Energy and Thermochemistry

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Energy and Thermochemistry"

Transcription

1 Energy and Thermochemistry 1

2 Energy The ability to do work 2 types Potential: stored energy Kinetic: energy in motion 2

3 Thermochemistry Changes of heat content and heat transfer Follow Law of Conservation of Energy Or, 1 st Law of Thermodynamics Energy can neither be created nor destroyed 3

4 Temperature & Heat Heat not same as temperature Heat = energy transferred to one system by another due to temperature difference Temperature = measure of heat energy content & ability to transfer heat Thermometer Higher thermal energy, greater motion of constituents Sum of individual energies of constituents = total thermal energy 4

5 Systems and Surroundings System = the object in question Surrounding(s) ) = everything outside the system When both system and surrounding at same temperature thermal equilibrium When not Heat transfer to surrounding = exothermic (you feel the heat) hot metal! Heat transfer to system = endothermic (you feel cold) cold metal! 5

6 Math! Joules (J) used for energy quantities But usually kj (1000 J) used Ye Royal Olde School used calorie (cal) cal = amt of heat required to raise the temperature of 1.00 g of water by 1 C1 1 cal = J (SI-unit) But Calorie (Cal) = 1000 cal Used in nutrition science and on food labels Joule (J) = 1 kg m s 2 2 6

7 Heat Capacity Specific heat capacity Quantity of heat required to raise the temp of 1 gram of any substance by 1 K C = g J K J Molar heat capacity Quantity of heat required to raise the temp of 1 mole of any substance by 1 K J c = mol K specific heat capacity of water = g K 75.4 J molar heat capacity of water = mol K 7

8 Calculating heat transfer Q = C m T Q = transferred heat, m = mass of substance, T = temperature change FYI Specific heat capacity of metals is very low < J/(g K) What does this tell us about heat transfer in metals? 8

9 Let s s do an example In your backyard, you have a swimming pool that contains 5.19 x 10 3 kg of water. How many kj are required to raise the temperature of this water from 7.2 C C to 25.0 C? 9

10 Example solved J g K Q = C m T = (4.184 ) (5.19 x 10 g) (298.2 K K) = J = kj Trick: T in K = T T in C 10

11 Practice How many kj are required to raise the temperature of 25.8 g of quicksilver from 22.5 C C to 28.0 C? C Hg = J/(g K) 11

12 Solution T = 28.0 C-22.5 C = 5.5 C J kj = = = = g K 1000J 3 Q C m T ( ) 25.8g 5.5 C 20.J kj 12

13 But what if there s s a change of state? Temperature constant throughout change of state Added energy overcomes inter-molecular forces 13

14 Change of state What do the flat areas represent? 14

15 Change of state q tot = q s + q s l + q l + q l g + q g q s l = heat h of fusion Heat required to convert solid at melting pt. to liq Ice = 333 J/g q l g = heat of vaporization Heat required to convert liq. at boiling pt. to gas Water = 2256 J/g 15

16 Practice How much heat is required to vaporize g of ice at C C to C? Given: Specific heat capacity of ice = 2.06 J/g K Specific heat capacity of water = J/g K Specific heat capacity of steam = 1.92 J/g K Let s s do this 16

17 Solution J g K 4 Q s=250.0g 2.06 (0.0 C 25.0 C)= J J Q s l =250.0g 333 = 83, 250J g J Q l=250.0g (100.0 C-0.0 C)=104,600J g K J g 5 Q l g=250.0g 2256 = J J J 3 Q g =250.0g 1.92 (110.0 C C)= J g K Qtot = J + 83, 250J + 104,600J J J = 769,650J 17

18 Calorimetry The process of measuring heat transfer in chemical/physical process q rxn + q soln = 0 q rxn = -q soln Rxn = system Soln = surrounding What you ll do in lab Heat given off by rxn Measured by thermometer Figure out q rxn indirectly 18

19 Enthalpy = heat content at constant pressure If H H = +,, process endothermic If H H = -,, process exothermic Enthalpy change dependent on states of matter and molar quantities For example: Is vaporizing ice an exothermic or endothermic process? Thus, will H H be + or -? 19

