History/Approaches. 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in

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1 History/Approaches 1. A cognitive psychologist would likely be most interested in (A). concentration of neutral transmitters in the spinal cord (B). unconditional positive regard in the therapeutic setting (C). token economies in prison (D). perceptual speed on word association tests (E). development of the fin motor skills in toddlers 2. The concept of tabula rasa, or blank state (the idea that human beings come into the world knowing nothing, and thereafter acquire all of their knowledge through experience), is most closely associated with (A). David Hume (B). Charles Darwin (C). John Locke (D). Sigmund Freud (E). Erich Fromm 3. The humanistic approach to psychology emphasizes the importance of (A). childhood experiences (B). biological predispositions (C). maladaptive thoughts (D). free will and conscious awareness (E). cultural experiences 4. Psychologists who emphasize the importance of repressed memories and childhood experiences subscribe to which of the following perspectives? (A). Cognitive (B). Behavioral (C). Psychodynamic (D). Social cultural (E). Medical/Biological 5. Which of the following psychologists started the first lab in Germany? (A). William James (B). Wilhelm Wundt (C). John B. Watson (D). Ivan Pavlov (E). Sigmund Freud

2 6. Of the following approaches to understanding behavior, which will most likely focus on the way that adults process information? (A). Biological (B). Cognitive (C). Sociocultural (D). Psychodynamic (E). Humanistic 7. Which philosopher discussed the mind-body problem? (A). Plato (B). Socrates (C). Kant (D). Freud (E). Descartes 8. What is the difference between cognitive psychology and behavioral psychology? (A). Behavioral psychology deals with reinforcement and punishment, while cognitive psychology deals with informative processing. (B). Cognitive psychology focuses only on observable behavior, while behavioral psychology focuses on internal processes. (C). Both focus on observable behavior; there is no difference (D). Cognitive psychology focuses only on the ego, while behavioral psychology focuses on the id. (E). Behavioral psychology focuses on the superego, while cognitive psychology focuses on the ego. 9. Of the following approaches to psychology, which area would be most concerned with the idea that people strive toward self-actualization? (A). Biological (B). Cognitive (C). Social/Cultural (D). Psychodynamic (E). Humanistic 10. Which of the following approaches to psychology is most likely to have a paper entitled The Role of the Endocrine System as a Secondary Neurotransmitter? (A). Biological (B). Cognitive (C). Social/Cultural (D). Psychodynamic (E). Humanistic

3 11. In early psychology, Wilhelm Wundt developed a technique for doing research that involved having people describe their thoughts as they observe an object. This technique is called (A). dream analysis (B). mind/body analysis (C). behavior analysis (D). introspection (E). algorithm 12. Watson and Skinner both believed that was/were the biggest predictor of future actions. (A). Inborn tendencies (B). Temperament (C). Environment (D). Thoughts (E). Memory 13. The paper The role of imagery in memory processes would most likely be written by someone who subscribes to (A). biological society (B).cognitive psychology (C). social/cultural psychology (D). psychodynamic psychology (E). humanistic psychology 14. The person who is most responsible for developing the school of thought called functionalism is (A). James (B). Wundt (C). Skinner (D). Watson (E). Miller 15. The psychologist who trained with Wundt and traveled to the United Staes to set up one of the first labs at Cornell University was (A). James (B). Titchener (C). Skinner (D). Bower (E). Watson

4 16. Those who believe that that key to understanding behavior is to understand the role of the environment in shaping organisms are called (A). cognitive psychologists (B). humanistic psychologists (C). biological psychologists (D). developmental psychologists (E). behavioral psychologists 17. Humanistic psychology has recently been rediscovered and is now a popular approach to understanding behavior. This area is now called (A). cognitive psychology (B). developmental psychology (C). positive psychology (D). behavioral psychology (E). biological psychology 18. According to operant conditioning, the of behavior are the best predictor of whether or not that behavior is preformed again, (A). Derivatives (B). Consequences (C). Antecedents (D). Causes (E). Contexts 19. Which of the following approaches focuses on free will and consciousness? (A). Biological (B). Cognitive (C).Social/ Cultural (D). Psychodynamic (E). Humanistic 20. The psychoanalytic approach to understanding personality was described by (A). Freud (B). Descartes (C). Kant (D). Hobbes (E). Miller 21. Which philosopher is responsible for the concept of tabula rasa? (A).Descartes

5 (B).Darwin (C). Locke (D). Wundt (E). James 22. Which area of psychology is most concerned with understanding the internal works of the mind, such as memory and thought? (A). Biological (B). Cognitive (C). Social/Cultural (D). Psychodynamic (E). Humanistic 23. Both Plato and Socrates saw knowledge as (A). complete (B). innate (C). learned (D). incomplete (E). reflexive 24. The idea that fear could be learned is based on the work of (A). Skinner (B). James (C).Wundt (D). Miller (E). Watson McGraw Hill- History/Approaches 25. Wilhelm Wundt and the structuralists studied questions still asked today primarily by (A). behavioral psychologists (B). cognitive psychologists (C). psychodynamic psychologists (D). humanistic psychologists (E). sociocultural psychologists 26. With which definition of psychology would John Watson and B.F. Skinner most agree?

