Name Class Date. Note Taking Study Guide EMPIRES OF INDIA AND CHINA

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1 1 Note Taking Study Guide EMPIRES OF INDIA AND CHINA As you read this section in your textbook, complete the outline below to summarize information about the religions and empires of India and China. I. Hinduism and Buddhism Both developed in ancient India. Hinduism II. III. IV. 14

2 1 Section Summary EMPIRES OF INDIA AND CHINA Hinduism and Buddhism both developed in ancient India. Hinduism has no single founder and no single sacred text. Hindus believe that everything is part of the spiritual force called brahman. The rebirth of the soul in another body, or reincarnation, allows people to work toward the goal of union with brahman. Unlike Hinduism, Buddhism had a single founder, Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha. Buddhism urges people to seek enlightenment through meditation, rather than through the priests, rituals, and many gods of Hinduism. The goal of Buddhism is nirvana, or union with the universe and release from the cycle of reincarnation. In 321, Chandragupta Maurya forged the first great Indian empire. The Maurya dynasty eventually conquered much of India. The greatest Maurya emperor was Asoka, Chandragupta s grandson. He converted to Buddhism, and his policies brought peace and wealth. After his death, rivals battled for power. About 500 years after the Mauryas, the Gupta dynasty reunited much of India. Under the Guptas, India enjoyed a golden age of peace and achievement. Most Indians of that period were village peasants. The village and the family maintained order, and caste rules governed every part of life. Important philosophies and religions in ancient China also developed. China s most influential philosopher, Confucius, was born in 551 He was concerned with social order and good government. He put filial piety, or respect for parents, above all other duties. His ideas came to influence every area of Chinese life. Another Chinese philosopher, Hanfeizi, insisted that strict laws and harsh punishments were needed to maintain order. Hanfeizi s teachings came to be known as Legalism. A third philosophy, Daoism, arose around the same time. Daoists sought to live in harmony with nature and viewed government as unnatural. When the Zhou dynasty weakened, a new ruler, Shi Huangdi, rose to unify all of China. He built a strong government, as well as the Great Wall. After his death, a new dynasty, the Han, was founded. Under the Han, the Chinese made huge advances in trade, government, technology, and the arts. Under the Han, the Silk Road linked China to the Fertile Crescent. READING CHECK What major building project took place under Shi Huangdi? VOCABULARY STRATEGY What does the word converted mean in the underlined sentence? The verb convert comes from the Latin word vertere, which means to turn. The verb convert is often used to describe a religious experience. Use these clues to help you understand the meaning of converted. READING SKILL Contrast List some main differences between Hinduism and Buddhism. Review Questions According to Hindus, what is the purpose of reincarnation? Name three philosophies that developed in ancient China. 15

3 2 Note Taking Study Guide ANCIENT GREECE As you read this section in your textbook, complete the outline below to summarize the information about ancient Greece. I. Early People of the Aegean Minoans Traders on the island of Crete II. III. IV. D. E. 16

4 2 Section Summary ANCIENT GREECE The Minoans created the earliest civilization in the Aegean region. They were traders from the island of Crete who adapted Egyptian and Mesopotamian ideas to their own culture. Minoan civilization reached its height between about 1600 and 1500, but had vanished by 1400 The Mycenaeans, another civilization of sea traders, soon dominated Crete and the Greek mainland. They are best remembered for their part in the Trojan War, which was described by Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey. After Mycenaean civilization declined, the Greeks lived in small, isolated farming villages. Eventually, they began to build many small city-states. They often warred among themselves, but they shared a common culture, including their language, religion, and festivals. The Greeks evolved a unique version of the city-state, called the polis. Their cities often had two levels. They built temples on the acropolis, or high city, above the main city. At first, the ruler of the polis was a king. This type of government is called a monarchy. Power slowly shifted to a landholding elite, or aristocracy. Wealthy merchants, farmers, and artisans came to rule some city-states. The result was a form of government called an oligarchy, or rule by a small, powerful elite. Two of the most important Greek city-states were Sparta and Athens. Sparta was a warrior society. Athens was a democracy, or government by the people. When the Persians threatened the Greeks, the city-states joined together to defend themselves. After the Persian Wars, Athens thrived. Under the leadership of Pericles, Athenian culture flourished. Athens also developed a direct democracy, in which a large number of citizens took part in day-to-day government. Philosophers like Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle developed new ideas about truth, reason, and government. They used observation and reason to find causes for events. Greeks also developed new styles of art, architecture, poetry, and drama. Greece was eventually controlled by King Philip of Macedonia. After his death, his son Alexander the Great conquered a vast area and spread Greek civilization. Greek culture blended with Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultures to create the Hellenistic civilization. Review Questions For what event are the Mycenaeans best remembered? READING CHECK What civilization resulted from the blending of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian cultures under Alexander the Great? VOCABULARY STRATEGY Find the word thrived in the underlined sentence. What does it mean? The sentence that follows the underlined sentence contains a synonym for the word thrived. What is that synonym? READING SKILL Categorize In which of the following categories does Athenian government under Pericles belong? Circle all that are correct. city-state warrior society monarchy How did Greek philosophers find causes for events? aristocracy oligarchy democracy 17

