What is Psychology? A set of questions about mental functioning trace back to philosophy Aristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc.

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1 What is? The science of behavior and the mind behavior - observable actions of a person or animal mind - thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, memories, dreams, motives and other subjective experiences science an objective way to answer questions based on observable facts / data and well described methods What is? set of questions about mental functioning trace back to philosophy ristotle asked about memory, personality, emotions, etc. set of theories and procedures for asking and answering questions the scientific method evolved over centuries, first in physics product of history philosophy asked many of the basic questions physiology used similar methods Dualism - body and soul are separate but interrelated origins in medieval religion soul is seat of intellectual function and will mind is product of the soul mind not subject to scientific inquiry to challenge this was punishable by death Rene Descartes ( ) 1650) - modified dualism since animals have no soul, much behavior does not require soul the body can therefore control much behavior led him to study reflexes the soul s s main function is thought, a uniquely human attribute Materialism: Thomas Hobbes ( ) 1679) mind is a product of the brain soul is not involved in human behavior Empiricism: knowledge and intellect are acquired sensory experiences produce elementary ideas elementary ideas become associated into complex thought and ideas nother Nativism Question: Empiricism vs. Nativism is the view that elementary ideas are innate If knowledge is innate What is the purpose of education? Can intellect be changed by experience? re abilities determined by our genes or our experiences? This is known as Nature vs. Nurture appears throughout modern psychology

2 Foundations of Modern Charles Darwin ( ) 1882) Theory of natural selection (1859) physical characteristics evolve through natural selection behavioral patterns also influence selection inborn knowledge and behavioral tendencies with survival value are passed on Human beings are part of nature and can be understood through the methods of science Ideas fueled the Industrial Revolution Foundations of Modern Darwin s s theory encouraged scientific inquiry 19th century developments in physiology demonstrated the approach to use based on scientific methods, controlled laboratory experiments influential beliefs from early physiology reflexology - all human behaviors occur through reflexes localization of function - specific structures of the brain serve specific functions in the control of mental experiences and behavior Foundations of Modern Separated from philosophy in 19th century influences from physiology remain Wilhelm Wundt ( ) 1920) Leipzig, Germany Father of Modern wrote the first psychology textbook applied laboratory techniques to study of the mind (mental speed) structuralism - identify atoms of the mind focused on basic sensory and perceptual processes measured reaction times Pioneers G. Stanley Hall ( ) 1924) 1 st President of American Psychological Association (APA) Edward Titchener ( ) 1927) Wundt s student, professor at Cornell University William James ( ) 1910) started psychology at Harvard in 1870s opposed Wundt and Titchener s approach functionalism - influenced by Darwin to focus on how behaviors help us adapt to the environment Sigmund Freud ( ) 1939) ustrian physician that focused on illness psychoanalytic theory of mental disorders Pioneers lfred Binet ( ) 1911) French intelligence researcher developed first intelligence test Ivan Pavlov ( ) 1936) Russian physiologist discovered conditioned reflexes John Watson ( ) 1958) Behaviorism & Classical Conditioning Baby Albert B.F. Skinner ( ) 1990) merican psychologist at Harvard studied learning and effect of reinforcement behaviorism Pioneers Carl Jung ( ) 1961) neo-analytic theory archetypes/ collective unconscious lfred Adler ( ) 1937) disagreed with Freud re: motivation personality development/unconscious Inferiority Complex Jean Piaget ( ) 1980) stages of cognitive development Carl Rogers ( ) 1987) Humanism Person-Centered Therapy braham Maslow ( ) 1970) cont. Humanism Hierarchy of Needs

3 Perspectives Perspective is a way of viewing human phenomena has multiple perspectives ethological biological psychoanalytic/psychodynamic cognitive cross- cultural social behavioral humanism eclectic Ethology The study of animal behavior in the natural environment rather than in a lab setting Influenced by Darwin and the emphasis on innate, adaptive behavior patterns European approach to studying behavior founded by animal researchers Jane Goodall (chimpanzees) Primal Fears (unknown, snakes, spiders, heights) Biological Perspective Study the physiological mechanisms in the brain and nervous system that organize and control behavior Focus may be at various levels individual neurons areas of the brain specific functions like eating, emotion or learning Interest in behavior distinguishes biological psychology from many other biological sciences Perspective View of behavior based on experience treating patients Psychoanalytic approach (Sigmund Freud) both a method of treatment and a theory of the mind behavior reflects combinations of conscious and unconscious influences drives and urges within the unconscious component of mind influence thought and behavior early childhood experiences shape unconscious motivations neo-analysts disagreed with Freud re: sexual drive as source of motivation Perspective View of behavior based on experience treating patients Humanistic approach developed by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers behavior reflects innate actualization focus on conscious forces and self perception More positive view of basic forces than Freud s Cultural The study of psychological differences among people living in different cultural groups How are people s s thoughts, feelings and behavior influenced by their culture? What are the common elements across culture? Are these innate?

4 Cognitive Perspective How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior? Influences include Piaget - studied intellectual development Chomsky - studied language Cybernetics - science of information processing uknow/didyouknow.mov The Eclectic Model People pick and choose from the previous models and come up with a personal set of values that guide behavior. "Thought is action in rehearsal." -Sigmund Freud The Profession of merican Psychological Association had 52 divisions in 1998 Some represent areas of training and specialization (e.g., developmental, clinical) Some are applied (i.e., teaching in psychology, psychology and the law) abnormal behavior and psychological disorders psychologist vs. psychiatrist Health psychology psychological factors in physical health Counseling dealing with normal life situations provide guidance Developmental psychological change over the life span social, cognitive, personality School counseling and guidance in school settings Educational learning and teaching Psychobiology brain and behavior studied at many levels often uses animals as research model basic laboratory focus animals or humans learning, memory, motivation Cognitive experimental human memory, perception, etc.

5 Professional Work Settings Social social influences on cognition and emotion attitudes and beliefs Personality individual differences perception by others Industrial/organization al people and work job satisfaction training and selection Colleges and universities settings Elementary and secondary schools Business Government Employment Settings of Psychologists School Business & Industry Universities & College Private Practice Government

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