20 Hess s s Law If a rxn is the sum of 2 or more other reactions, H H = sum of H s s for those rxns So, H tot = H 1 + H 2 + H H n 20

21 Let s s solve a problem C (s) + 2S (s) CS 2(l) ; H H =? Given: C (s) + O 2(g) CO 2(g) ; H H = kj/mol S (s) + O 2(g) SO 2(g) ; H H = kj/mol CS 2(l) + 3O 2(g) CO 2(g) + 2SO 2(g) ; H H = kj/mol How do we manipulate the 3 rxns to achieve the necessary net rxn? Does H H change if the rxns are reversed and/or their mole ratios are changed? Let s s talk about this on the next slide 21

22 Let s s work it out 1. Switch this rxn: : CS 2(l) + 3O 2(g) CO 2(g) + 2SO 2(g) ; H H = kj Thus, CO 2(g) + 2SO 2(g) CS 2(l) + 3O 2(g) ; H H = kj Thus, - H fwd = + H+ rev 2. Double this rxn: S (s) + O 2(g) SO 2(g) ; H H = kj Thus, 2S 2 (s) + 2O 2(g) 2SO 2(g) ; H H = ( kj) x 2 = kj Since H H is per mole, changing the stoichiometric ratios entails an equivalent change in H 3. Keep this rxn: C (s) + O 2(g) CO 2(g) ; H H = kj 4. Add those on same side of rxns/eliminate those on opposite sides of rxn: CO 2, 2SO 2, 3O 2 5. Net rxn: C (s) + 2S (s) CS 2(l) H H = kj kj kj = kj Is it an exo- or endothermic rxn? 22

23 Practice Given: CH 4(g) C (s) + 2H 2(g) ; H H = 74.6 kj/mol C (s) + O 2(g) CO 2(g) ; H H = kj/mol H 2(g) + ½ O 2(g) H 2 O (g) ; H= kj/mol CH 4(g) + 2O 2(g) CO 2(g) + 2H 2 O (g) ; H rxn =? 23

24 Standard Energies of Formation Standard molar enthalpies of formation = H f = enthalpy change for formation of 1 mol of cmpd directly from component elements in standard states Standard state = most stable form of substance in physical state that 1 bar pressure & a specific temp., usually 0 C 0 (273K) 1 bar = 100kPa kpa = 1 atm So 1 bar 1 atm (an SI unit) Example C (s) + O 2(g) CO 2(g) ; H H = H f = kj H f = 0 for elements in standard state 24

25 Enthalpy Change for a Rxn Must know all standard molar enthalpies H rxn = H f prods - H f reactants Given to you in a table in the back of the book Again, keep in mind the mole ratios for each species involved! 25

26 Practice Determine H rxn for: 4NH 3(g) + 5O 2(g) 4NO (g) + 6H 2 O (g) Given: NH 3(g) = kj/mol NO (g) = 91.3 H 2 O (g) =

27 Solution Determine H for: rxn 4NH + 5O 4NO + 6H O 3(g) 2(g) (g) 2 (g) kj kj kj kj H rxn = [4mol mol ] [4mol mol 0 ] = 902kJ mol mol mol mol 27

28 Example H rxn for 10.0 g of nitroglycerin? 2C 3 H 5 (NO 3 ) 3(l) 3N 2(g) + ½O 2(g) + 6CO 2(g) + 5H 2 O (g) C 3 H 5 (NO 3 ) 3(l) = -364 kj/mol CO 2(g) = kj/mol H 2 O (g) = kj/mol 28

29 Solution kj 1 kj kj kj 1) H rxn = [3 mol 0 + mol mol mol ] mol 2 mol mol mol kj - [2 mol -364 ] = kj mol 1mol -2842kJ 2)10.0 g = 62.6kJ 227.2g 2mol 29

Chapter 5. Thermochemistry

Chapter 5. Thermochemistry Chapter 5. Thermochemistry THERMODYNAMICS - study of energy and its transformations Thermochemistry - study of energy changes associated with chemical reactions Energy - capacity to do work or to transfer

