REPORT: WP1.2 INTERVIEW WITH PEUGEOT HQ

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1 ELECTRIC VEHICLES IN A DISTRIBUTED AND INTEGRATED MARKET USING SUSTAINABLE ENERGY AND OPEN NETWORKS REPORT: WP1.2 INTERVIEW WITH PEUGEOT HQ Type: Deliverable Identifier: D1.2.5 Classification: External report Version: 1.0 Editors: Anders H. Foosnæs (DEA) Date: Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 1 of 10

2 WP1.2 INTERVIEW WITH PEUGEOT HQ 1 CONTENT 1 Content Disclaimer PSA Corporate strategy (Peugeot& Citroën) Ion: Peugeot partner origin and Citröen berlingo first New business models Technical questions PSA Group Batteries Power electronics Charging Safety (reference to upcoming IEC 61851) Plugs, sockets and cables (reference to upcoming IEC 62196) Communication V2G (reference to upcoming ISO 15118) Electric motors Cost DISCLAIMER The short description of the EDISON project is Electric vehicle meets grid. The EDISON project develops the technical solutions that enables EVs to facilitate larger shares of renewable energy in the power system, and at the same time makes sure that distribution grids are not over loaded when EVs are charging. Open standards and information- & communication technology are key topics in the project. The objective of WP1.2 has been to get a clear understanding of car manufacturers EV strategies. Interviews of key industry employees are the basis for conclusions in this sub task. In order to support the technology review in WP1.1, WP1.2 also performs interviews with the technical departments of the car manufacturers. During the work of WP1.2 interviews with 4 manufacturers Danish offices have been conducted to establish contact with the corporate organisations and to learn about Danish perspectives. Subsequently meetings with key employees in corporate organisations have been arranged. This document provides a summary of the findings from the meeting with the corporate organisation of PSA. Summary of the meetings with the Danish offices can be found as separate documents (only available in Danish). Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 2 of 10

3 3 PSA CORPORATE STRATEGY (PEUGEOT & CITROËN) Group strategy from PSA group s webpage: PSA Peugeot Citroën is a leader in low emission vehicles, which are amongst the best in the world in terms of consumption and emissions. In order to offer a "clean car" that suits the needs of each customer (extra-urban use / urban use / long range with maximum flexibility), the Group will enrich its range of low emission vehicles and technologies over the next 3 years. For vehicles, the Group will launch : In 2009 and 2010 : small diesel cars emitting less than 99g of CO2/km : Peugeot 207, Citroën C3 and Citroën DS3. In 2010 an Electric vehicle in the fourth quarter. In 2011 diesel hybrid versions of two premium models : 3008 and DS5. In 2012 a full plug-in diesel hybrid Peugeot 3008, emitting less than 50g of CO2. In terms of other technology, the Group will deploy in 2010 the new generation STT (Stop Start technology) across its ranges, which reduces CO2 emissions up to 15%. In 2011, PSA will launch a 1litre gasoline engine emitting less than 99g of CO2/km in small and medium cars. Although the environmental strategy of PSA is broader than the EV programme, the focus of the meeting was products enabling e-mobility. The PSA group has a long experience in working with electric vehicles. With historical sale figures of EVs the PSA group is probably the corporation with the most extensive experience in EV production. A lot of EVs from the 90 ties can still be found on the market (Peugeot 106 and Partner and Citroën Saxo and Berlingo). One of the main drivers for working on reduction of CO 2 emission from cars is the new CO 2 requirements from the European Union: Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 3 of 10

4 210 EU requirements CO 2 Emissions g 161g 152g 130g 95g This EU requirement, together with the following drivers, is the core motivators for the PSA EV strategy: CO 2 emission awareness Oil prices increasing Development of new Urban mobility New customer mobility behaviour Government support and subsidy (vehicle and infrastructures) Development of a charging infrastructure New Battery technology When PSA are looking for first wave markets for EVs, they are looking for conditions that will help the market introduction, such as: Tax incentives Low emission zones Recharging infrastructure Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 4 of 10

5 New mobility tests (e.g. car sharing) PSA consider the EV to be a product for urban mobility, and that it is essential for the success to incorporate EVs into new mobility concepts (e.g. leasing, car sharing, inter-modality) to minimize environmental and climate impact and maximise user convenience and asset utilisation. PSA divides the EV market between business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-costumers (B2C). The B2B segment is expected to be the dominating one until PSA expects the EV volume to be 4,4 % of the new car sale in 2020 in Europe 5 2. The PSA technology road map is shown in Figure 1. Multi-purpose Diesel 207, C3 & DS3 99g CO 2/km Stop & Start up to -15% CO 2/km 1l Petrol 3 cylindres < 99g CO 2/km Urban Electric vehicle Full HYbrid diesel HYbrid4 diesel HYbrid Plug-in < 50g CO 2/km Emission Figure 1. PSA technology road map The EVs that are launched in 2010 are seen as the first step in a long term strategy. The collaboration with Mitsubishi allows the PSA group to be one of the first in Europe to launch EVs and provides for an important economy of scale. The target is to 1 Market split based on EV market model 2010 by Roland Berger. 2 Europe 5: Germany, France, UK, Spain and Italy Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 5 of 10