6 (A). Psychology is the science of behavior. (B). Psychology is the science of mental processes. (C). Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes. (D). Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes specific to content. 27. The question Is intelligence more influences by heredity or experience? deals with a big issue in psychology known as (A). stability vs. change (B). mind-body dualism (C). rationality vs. irrationality (D). structure vs. function (E). nature vs. nurture 28. If Aristotle and Locke, who both believed that what we know is acquired from experience, were alive today, they would best agree with the (A). behavioral approach (B). psychoanalytic approach (C). humanistic approach (D). biological approach (E). psychodynamic approach 29. Which psychological approach is most concerned with the importance of encoding, storing and retrieving information? (A). information technology (B). behavioral approach (C). psychodynamic approach (D). biological approach (E). cognitive approach 30. Dr. Didden was hired by the TLC Company to help them retain their employees without lowering the firm s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their work room as recommended by Dr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees went for jobs elsewhere. Dr. Didden is most likely to be (A). a forensic psychologist (B). an industrial/organizational psychologist (C). a counseling psychologist (D). a clinical psychologist (E). an engineering psychologist

7 Fast Track to a 5- History/ Approaches 31. Psychology is defined as the scientific study of (A). the unconscious mind (B). behavior and mental processes (C). overt and measurable behaviors (D). working to reach one s potential (E). how nature selects organisms best suited for survival 32. Tabula rasa refers to (A). the idea that the mind is a blank slate on which experiences are written (B). looking inward at the atoms of the mind (C). revealing the wishes and motivations of the unconscious. (D). a way to reach self-actualization (E). how nature selects organisms best suited for survival 33. Sigmund Freud believed that (A). research should be based on observable and measurable data (B). researching one s potential by developing a positive self-concept was important (C). nature selects organisms best suited for an environment (D).cultural and social backgrounds play a crucial role in development (E). unconscious motivations and wishes affect personality and psychological well-being 34. Behaviorism was built around the idea that (A). research should be based on observable and measurable data (B). researching one s potential by developing a positive self-concept was important (C). nature selects organisms best suited for an environment (D).cultural and social backgrounds play a crucial role in development (E). unconscious motivations and wishes affect personality and psychological well-being 35. Who contributed to the ideas of evolutionary perspective by suggesting that nature selects organisms best suited for survival in a given environment? (A). Charles Darwin (B). Sigmund Freud

8 (C). John B. Watson (D). William James (E). Wilhelm Wundt 36. Which school of thought focused on how and organism adapts to the environment? (A). Structuralism (B). Gestalt (C). Psychoanalysis (D). Behaviorism (E). Functionalism 37. The belief that the brain and nervous system affect behavior is fundamental to which perspective of psychology? (A). Evolutionary (B). Psychodynamic (C). Behavioral (D). Cognitive (E). Biological 38. Which perspective is concerned with how information is processed in terms of thinking, remembering, and communicating? (A). Evolutionary (B). Psychodynamic (C). Behavioral (D). Cognitive (E). Biological 39. Which subfield of psychology would focus on how a stroke could affect the functioning of the brain? (A) Cognitive psychology (B) Clinical psychology (C) Community psychology (D) Biological psychology (E) Developmental psychology Myers AP Text

9 40. Which perspective would most likely explain anger as an outlet for unconscious hostility? (A) Social-cultural (B) Psychodynamic (C) Behavioral (D) Functionalist (E) Biological 41. The debate on the relative contributions of biology and experience to human development is most often referred to as (A) Evolutionary analysis (B) Behaviorism (C) The cognitive revolution (D) The nature-nurture issue (E) Natural selection 42. Which of the following psychologists would most likely explore how we view and affect each other? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Developmental Biological Social Cognitive Personality 43. The first psychological laboratory, opened in 1879, belonged to (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Charles Darwin Sigmund Freud Rene Descartes Wilhelm Wundt William James 44. The school of psychology focused on how mental and behavioral processes enable us to adapt and flourish. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Functionalist Structuralist Behaviorist Humanistic Psychodynamic 45. The study of current environmental influences and the importance of satisfying the needs for love and acceptance best describe which school of psychology?

10 (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Humanistic Behavioral Psychodynamic Structuralist Functionalist 46. Which of the following is the best example of applied research? (A) Investigating basic human traits (B) Using psychological concepts to boost morale and productivity (C) Experimenting with how we perceive stimuli (D) Studying the changing abilities of a child from age 2 to age 5 (E) Exploring the mind-brain connections in adolescents 47. Which perspective would most look at how our interpretation of a situation affects how we react to it? (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Psychodynamic Cognitive Biological Social-cultural Evolutionary

11 1. D. 2. C. 3. D. 4. C 5. B. 6. B. 7. E. 8. A. 9. E. 10. A. 11. D. 12. C. 13. B. 14. A. 15. B. 16. E. 17. C. 18. B. 19. E. 20. A. 21. C. 22. B. 23. B. 24. E. 25. B. 26. A. 27. E. 28. A. 29. E. 30. B. 31. B. 32. A. 33. E. 34. A. 35. A. 36. E. 37. E. 38. D. 39. D. 40. B. 41. D. 42. C. 43. D. Answer Key

12 44. A. 45. A. 46. B. 47. B.

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