Chapter 16 Acids and Bases

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1 Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases 1. Circle the letters of all the terms that complete the sentence correctly. 2. The properties of acids include _. a. reacting with metals to produce oxygen b. giving foods a sour taste c. forming solutions that conduct electricity d. causing indicators to change color 3. Is the following sentence true or false? Acids react with compounds containing hydroxide ions to form water and a salt. _ 4. Bases are compounds that react with acids to form and a(n). Circle the letters of all the terms that complete the sentence correctly. 5. The properties of bases include _. a. tasting bitter b. feeling slippery c. changing the color of an indicator d. always acting as a strong electrolyte 6. What is an acid? 7. When the name of an anion in an acid ends in -ide, the acid name begins with the prefix and ends with the suffix. 8. When there are more than two elements in the acid, the name of the acid begins with the prefix ; and when the suffix on the polyatomic ion is ite, the suffix of the acid is and when the suffix on the polyatomic ion is ate, the suffix on the acid is. 9. Write the formula for and name the acid formed between hydrogen and the following ions: a. F - b. ClO 4 - c. Br - d. PO 3-3 e. S Acids are compounds that dissolve in water to form ions. 1

2 11. Bases are compounds that dissolve in water to form _ ions. 12. What do we call a water molecule that loses a hydrogen ion? 13. What do we call a water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion? 14. A hydrogen ion is simply which subatomic particle? 15. The reaction in which two water molecules react to form ions is known as the of water. 16. True or false: Any aqueous solution in which the [H + ] and the [OH - ] are equal is described as a neutral solution. 17. Explain the following definitions of acids and bases: a. Arrhenius definition b. Bronsted-Lowry definition c. Lewis definition 18. Which definition of acids and bases is solvent dependent? Which solvent is specified? 19. Write the equation for the production of the hydronium ion. 20. What term describes an acid, base or salt which, when dissolved in a solvent, conducts and electrical current 21. The of an acid is the particle that remains after a proton has been released by the acid. 22. The of a base is the particle that forms when the base accepts a proton from an acid. 23. What is the relationship between an acid and its conjugate base; - between a base and its conjugate acid? 24. What is the term for a substance that can act as either an acid or a base? 25. What substance is the most common example of the above? 26. Identify the acid, base, conjugate acid and conjugate base in each of the following: 2

3 a. H 2 SO 3 + OH - - HSO 3 + H 2 O b. HSO OH - - S0 3 + H 2 O - c. HCHO 2 + H 2 O CHO 2 + H 3 O + d. C 5 H 5 N + H 2 O C 5 H 5 NH + + OH Write the conjugate acid/base for each of the following: a. NH 4 + b. ClO - c. OH - d. HCl e. H 3 O + f. H 2 O 28. Write both the conjugate acid and the conjugate base of HSO 4 -. Match the following terms with the correct description. 28. a base that dissociates completely in solution 29. an oxide that produces an acid when dissolved in water 30. an acid that ionizes completely in solution 31. an oxide that produces a base when dissolved in water 32. an acid that dissociates slightly when in solution 33. a base that only partially dissociates in solution A. weak acid B. weak base C. strong acid D. strong base E. acidic anhydride F. basic anhydride 34. Classify each of the following as a strong acid, strong base, weak acid, weak base: a. NaOH b. HCl c. NH 4 + d. NH 3 e. Cl - f. HI g. H 2 SO 4 h. H 2 CO 3 i. HNO Give two properties of an acid and a base that would enable you to identify them in 3

