Chaffee Winter 2013 CHAPTER 7. Learning

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1 CHAPTER 7 Learning

2 CHAPTER 7: LEARNING How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending Pavlov s Understanding Pavlov s Legacy Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Extending Skinner s Understanding Skinner s Legacy Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning Learning by Observation Mirrors in the Brain Bandura s Experiments Applications of Observational Learning

3 INTRODUCTION One of nature s most important gifts to us may be our adaptability our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances Learning: a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

4 HOW DO WE LEARN? We learn by association. Imagine you heard the theme tune from Jaws. What do you associate with this stimulus? Associative learning: learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequence (as in operant conditioning)

5 TYPES OF LEARNING 1. Classical conditioning 2. Operant conditioning 3. Observational learning

6 BEHAVIORISM Behaviorism: the view the psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes Most psychologists today do account for mental processes: Cognitive-behaviorists. Famous Behaviorists: John Watson Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner Albert Bandura

7 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning First explained by Ivan Pavlov ( ) Pavlov won the first Russian Nobel Prize for his work in A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. Common example: Pavlov s dogs salivating to the sound of a bell

8 PAVLOV S EXPERIMENTS Pavlov made observations of dogs salivation when they tasted food. Test the mechanism of the salivation Isolated the dog in a small room (control environment) Secured it in a harness Attached a device to measure the amount of salivation From the next room, they presented food. Paired: Neutral Stimulus (NS) + food in mouth

9 PAVLOV S EXPERIMENTS

10 PAVLOV S EXPERIMENTS CONTINUED Unconditioned stimulus (US): in classical conditioning, a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response. Neutral stimulus (NS): in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning. E.g. the sound of a bell was neutral to Pavlov s dogs Unconditioned response (UR): in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

11 PAVLOV S EXPERIMENTS CONTINUED Conditioned response (CR): in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus. Conditioned stimulus (CS): in classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.

12 PAVLOV S EXPERIMENTS

13 QUIZ YOURSELF If the aroma of a cake baking sets your mouth watering, what is the US? CS? CR?

14 QUIZ YOURSELF If the aroma of a cake baking sets your mouth watering, what is the US? CS? CR? Cake (taste) = US Aroma = CS Salivation to the aroma = CR

15 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CONTINUED Acquisition: Initial stage of classical conditioning When one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response Timing read the importance of timing in classical conditioning. Page 296 Conditioning helps animals survive and reproduce

16 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CONTINUED Higher-order conditioning: a new neutral stimulus can become a new conditioned stimulus AKA second order conditioning Pavlov: add a light with the bell, eventually the light produces the salivation My dog: The dog treats are located in a cabinet. She comes running whenever she hears that specific cabinet open.

17 HIGHER-ORDER CONDITIONING

18 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CONTINUED Extinction: the diminished response when the CS no longer signals an impending US Spontaneous Recovery: the reappearance of a weakened CR after a pause

19 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING CONTINUED Generalization: tendency to respond to a stimuli similar to the CS Discrimination: the learned ability to distinguish between a CS and other (similar) stimuli

20 EXTENDING PAVLOV S UNDERSTANDING Cognition and conditioning: perception and thoughts matter. Biological predispositions Example: John Garcia (1966) and the rats, page 300 Example: taste aversion in humans Stimulus must be ecologically relevant Learning enables animals to adapt to their environment to predict food, mates, and dangers

21 FIGURE 7.9

22 PAVLOV S LEGACY Are Pavlov s work and classical conditioning relevant today? Read pages , plus Trauma as Classical Conditioning on page 304. Applications of classical conditioning Behavioral therapy Exposure therapy

23 OPERANT CONDITIONING How is operant conditioning different than classical conditioning? Classical conditioning forms association between stimuli. It involves respondent behavior actions that are automatic responses to stimuli In operant conditioning, organisms associate their own actions with consequences. Actions followed by reinforcement increase behavior while actions followed by punishment decrease the behavior. Operant behavior

24 OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike s Law of Effect behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely Operant Chamber (see next slide): a chamber/ Skinner box containing a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reward (food or water reinforcer).

25 OPERANT CHAMBER, SKINNER BOX

26 TYPES OF REINFORCERS Reinforcer: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows. E.g. tangible reward such as money or food; other rewards like praise, attention, or an activity Positive reinforcement: increasing behaviors by presenting a positive stimuli, such as food. Any reinforcer that strengthens the response. Negative reinforcement: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli.

27 REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES

28 REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES

29 PUNISHMENT Punishment is an event that decreases the behavior it follows Drawbacks of physically punishing children Positive = administer Negative = withdraw

30 FORM YOUR OWN EXAMPLE Please carefully consider the aspects of operant conditioning. Form your own examples of operant conditioning. Example 1: Include reinforcement. Is your reinforcement positive or negative Primary or conditioned? Immediate or delayed? What type of reinforcement schedule is used? Example 2: Include punishment. Is your punishment positive or negative?

31 EXTENDING SKINNER S UNDERSTANDING Cognition and Operant Conditioning Cognitive map: a mental representation of the layout in one s environment Latent learning: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it Biological Predispositions Organisms learn associations that are naturally adaptive Instinctive drift: animals revert to their biologically predisposed patterns

32 APPLICATIONS OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Please read examples for the following: At School In Sports At Work At Home Pages

33 CONTRASTING CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING

34 LEARNING BY OBSERVATION Children learn certain things without being directly conditioned what explains this? We do not purposely teach their children swear words or bad habits, thus, learning can occur by observation. Observational learning: learning by observing others Modeling: the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

35 MIRRORS IN THE BRAIN Mirror neurons are frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or observing another person performing those action. Enable imitation and empathy Mirror neurons do not function properly in Autism

36 BANDURA S EXPERIMENTS Watch the short video: v=lcetgt_xfzg&feature=related Bandura s Bobo Doll study is a perfect example of observational learning.

37 APPLICATIONS OF OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING Prosocial behavior: positive, constructive, helpful behavior, especially with no immediate gain. Antisocial behavior: behavior aimed at harming others. Violence-viewing effect, page

38 CHAPTER 7 REVIEW Define learning. Understand Classical Conditioning Describe behaviorism. Recognize the unconditioned stimulus and response as well as the conditioned stimulus and response (US, UR, CS, CR). Be able to apply these terms. Define extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination. Give a real-life example of classical conditioning (including all stimulus and response terms). Understand Operant Conditioning Define and describe operant conditioning and operant behavior. Define reinforcement and punishment. Give a real-life example of operant conditioning. Understand Social Learning Define social learning and modeling Describe Bandura s Bobo Doll experiment Describe mirror neurons Distinguish prosocial and antisocial behavior

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