaaki Tanahashi Japan Automobile Manufacturers

### 8. As a cart travels around a horizontal circular track, the cart must undergo a change in (1) velocity (3) speed (2) inertia (4) weight

1. What is the average speed of an object that travels 6.00 meters north in 2.00 seconds and then travels 3.00 meters east in 1.00 second? 9.00 m/s 3.00 m/s 0.333 m/s 4.24 m/s 2. What is the distance traveled

### DEVELOPMENT OF HELICOPTER SAFETY DEVICES

25 TH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES DEVELOPMENT OF HELICOPTER SAFETY DEVICES Wayne Lam, Cees Bil *RMIT University Keywords: helicopter, crash, simulation, MADYMO Abstract Recent investigations

### An Example of the Crash Protection Provided by a Driver Airbag in an Offset Frontal Crash Test. David S. Zuby Joseph M. Nolan Susan L.

An Example of the Crash Protection Provided by a Driver Airbag in an Offset Frontal Crash Test David S. Zuby Joseph M. Nolan Susan L. Meyerson July 1997 ABSTRACT A comparison of two severe frontal offset

### 2After completing this chapter you should be able to

After completing this chapter you should be able to solve problems involving motion in a straight line with constant acceleration model an object moving vertically under gravity understand distance time

### general, accidents caused by misjudging

Unit 3: The Effect of Natural Forces on your Vehicle Page 1 of 11 Purpose: Acquaint the student with some of the natural forces acting on a vehicle while stopping, maneuvering, and during a crash. Explain

### Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel

Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel Name: Lab Day: 1. A concrete block is pulled 7.0 m across a frictionless surface by means of a rope. The tension in the rope is 40 N; and the

### Assignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Assignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE State law of parallelogram of vector addition and derive expression for resultant of two vectors

### Orbital Mechanics. Angular Momentum

Orbital Mechanics The objects that orbit earth have only a few forces acting on them, the largest being the gravitational pull from the earth. The trajectories that satellites or rockets follow are largely

### Longitudinal and lateral dynamics

Longitudinal and lateral dynamics Lecturer dr. Arunas Tautkus Kaunas University of technology Powering the Future With Zero Emission and Human Powered Vehicles Terrassa 2011 1 Content of lecture Basic

### POLICE TRAFFIC CRASH INVESTIGATION Identify and report on causative and/or related events in a traffic crash

1 of 7 level: 6 credit: 20 planned review date: April 2006 sub-field: purpose: entry information: accreditation option: moderation option: Police This unit standard is intended for sworn or warranted police

### Chapter 10 Rotational Motion. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 10 Rotational Motion Angular Quantities Units of Chapter 10 Vector Nature of Angular Quantities Constant Angular Acceleration Torque Rotational Dynamics; Torque and Rotational Inertia Solving Problems

### Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum

Lab 8: Ballistic Pendulum Equipment: Ballistic pendulum apparatus, 2 meter ruler, 30 cm ruler, blank paper, carbon paper, masking tape, scale. Caution In this experiment a steel ball is projected horizontally

### Tram interface crashworthiness

Tram interface crashworthiness R.H. Grzebieta*, G. Rechnitzer** Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Australia 3168, email: grzebieta@eng.monash.edu.au Abstract Monash University

### FIRST RESULTS FROM THE JAMA HUMAN BODY MODEL PROJECT

FIRST RESULTS FROM THE JAMA HUMAN BODY MODEL PROJECT Tomiji Sugimoto Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Inc. Kunio Yamazaki Japan Automobile Research Institute Japan Paper Number 05-0291 ABSTRACT

### The Bullet-Block Mystery

LivePhoto IVV Physics Activity 1 Name: Date: 1. Introduction The Bullet-Block Mystery Suppose a vertically mounted 22 Gauge rifle fires a bullet upwards into a block of wood (shown in Fig. 1a). If the

### Volvo Trucks view on Truck Rollover Accidents

Volvo Trucks view on Truck Rollover Accidents Mario Ligovic, Volvo Truck Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden INTRODUCTION Rollover is the most common heavy truck accident type. Experiencing a rollover is like

### Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Momentum and Energy Calculations Self Study Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 110. Marks: 110.

Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Momentum and Energy Calculations Self Study Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 0 Marks: 0 Comments: Page of 33 Q. The figure below shows a skateboarder jumping forwards

### Investigation of bicycle accidents involving collisions with the opening door of parking vehicles and demands for a suitable driver assistance system.