4 the lab. 36. What is a salt? How is it formed? Give 3 examples. 37. What is a neutralization reaction? What compound is always a product? 38. Complete the following neutralization reactions if the acid has more than one H +, write the reaction in multiple steps: a. KOH + HCl b. Ca(OH) 2 + HNO 3 c. H 2 SO 4 + Mg(OH) 2 d. NaOH + H 2 CO 3 e. HC 2 H 3 O 2 + KOH 39. Are all salts neutral in solution? 40. What is hydrolysis 41. In the reactions in question 38, are the salt solutions formed acidic, basic, or neutral? 42. Identify each of the following salts as acidic, basic or neutral in solution a. K 2 CO 3 b. NH 4 NO 3 c. AlCl 3 d. KNO 3 e. PbSO What is the molarity of a solution containing 10.0g of NaOH in ml of solution? 44. How many grams of NaOH must be dissolved in ml of solution to make a 1.5M solution? 45. If 26.4 cm 3 of LiOH solution are required to neutralize 21.7ml of 0.500M HBr, what is the concentration of the basic solution? 46. If 23.4 cm 3 of 0.55M NaOH is used to titrate 50.0 cm 3 of HCl to the endpoint, what is the concentration of the HCl solution? 47. If 75.0 cm 3 of 0.823M HCl0 4 required 95.5 cm 3 of Ba(OH) 2 for complete neutralization, what is the concentration of the Ba(OH) 2 solution? 4

5 48. If 40.8 cm 3 of 0.106M sulfuric acid neutralized 50.0 cm 3 of potassium hydroxide solution, find the concentration of the base. 49. How many ml of 0.18M A1 (OH) 3 are needed to neutralize 25.0ml of.25m HN0 3? 50. How many ml of.25m LiOH are needed to neutralize 25.Oml of 0.10M H 2 SO 4? 51. Write the formulas for the anhydrides of the following: a. H 2 CO 3 b. H 2 SO 4 c. H 2 SO 3 d. NaOH e. Ca(OH) 2 f. HNO True or false: Most ph values are whole numbers. 53. If the [H + ] is written in scientific notation, but the coefficient is not 1, what mathematical factor do you need to determine the ph? 54. True or false: You can calculate the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution if you know the ph. 55. What is an indicator 56. When do you use indicators and when do you use a ph meter to measure ph? 57. How is an indicator a valuable tool in determining ph? 58. Why do you need many different indicators to span the entire ph spectrum? 59. What is a buffer and how does it work? 60. Define ph and poh. 61. Find the ph of solution with the following hydrogen ion concentrations a. 1.00X 10 3 M b X 10-6 M c X M d X 10-6 M e X 10-8 M f X M 5

6 62. Find the hydrogen ion concentration of the following solutions a. ph = b. ph = c. ph = d. ph= e. ph= f. ph = Find the ph of the following solutions a. poh = 2.00 b. poh = 7.00 c. poh = 1.23 d. poh = e. poh = f. poh = g. poh = Differentiate between a strong acid and a weak acid. 65. Distinguish between strong and concentrated. 66. Given the solutions below: Solution ph A 2 B 10 C 5 D 1 E 13 a. Which are acid solutions b. Name the strongest acid and the strongest base c. Which has the highest [H 3 O + ] d. Which has the highest [OH - ] e. Calculate the [OH - ] and the [H 3 O + ] for each solution 67. What is K a. K b. and K w? a. Write the K a expressions for HC 2 H 3 O 2 and H 2 SO 3 b. Write the K b expression for an NH 3 solution in water c. Write the K w expression 68. In a water solution where 2H 2 O OH - + H 3 O + a. What happens to the equilibrium if additional OH - is added to the solution? b. What happens to the concentration of H 3 O + when additional OH - is added? c. What happens to the ph when additional OH - is added? d. [OH - ][H 3 O + ] = 6

7 69. Given the equilibrium HC 2 H 3 O 2 H + + C 2 H 3 O - 2, if some Na C 2 H 3 O 2 is added to the solution a. Which direction will the equilibrium shift? b. What happens to the concentration of [H + ]? c. What happens to the ph? d. Since this solution contains a weak acid and a salt, it is an example of a. What is the benefit of this type of solution? e. How could a solution of NH 3 be buffered? 70. Using the ionization reaction above for acetic acid, a. Write the K a expression. b. Calculate the [H + ] for a 0.1M solution of HC 2 H 3 O 2. K a = 1.8 x The K a for HNO 2 is 4.6 x Find the [H + ] in a 0.01M solution. 72. In a 0.3M solution of H 2 CO 3, the concentration of the HCO 3 - is 3.6 x 10-4 M. What is the percent ionization of the H 2 CO 3 molecule? 73. The K a for HF is 3.53 x Find the %ionization in a 0.50M solution. 7

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