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1 Psychology 3720 Learning Dr. r. D Lecture 13 Acquisition Spontaneous recovery, resurgence Reinforcement/punishment, positive/negative Immediate vs delayed reinforcement Primary vs secondary reinforcement Intrinsic vs extrinsic reinforcement Natural vs artificial reinforcement Acquisition R S R 1

2 Acquisition R S R Modulated by magnitude of reinforcement many other variables a process in which the nonreinfrocement of a previously reinforced response leads to a decrease in the strength of the response R S R R no S R Is extinction simply the reversal of acquisition? Not likely spontaneous recovery resurgence 2

3 spontaneous recovery the reappearance of an extinguished R following a rest period resurgence the reappearance of an extinguished R following the extinction of a more recently reinforced R resurgence the reappearance of an extinguished R following the extinction of a more recently reinforced R R1 S R (increase in p(r1)) R1 no S R (decrease in p(r1)) R2 S R (increase in p(r2)) R2 no S R (decrease in p(r2) and increase in p(r1)) 3

4 reinforcers and punishers positive ( adding( adding ) ) and negative ( taking( away ) Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Positive punishment Negative punishment Positive reinforcement adding a reinforcer Positive punishment adding a punisher 4

5 Negative reinforcement taking away a punisher Negative punishment taking away a reinforcer Negative punishment time out 5

6 If u don t t clean your room, you won t t get dessert. Clean room dessert Don t t clean room no dessert immediate vs delayed reinforcement primary vs secondary reinforcement primary reinforcers are often associated with basic physiological/psychological needs effectiveness relates to state of deprivation 6

7 primary vs secondary reinforcement secondary reinforcers are reinforcing due to their association with other reinforcers CS + UCS UCR (positive) S D : R S R primary vs secondary reinforcement secondary reinforcers generalized reinforcer intrinsic vs extrinsic reinforcement intrinsic reinforcement occurs when the mere act of performing the response reinforces it extrinsic reinforcement occurs when some consequence external to the response reinforces it 7

8 natural vs artificial reinforcers natural reinforcers are an inherent consequence of the response all intrinsic reinforcers are natural reinforcers extrinsic reinforcers may be natural or artificial reinforcers natural vs artificial reinforcers artificial reinforcers are deliberately arranged reinforcers used to modify behavior that lack an inherent connection to the response all artificial reinforcers are extrinsic reinforcers natural vs artificial reinforcers natural reinforcers are generally more effective than artificial reinforcers prepared learning? attempts to influence others behavior should employ logical consequences 8

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