Investigation of bicycle accidents involving collisions with the opening door of parking vehicles and demands for a suitable driver assistance system. M. Jänsch, D. Otte, H. Johannsen Abstract Vulnerable

### PHY121 #8 Midterm I 3.06.2013

PHY11 #8 Midterm I 3.06.013 AP Physics- Newton s Laws AP Exam Multiple Choice Questions #1 #4 1. When the frictionless system shown above is accelerated by an applied force of magnitude F, the tension

### ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TECHNICAL MEASURES FOR PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION AT THE VEHICLE FRONT

ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TECHNICAL MEASURES FOR PEDESTRIAN PROTECTION AT THE VEHICLE FRONT Michael Hamacher fka - Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen mbh Aachen Germany Lutz Eckstein ika - Institut

### European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and Crash Test Ratings of New Vehicles

European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) and Crash Test Ratings of New Vehicles Car safety is now an important issue that many people consider when buying a new car. There are crash test standards

### Home Browse Search My settings My alerts Shopping cart

Home Browse Search My settings My alerts Shopping cart Articles All fields Author Images Journal/Book title Volume Issue Page Se Thumbnails Full-Size images View View Page 2 of 11 2. Formulation of the

### Safety Evidence for Bicycling

Photo: Boegh (Flickr) Cycling in Cities Research Program School of Population & Public Health The University of British Columbia Faculty of Health Sciences Simon Fraser University Driving near bicyclists

### 3600 s 1 h. 24 h 1 day. 1 day

Week 7 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution

### Rotation: Moment of Inertia and Torque

Rotation: Moment of Inertia and Torque Every time we push a door open or tighten a bolt using a wrench, we apply a force that results in a rotational motion about a fixed axis. Through experience we learn

### ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLES IN RURAL PENNSYLVANIA

www.arpapress.com/volumes/vol12issue3/ijrras_12_3_14.pdf ACCELERATION CHARACTERISTICS OF VEHICLES IN RURAL PENNSYLVANIA Robert M. Brooks Associate Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering,

### 5-Axis Test-Piece Influence of Machining Position

5-Axis Test-Piece Influence of Machining Position Michael Gebhardt, Wolfgang Knapp, Konrad Wegener Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing (IWF), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich,

### Explore 3: Crash Test Dummies

Explore : Crash Test Dummies Type of Lesson: Learning Goal & Instructiona l Objectives Content with Process: Focus on constructing knowledge through active learning. Students investigate Newton s first

### Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam

Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics -- Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry

### PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #9. April 5, 2013

PHYSICS 111 HOMEWORK SOLUTION #9 April 5, 2013 0.1 A potter s wheel moves uniformly from rest to an angular speed of 0.16 rev/s in 33 s. Find its angular acceleration in radians per second per second.

### VI. VEHICLE IMPACT WITH CURB-AND-GUARDRAIL SYSTEMS. high-speed roadways, they are often required because of restricted right-of-way, drainage

VI. VEHICLE IMPACT WITH CURB-AND-GUARDRAIL SYSTEMS 6.1 Introduction It is often necessary to use a curb at a particular location that also warrants a traffic barrier. Inadequate design of these curb-and-barrier

### Field Accident Data Analysis of 2 nd Row Children and Individual Case Reviews

Field Accident Data Analysis of 2 nd Row Children and Individual Case Reviews David C Viano, Chantal S Parenteau ProBiomechanics LLC SAE 2008-01 01-18511851 CSS 38% U 50% Front 45% Background Children

### WATCH THIS ICON: View this short clip from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety DVD called Understanding Car Crashes It s basic physics.

Lesson 3: Energy, Momentum, and Understanding Car Crashes Many of us have lost students to violent motor vehicle crashes. In the United States, motor vehicle crashes are the number one cause of death among

### What roundabout design provides the highest possible safety?

What roundabout design provides the highest possible safety? In Sweden, as in several other countries, the number of roundabouts is on the increase. According to a study recently carried out by the VTI,

### Motorcyclists killed and injured (1980 2012)

Motorcyclists CRASH FACTSHEET November 2013 CRASH STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31 DECEMBER 2012 Prepared by the Ministry of Transport In 2012, 50 motorcyclists 1 died and a further 1,138 were injured

### ANALYTICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF SPRING BACK EFFECTS IN A TYPICAL COLD ROLLED SHEET

International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 7, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2016, pp. 119-130, Article ID: IJMET_07_01_013 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=7&itype=1

### Angular velocity. Angular velocity measures how quickly the object is rotating. Average angular velocity. Instantaneous angular velocity

Angular velocity Angular velocity measures how quickly the object is rotating. Average angular velocity Instantaneous angular velocity Two coins rotate on a turntable. Coin B is twice as far from the axis

### Crash Analysis of Car Cross Member Bumper Beam

Crash Analysis of Car Cross Member Bumper Beam G.Yedukondalu Asst. Professor K L University Guntur Dt.-522502, India yedukondalu@kluniversity.in Dr. A. Srinath UGC Research Awardee Professor Mechanical