More information

THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS

THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS Thermochemistry is the study of the study of relationships between chemistry and energy. All chemical changes and many physical changes involve exchange of energy with the

More information

Thermochemistry. Thermochemistry 1/25/2010. Reading: Chapter 5 (omit 5.8) As you read ask yourself

Thermochemistry. Thermochemistry 1/25/2010. Reading: Chapter 5 (omit 5.8) As you read ask yourself Thermochemistry Reading: Chapter 5 (omit 5.8) As you read ask yourself What is meant by the terms system and surroundings? How are they related to each other? How does energy get transferred between them?

More information

Energy and Chemical Reactions. Characterizing Energy:

Energy and Chemical Reactions. Characterizing Energy: Energy and Chemical Reactions Energy: Critical for virtually all aspects of chemistry Defined as: We focus on energy transfer. We observe energy changes in: Heat Transfer: How much energy can a material

More information

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510)

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) 17 THERMOCHEMISTRY SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) This section explains the relationship between energy and heat, and distinguishes between heat capacity and specific heat.

More information

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

More information

Bomb Calorimetry. Example 4. Energy and Enthalpy

Bomb Calorimetry. Example 4. Energy and Enthalpy Bomb Calorimetry constant volume often used for combustion reactions heat released by reaction is absorbed by calorimeter contents need heat capacity of calorimeter q cal = q rxn = q bomb + q water Example

More information

ENERGY. Thermochemistry. Heat. Temperature & Heat. Thermometers & Temperature. Temperature & Heat. Energy is the capacity to do work.

ENERGY. Thermochemistry. Heat. Temperature & Heat. Thermometers & Temperature. Temperature & Heat. Energy is the capacity to do work. ENERGY Thermochemistry Energy is the capacity to do work. Chapter 6 Kinetic Energy thermal, mechanical, electrical, sound Potential Energy chemical, gravitational, electrostatic Heat Heat, or thermal energy,

More information

1. Thermite reaction 2. Enthalpy of reaction, H 3. Heating/cooling curves and changes in state 4. More thermite thermodynamics

1. Thermite reaction 2. Enthalpy of reaction, H 3. Heating/cooling curves and changes in state 4. More thermite thermodynamics Chem 105 Fri 10-23-09 1. Thermite reaction 2. Enthalpy of reaction, H 3. Heating/cooling curves and changes in state 4. More thermite thermodynamics 10/23/2009 1 Please PICK UP your graded EXAM in front.

More information

AP* Chemistry THERMOCHEMISTRY

AP* Chemistry THERMOCHEMISTRY AP* Chemistry THERMOCHEMISTRY Terms for you to learn that will make this unit understandable: Energy (E) the ability to do work or produce heat ; the sum of all potential and kinetic energy in a system

More information

DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3

DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3 DETERMINING THE ENTHALPY OF FORMATION OF CaCO 3 Standard Enthalpy Change Standard Enthalpy Change for a reaction, symbolized as H 0 298, is defined as The enthalpy change when the molar quantities of reactants

More information

Calorimetry: Determining the Heat of Fusion of Ice and the Heat of Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen - Chemistry I Acc

Calorimetry: Determining the Heat of Fusion of Ice and the Heat of Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen - Chemistry I Acc Calorimetry: Determining the Heat of Fusion of Ice and the Heat of Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen - Chemistry I Acc O B J E C T I V E 1. Using a simple calorimeter, Determine the heat of fusion of ice

More information

Reading. Spontaneity. Monday, January 30 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks

Reading. Spontaneity. Monday, January 30 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks Thermo Notes #3 Entropy and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Monday, January 30 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks Reading You should reading Chapter 7. Some of this material is quite challenging, be sure to read this material

More information

Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction

Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction Spontaneity of a Chemical Reaction We have learned that entropy is used to quantify the extent of disorder resulting from the dispersal of matter in a system. Also; entropy, like enthalpy and internal

More information

Thermochemical equations allow stoichiometric calculations.

