Rome and the Rise of Christianity. From Republic to Empire

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1 Rome and the Rise of Christianity From Republic to Empire

2 Growing Inequality and Unrest 2nd Century B.C. Senate governed Rome Mostly landed aristocracy Controlled by a small group of wealth, powerful families

3 Growing Inequality and Unrest 2nd Century B.C. Small farmers Traditionally backbone of army their loyalty was to the state Now lost land to large, wealthy landowners Formed a new urban class of landless poor Rome suffered growing economic & social unrest

4 Growing Inequality and Unrest Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus Reform minded aristocrats Believed the fall of the small farmer was the problem Called for laws giving land back to the landless poor 133 B.C. a group of senators killed Tiberius Gaius killed later Unrest continued

5 Growing Inequality and Unrest Tiberius & Gaius Gracchus

6 Growing Inequality and Unrest General Sulla Next general to wield great political power Commander of Asia Minor The Council for the Plebs had tried to give Marius the command

7 Growing Inequality and Unrest General Sulla Civil War broke out Sulla won by seizing Rome in 82 B.C. Tried to restore a traditional Roman Republic Restored power to the Senate Took away power from the popular assemblies Sulla s example of seizing power would be repeated

8 Discussion Question History often shows a conflict between rural and urban parts of a society. Many people have argued that society is better or worse as rural or urban. In early American history, for example, and in line with the Gracchus bros., Thomas Jefferson argued that society and the economy of the U.S. should be based on small farming. He believed that farming led to certain healthy character traits and that urban life led to vice. Are there virtues and vices that tend to apply to rural life and others to urban life? What are they?

9 Collapse of the Republic Civil Wars raged from B.C. First Triumvirate 60 B.C. Crassus wealthy Julius Caesar & Pompey military commanders & heroes Each had a military command

10 Collapse of the Republic First Triumvirate 60 B.C.

11 Collapse of the Republic Crassus killed Senate decided rule by Pompey would be best Senate ordered Julius Caesar to give up his command He refused Crossed the Rubicon River and entered Italy illegally

12 Collapse of the Republic Crossed the Rubicon River and entered Italy illegally

13 Collapse of the Republic Caesar defeated Pompey & became dictator in 45 B.C. Gave land to the poor Expanded the Senate to 900 members Filled the Senate with his supporters Assassinated by a group of leading senators in 44 B.C.

14 Collapse of the Republic 2nd Triumvirate

15 Collapse of the Republic 2nd Triumvirate Octavian & Antony divided the Roman world between them Octavian took the west Antony took the east Came into conflict

16 Collapse of the Republic 2nd Triumvirate

17 Collapse of the Republic Antony & Cleopatra Antony allied with Egypt Fell in love with Cleopatra VII Octavian defeated them at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C. Antony & Cleopatra fled to Egypt and committed suicide one year later End of Roman Republic and the civil wars

18 Discussion Question Commenting of Rome s civil strive, the 1 st century B.C. Roman historian Sallust states the lust for money (greed) and the lust for power (extreme ambition) were the roots of all evils. Is Sallust correct about the effects of greed and extreme ambition?

19 The Age of Augustus Octavian proclaimed the restoration of the Republic in 27 B.C. Gave only some power to the Senate Became Rome s 1st emperor Awarded title of Augustus the revered one

20 The Age of Augustus Augustus Popular Army was his chief source of power Senate gave him title of Imperator commander in chief

21 The Age of Augustus Augustus army 28 legions of 5,000 troops each Only citizens could be in the legions Non-citizens could serve in auxiliary forces 130,000 Established praetorian guard 9,000 men Protect the emperor

22 The Age of Augustus Stabilized Rome s frontier & conquered new areas German warriors wiped out 3 Roman legions Defeat taught Augustus that Rome s power was limited

23 Discussion Question Why did Augustus feel the need to establish a special, very large guard to protect the emperor?

24 The Early Empire A.D. 14 to 180 After Augustus, the emperor was allowed to pick his successor from his family adopted or natural 1st four emperors after Augustus were from his family: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero The emperor became more powerful & more corrupt

25 The Early Empire Good Emperors 2nd Century A.D. Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, & Marcus Aurelius Created a time of peace & posterity known as Pax Romana Stopped arbitrary executions, respected the ruling class, & maintained peace

26 The Early Empire Took more power from the Senate Appointed & directed officials to run the government Adopted capable men into their families as their successors Instituted programs to educate the poor Oversaw wide-spread building projects aqueducts, bridges, roads, & harbors

27 The Early Empire Expansion of empire Under Trajan expanded to Dacia (Romania), Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula Hadrian realized the empire was getting too large to rule Withdrew from Mesopotamia Strengthen fortification between the Rhine & Danube Rivers Built Hadrian s Wall in northern Britain to keep out the Picts and the Scots

28 The Early Empire Expansion of empire Hadrian s Wall in northern Britain built to keep out the Picts and the Scots

29 The Early Empire 2nd Century Empire 3.5 million square miles 50 million people Imperial government helped unify by acknowledging local customs & granting Roman citizenship In A.D. 212 the emperor Caracalla gave Roman citizenship to all free people in the empire

30 The Early Empire

31 The Early Empire Greco-Roman civilization Cities important to spread of Roman culture, Roman law, & the Latin language in the western part of the empire Greek was used in the east Mixture resulted in the Greco-Roman

32 The Early Empire Early Empire prosperous Internal peace helped trade grow Trade went beyond frontiers including silk from China Grain imported to feed the poor Luxury items for the wealthy

33 The Early Empire Farming remained basis of Rome s prosperity & work of most of the people Latifundia landed estates dominated farming Slave labor raised cattle & sheep on estates Many small peasant farms Small farmers depended on huge estates

34 The Early Empire Farming remained basis of Rome s prosperity & work of most of the people Huge gap between rich & poor Wealthy lived extravagant lives 1000s of unemployed depended on the emperor s handouts of grain to survive

35 Discussion Question Lord Acton of Britain ( ) wrote, Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely. The first emperors of the Early Empire confirm this view of absolute power. Is the view true? If so, why? If not, why not/

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