6 reach (ION/C Zero) in less than 5 years. In addition to the collaboration with Mitsubishi, PSA also collaborates with Venturi to make EV versions of Berlingo and Partner. 3.1 ION: 3,48 m length 4 places, a real boot (160 l, up to 1,3 m 3 ) Max. speed: 130 km/h Safety: ESP, 6 airbags, protected battery Equipment: Heating and air conditioning 130 km range (normal charge is 6h, quick charge 80% in 30 minutes) Expected battery life = life of car 3 year warranty on battery, with objective of 5 years The supplier of the traction battery is LEJ, which is a joint venture of JV Mitsubishi and GSYuasa. The battery pack consists of 88 LEV50 cells in series connection. 4 cells are combined in a module. The battery pack voltage is 330V, contains 16 kwh of energy capacity and has a weight of 240 kg. Quick charge (330V) DC = 330V Battery pack = 330V ~ 220V On-Board-Charger Normal charge (220V)AC 3.2 PEUGEOT PARTNER ORIGIN AND CITRÖEN BERLINGO FIRST The first EV from the PSA group will be the Berlingo and Partner which is developed by Venturi. 250 of these cars will be driven by the French postal service (La Poste). Unchanged load capacity: 500 kg (up to 3 m3) Range: 100 km Max speed: 110 km/h Zebra battery: Sodium Nickel Chloride Complete charge in 8 hours (80% in 5 hours) Weight: 1325 kg (with batteries) Max. motor output: 42 kw rpm), 180 Nm, 9000 rpm Peugeot Partner Origin Electric Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 6 of 10

7 In a mixed urban and extra urban cycle ECE test a French laboratory found a range of 123 km for the EV. 3.3 NEW BUSINESS MODELS The PSA group wants to enter the e-mobility area as a company delivering both products and services. The business development might be done in steps: Simple: All inclusive leasing New services of mobility Multi purpose adapted to mobility Car + Battery + Maintenance + Insurance + Road Assistance Emergency Call and Breakdown Call Identifying the closet recharge points (navigation system) Eco-Routing Fleet management system for electric vehicles Telematics Remote Access Charging status battery Bikes, scooters, accessories, cars, vans (accessible through pay as you use) Car sharing The PSA work on Fleet management system for electric vehicles is of particular interest for the EDISON project. In the PSA strategy the Telematics in the EV is envisaged to play a central role in communication between the EV and other actors (like service providers): Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 7 of 10

8 Figure 2. Telematics for charging payment communication 4 TECHNICAL QUESTIONS In addition to the strategic questions, some more technical questions was asked as well to give input to the work in WP1.1 EV Technology. 4.1 PSA GROUP In front of the meeting several questions was forwarded to PSA. The questions and answers can be found below: BATTERIES 1.1. What type of battery chemistry are you working with? Positive --> Lithium ion LMO (Lithium Manganese Oxyde) ou LiMn2O4 = Oxyde de Manganèse lithié, Negative --> Carbon 1.2. What is the expected capacity (kwh) for the battery packs? ion 16 kwh ion / Partner 21 kwh 1.3. What is the maximum C-rate for these batteries with respect to: a) charging 2.5C b) discharging 4C 1.4. What are your thoughts regarding life time of batteries (in cars and aftermarket)? Life time in vehicle use 10 years, studies for Lithium recycling, battery packs stacking 1.5. What is your expectations regarding development in prices of battery packs? Reduction expected thanks to mass market development, linked to Asian production increase POWER ELECTRONICS 2.1. Will slow charging be done with an on-board or off-board charger/inverter? On board for slow charging / off board for quick charging 2.2. Have you investigated the option of using one inverter for both charging and propulsion? For future application. Nothing within ion. Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 8 of 10

9 4.1.3 CHARGING SAFETY (REFERENCE TO UPCOMING IEC 61851) 3.1. Which modes for charging will the EVs be compliant with? Mode 2 + Mode 4 (mode 2 on Partner) 3.2. What will be the rated power for charging (voltage and current)? Mode 2 = 3kW - 220V - 16A max PLUGS, SOCKETS AND CABLES (REFERENCE TO UPCOMING IEC 62196) 4.1. Which plugs/sockets will the EVs be equipped with? ion Domestic Charge Inlet on Vehicle: Yazaki - CEI compliant with SAE J1772 (same for Charge Cable) Fast Charge Inlet on Vehicle: First generation JARI level3, 400V - 150A (Yazaki type) Partner Domestic Charge Marechal plug single phase 230V / 16A 4.2. Will there be more than one socket on the EV? 2 on Ion (fast and slow charging), 1 on Partner 4.3. What are your thoughts about inductive charging? Former project Tulip, nothing on the agenda today COMMUNICATION V2G (REFERENCE TO UPCOMING ISO 15118) 5.1. What are your thoughts on intelligent charging? See section What needs to be communicated? See section How should it be communicated? (technology choice) See section 2.3 Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 9 of 10

10 4.1.6 ELECTRIC MOTORS 6.1. What type of motor will be used in the EVs? The ion drivetrain has a permanent-magnet synchronous motor that develops peak maximum power (1 minute) of 47 kw and continuous maximum power of 25kW. Partner has an asynchronous motor of 42 kw peak power with continuous power of 21kW 6.2. Do you have any experience with in-wheel motors? BB1 concept car uses Michelin Active Wheels 6.3. Do you have any experience with energy efficiency of in-wheel motors? 92% COST 7.1. Which components have the highest cost? Battery packs 7.2. Is it possible to say anything about expectations regarding economy of scale? Assembly cost Component cost Main issue is the Investment cost for manufacturing battery cells. Volume is necessary to decide such high cost. Incentives or supports are necessary to start to industrialize innovative solutions. * As a comment to energy efficiency the following figures was provided from PSA: Charger Battery Inverter Motor Mechanical 90 % 92 % 96 % 91 % 92 % Copyright EDISON Consortium All Rights Reserved Page 10 of 10

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