5 3 Note Taking Study Guide ANCIENT ROME AND THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY As you read this section in the textbook, complete the outline below to summarize information about ancient Rome and the rise of Christianity. I. The Roman World Takes Shape Rome began as a small city-state in Italy. Romans overthrew Etruscan king and set up a republic. At first, patricians controlled the government. II. III. IV. V. 18

6 3 Section Summary ANCIENT ROME AND THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY Rome began as a small city-state in Italy. In 509, the Romans overthrew the Etruscan king who ruled their area. They set up a republic, a government in which the people choose the officials. At first, patricians, or members of the upper class, controlled the government. Eventually, commoners, or plebeians, were elected to the Roman senate. Meanwhile, Rome s armies expanded Roman control until it reached from Spain to Egypt. Rome s conquests made it very wealthy, but this wealth led to corruption. Rome faced many civil wars. Eventually, a Roman general named Octavian restored order and took the name Augustus. He exercised absolute power, and his rule changed Rome from a republic to an empire. Roman emperors brought peace and order to the lands they controlled. As a result, the 200 years from Augustus to Marcus Aurelius are known as the Pax Romana, or Roman Peace. The Romans admired Greek culture and borrowed Greek ideas. Rome spread this blend of cultures, known as Greco-Roman civilization, to distant lands. Romans also excelled as engineers, building roads, bridges, and aqueducts. Probably the greatest legacy of Rome was its commitment to law and justice. Early in the Pax Romana, Christianity began in the Middle East. A Jew named Jesus was born about 4 in Bethlehem. He called himself the Son of God and taught that his mission was to bring salvation and eternal life. Some people saw Jesus as a troublemaker. He was executed, but his disciples believed he had risen from the dead. Jews who believed that Jesus was the messiah, or savior sent by God, became the first Christians. For a while, Christianity remained a sect within Judaism. Then Paul spread Christianity to non-jews. At first, Rome persecuted Christians, but later accepted Christian beliefs. The Roman empire eventually split into two parts, east and west. In the west, corruption, poverty, and declining moral values contributed to the empire s decline. Germanic invaders finally conquered Rome in 476. However, the eastern Roman empire prospered and became known as the Byzantine empire. READING CHECK What was the Pax Romana? VOCABULARY STRATEGY Find the word exercised in the underlined sentence. The word exercise often refers to physical activity or training, but it has a different meaning here. To help you understand the meaning of the word exercised, complete the sentence below, using a word other than exercised. Augustus did not just have absolute power, he also it. READING SKILL Recognize Multiple Causes Name three causes that led to the decline of the western Roman empire. Review Questions In the Roman republic, what group originally controlled the government? After Jesus was executed, what did his disciples believe happened? 19

7 4 Note Taking Study Guide CIVILIZATIONS OF THE AMERICAS As you read this section in the textbook, complete the outline below to summarize the information about the early civilizations in the Americas. I. Olmecs, the First American Civilization II. Civilizations of Middle America First settlers were nomadic hunters. III. D. IV. D. 20

8 4 Section Summary CIVILIZATIONS OF THE AMERICAS The first settlers in the Americas were nomads who probably migrated across a land bridge between Siberia and Alaska. They gradually spread throughout the Americas. The first American civilization, the Olmec, began along the Mexican Gulf Coast. It lasted from about 1500 to 500 Later, other civilizations developed in Central and South America. The Maya, for example, built city-states in Mesoamerica. They created pyramid temples, a writing system, and an accurate calendar. Each city-state had its own ruling chief. Several hundred years after the Maya declined, the Aztecs conquered most of Mexico. The Aztec empire grew wealthy from tribute, or payment from conquered people. Conquered people were also the source of human sacrifices for Aztec religious rituals. The Aztecs developed a complex social structure with a single ruler, the emperor, at the top. In the 1400s, the Inca came down from the Andes mountains of Peru. Led by Pachacuti, they conquered an empire 2,500 miles wide. The Inca emperor claimed to be divine and had absolute power. His officials kept records on quipus, or collections of knotted colored strings. The Inca united their empire by imposing their language and religion on the people they conquered. They also created one of the greatest road systems in history. Before 1500, many different culture groups lived in North America. In the desert southwest, the Anasazi built large villages, or pueblos, of stone and adobe brick. At the center of their village life was the kiva, a large underground chamber used for religious rituals. In the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys, farming cultures emerged as early as 1000 The Hopewell people left behind giant earthen mounds. Objects found in the mounds suggest that trade networks stretched from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes. Hopewell culture was replaced by the Mississippians, who built large towns and ceremonial centers. Variations in climate and resources encouraged the development of different cultures in other parts of North America. In the far north, for example, the Inuits adapted to frozen terrain. In the Northeast, warring tribes eventually settled their differences and formed the Iroquois League. READING CHECK What is tribute? VOCABULARY STRATEGY What does the word networks mean in the underlined sentence? With what other networks are you familiar? What do networks have in common? This sentence refers to trade networks. Use your prior knowledge of other networks to help you understand what a trade network would be like. READING SKILL Compare and Contrast Compare and contrast the governments of the Maya, Aztecs, and Inca. Review Questions How did the first settlers probably get to the Americas? Why were there so many different culture groups in North America? 21

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