### Kuroe 1 EXPLORATORY STUDY OF AN AIRBAG CONCEPT FOR A LARGE TOURING MOTORCYCLE : FURTHER RESEARCH SECOND REPORT

EXPLORATORY STUDY OF AN AIRBAG CONCEPT FOR A LARGE TOURING MOTORCYCLE : FURTHER RESEARCH SECOND REPORT Takeshi Kuroe Hideo Namiki Satoshi Iijima Honda R&D Co., Ltd. Asaka R&D Center Japan Paper Number

### Classification of Crash Pattern Based on Vehicle Acceleration and Prediction Algorithm for Occupant Injury

M. Katagiri et al./international Journal of Automotive Engineering 4 (3) 9-6 Research Paper 3497 Classification of Crash Pattern Based on Vehicle Acceleration and Prediction Algorithm for Occupant Injury

### Cycle Safety. Some tips on safer cycling. Údarás Um Shábháilteacht Ar Bhóithre Road Safety Authority

Cycle Safety Some tips on safer cycling Údarás Um Shábháilteacht Ar Bhóithre Road Safety Authority Be safe For further information on safe cycling, please look at the Rules of the Road website at www.rulesoftheroad.ie

### Analysis of dynamic properties of the PRT vehicle-track system

BULLETIN OF THE POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES TECHNICAL SCIENCES, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2015 DOI: 10.1515/bpasts-2015-0091 Analysis of dynamic properties of the PRT vehicle-track system M. KOZŁOWSKI, W. CHOROMAŃSKI,

### Alternative lower rail design to lower injury level of occupant caused by frontal crash

Alternative lower rail design to lower injury level of occupant caused by frontal crash W. Beek (0557959) MT06.20 Internal traineeship Supervisor: Dr. ir. W.J. Witteman Eindhoven University of Technology

### Midterm Solutions. mvr = ω f (I wheel + I bullet ) = ω f 2 MR2 + mr 2 ) ω f = v R. 1 + M 2m

Midterm Solutions I) A bullet of mass m moving at horizontal velocity v strikes and sticks to the rim of a wheel a solid disc) of mass M, radius R, anchored at its center but free to rotate i) Which of

### Effect of Oblique Loading on Energy Absorption Capacity of Rectangular Tube

Effect of Oblique Loading on Energy Absorption Capacity of Rectangular Tube Prashant Hupare 1 1 M.E. Student, Mechanical Engineering Department, Walchand Institute of Technology, Solapur University, Solapur-413006,

### Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 2 Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension Conceptual Questions 1) Suppose that an object travels from one point in space to another. Make

### JSUNIL TUTORIAL, PANJABI COLONY GALI 01

SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY (Class-09) Chapter Motion and Rest In the physical world, one of the most common phenomena is motion. The branch of Physics, which deals with the behavior of moving objects, is known

### the Ministry of Transport is attributed as the source of the material

Disclaimer All reasonable endeavours are made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this report. However, the information is provided without warranties of any kind including accuracy, completeness,

### People s Physics book 3e Ch 25-1

The Big Idea: In most realistic situations forces and accelerations are not fixed quantities but vary with time or displacement. In these situations algebraic formulas cannot do better than approximate

### SAFE CYCLING GUIDE. 6th Edition

SAFE CYCLING GUIDE 6th Edition BEFORE SETTING OUT A WELL-MAINTAINED BICYCLE is key A Check tire pressure B Check that the chain does not slip C Check the brakes D Check lights and reflectors: 3 4 1 5 2

### Physics term 1 reviewsheet

Name: ate: 1. The length of line shown is closest to one. millimeter. centimeter. meter. kilometer 5. The diagram shown represents a rectangle composed of squares with sides one meter long. What is the

### Smart Cycling IN SANTA MONICA SANTA MONICA POLICE DEPARTMENT BE SMART. BE VISIBLE. BE ATTENTIVE. HAVE FUN!

Smart Cycling IN SANTA MONICA BE SMART. BE VISIBLE. BE ATTENTIVE. HAVE FUN! Safety Tips and Rules of the Road for Cyclists SANTA MONICA POLICE DEPARTMENT Rules of the Road Drivers, bicyclists, and pedestrians

### AP Physics C Fall Final Web Review

Name: Class: _ Date: _ AP Physics C Fall Final Web Review Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. On a position versus time graph, the slope of

### METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING

METU DEPARTMENT OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS ENGINEERING Met E 206 MATERIALS LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 1 Prof. Dr. Rıza GÜRBÜZ Res. Assist. Gül ÇEVİK (Room: B-306) INTRODUCTION TENSION TEST Mechanical testing