# Influence of the front part of the vehicle and cyclist s sitting position on the severity of head injury in side collision

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4 108 O. FANTA et al. were represented by one ellipsoid each, and the wheels by two ellipsoids. The geometry and dimensions of the car model were based on an existing car. The location of the centre of gravity and moments of inertia of the car model were approximated, based on the one-dimensional nature of the car motion in the tests. The dynamic characteristics of the bumper system (force-penetration for the contact) were based on results from legform to bumper impact tests by Schueler and Glasson [28]. The mechanical properties of the windscreen were based on the static data published by Yang, Lövsund [27]. According to validated model five types of vehicles were modelled in total with the characteristics of the front part listed in Table Simulation conditions The simulation corresponds to the standard for crash tests ISO for motorcycles with configuration of objects marked as 143. The cyclist was moving at 15 km/h perpendicular to the direction of a car. The car crashed into the left side of the cyclist. Initial vehicle speed was 35 km/h, 40 km/h and 65 km/h (depending on the needs of the simulation) and in all the cases the slowdown of the car was 8.0 ms 2 which corresponds to an intense or panic braking. Braking deceleration begins when the contact between legs and car takes place. In simulation, explicit-implicit Euler method was used with fixed time step E-05. Analysis type was dynamic with starting time s and end time was s. Average time needed for the simulation was 25 minutes. We observed the primary and secondary body contact with the car, cyclist s trajectory in the air and on land, including the tertiary contact. 3. Results 3.1. Comparison of movement kinematics depending on car type In the early after-impact phase the most important role is played by a high impact edge in relation to the biker s centre of gravity. The lower the impact edge is, the higher rotation the body gets. If the level of the impact edge is around the biker s centre of gravity, the biker gets carried by it. A shift in the original direction of movement is evident in all cases, because of cyclist s speed before the collision. The vehicle type SEDAN (see Fig. 2) has the impact edge located below the cyclist s centre of gravity, therefore there is a rotational movement of the biker. After the primary contact, which is targeted on the lower limbs on the near side of the contact the body rolls over the front hood and windshield. The body is stretched into an upright position. The trunk retraction is apparent and is followed by contact of the head with the lateral part of the windscreen. The specific place of the impact of the head is determined by cyclist s height or length of individual segments of the body and hood length. The position of the body is the same for a vehicle type SEDAN with different front lengths (see Fig. 3). The body shape follows the hood and therefore the points of head impact are different. The longer hood makes the head hit to the windshield lower. Fig. 2. Detail of movement: SEDAN mountain bike at 40 km/h Fig. 3. Detail of the movement: SEDAN with the front longer by 0.4 m mountain bike at 40 km/h We see a significant difference in the SUV-type vehicles (see Fig. 4), where the impact edge is approximately at the same level as the biker s centre of gravity. This leads to carrying the biker and shaping his body according to the hood. The primary impact is directed into the hip and upper limb close to the collision. Body retraction is in opposite direction compared to collision with a vehicle type SEDAN. There is a significant shoulder rotation, due to hitting the upper limb and the head impacts frontally or frontallaterally to the point where the front hood turns into the windshield.

6 110 O. FANTA et al. 4. Discussion Limitation of this study is validation of bicycle car impact. A model of standing pedestrian is even widely used for a simulation of cyclists accidents by several highly cited researchers [5], [25], [29] [31] as well as by well-known Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) [23], [24]. It is possible to find the validation through the kinematic analysis using throw distance parameters. When we compare our model situations for throw distance with the other authors published data from real accidents (lateral impacts) [32] [34], the results are very similar (Fig. 8). specified in this work. Compared with conventional SEDAN-type vehicles there was higher mortality in pedestrians hit by pickups and SUVs, but not by vans [35]. SUVs and pickups also showed a higher percentage of injuries of the lower limbs above the knee, but a lower percentage of injuries below the knee [35]. The MPV vehicle type does have a low-placed impact edge and wedge-shaped front part, but shorter and steeper hood and windshield go directly against the dynamic component of rotation, due to which they stop and throw the body forward. The difference between various types of cars deepens with increasing speed (see Fig. 9). Fig. 8. Throw distances after bicycle car impacts In all the situations simulated the severity of head injuries grew with increasing speed of a car, which is consistent with the analysis of pedestrian impacts [35]. The place of the impact of the head from an analysis of movement kinematics corresponded to the impact point according to Maki, Kajzer [5], where during an impact to Bonnet-type vehicles (mini-car, sedan Small, Midsize sedan, coupe Large, Sports and specialties, Wagon) the biker s head hit either the windshield or roof, but did not hit the front hood. The trajectory of the head of a cyclist and pedestrian indicates increasing distance of the place of head impact to the hood for low-placed impact edges [6]. The results show that the friendliest type of the car is SEDAN, i.e., low impact edge and wedge-shaped front hood, the least friendly vehicle type is an SUV with a high-placed impact edge and a high nose. SEDAN forwards rotation to the cyclist and the final component of the impact velocity into the windshield is very high. SUV picks the cyclist and throws him forward. In the analogous experiment with pedestrians it was shown that SUVs, vans and pickup trucks were twice as likely to cause traumatic brain injury at low speeds as conventional SEDAN-type vehicles, this is not right at higher speed [35]. Whether the injury occurs in contact with the car or with the ground was not Fig. 9. Average values of HIC 36 for various types of vehicles by speed In accordance with the results of the previous study [35] an influence of design of the front vehicle part is evident. Based on our results we can conclude that the HIC 36 is the highest and also rises most steeply for a vehicle with the longest front part (see Fig. 10). Fig. 10. HIC 36 for mountain bike and various lengths of front part The impact velocity and impact angle of the head are very important parameters for the cyclist s head injury [6]. The worst values of HIC 36 were determined for trekking bikes, which means an upright position (see Fig. 11) because the head in upright position has the highest impact velocity.

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