Thermochemical equations allow stoichiometric calculations. CHEM 1105 THERMOCHEMISTRY 1. Change in Enthalpy ( H) Heat is evolved or absorbed in all chemical reactions. Exothermic reaction: heat evolved - heat flows from reaction mixture to surroundings; products

More information

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K 1 Thermodynamics There always seems to be at least one free response question that involves thermodynamics. These types of question also show up in the multiple choice questions. G, S, and H. Know what

More information

ENTHALPY CHANGES FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION scaling a rxn up or down (proportionality) quantity 1 from rxn heat 1 from Δ r H. = 32.

ENTHALPY CHANGES FOR A CHEMICAL REACTION scaling a rxn up or down (proportionality) quantity 1 from rxn heat 1 from Δ r H. = 32. CHEMISTRY 103 Help Sheet #10 Chapter 4 (Part II); Sections 4.6-4.10 Do the topics appropriate for your lecture Prepared by Dr. Tony Jacob http://www.chem.wisc.edu/areas/clc (Resource page) Nuggets: Enthalpy

More information

Calorimetry and Enthalpy. Chapter 5.2

Calorimetry and Enthalpy. Chapter 5.2 Calorimetry and Enthalpy Chapter 5.2 Heat Capacity Specific heat capacity (c) is the quantity of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1⁰C The units for specific heat

More information

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1

Thermodynamics. Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics 1 Thermodynamics Some Important Topics First Law of Thermodynamics Internal Energy U ( or E) Enthalpy H Second Law of Thermodynamics Entropy S Third law of Thermodynamics Absolute Entropy

More information

Calorimeter: A device in which the heat associated with a specific process is measured.

Calorimeter: A device in which the heat associated with a specific process is measured. 1 CALORIMETRY p. 661-667 (simple), 673-675 (bomb) Calorimeter: A device in which the heat associated with a specific process is measured. There are two basic types of calorimeters: 1. Constant-pressure

More information

Thermochemistry is study of changes in energy (heat) associated with physical or chemical changes.

Thermochemistry is study of changes in energy (heat) associated with physical or chemical changes. Thermochem 1 Thermochemistry Thermochemistry and Energy and Temperature Thermochemistry is study of changes in energy (heat) associated with physical or chemical changes. Force = push F= m a (mass x acceleration)

More information

Thermodynamics: First Law, Calorimetry, Enthalpy. Calorimetry. Calorimetry: constant volume. Monday, January 23 CHEM 102H T.

Thermodynamics: First Law, Calorimetry, Enthalpy. Calorimetry. Calorimetry: constant volume. Monday, January 23 CHEM 102H T. Thermodynamics: First Law, Calorimetry, Enthalpy Monday, January 23 CHEM 102H T. Hughbanks Calorimetry Reactions are usually done at either constant V (in a closed container) or constant P (open to the

More information

Thermodynamics- Chapter 19 Schedule and Notes

Thermodynamics- Chapter 19 Schedule and Notes Thermodynamics- Chapter 19 Schedule and Notes Date Topics Video cast DUE Assignment during class time One Review of thermodynamics 1_thermo_review AND Review of thermo Wksheet 2.1ch19_intro Optional: 1sc_thermo

More information

Unit 5 Practice Test. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 5 Practice Test. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 5 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The internal energy of a system is always increased by. A) adding

More information

AP Practice Questions

AP Practice Questions 1) AP Practice Questions The tables above contain information for determining thermodynamic properties of the reaction below. C 2 H 5 Cl(g) + Cl 2 (g) C 2 H 4 Cl 2 (g) + HCl(g) (a) Calculate ΔH for

More information

3. Of energy, work, enthalpy, and heat, how many are state functions? a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4 ANS: c) 2 PAGE: 6.1, 6.2

3. Of energy, work, enthalpy, and heat, how many are state functions? a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4 ANS: c) 2 PAGE: 6.1, 6.2 1. A gas absorbs 0.0 J of heat and then performs 15.2 J of work. The change in internal energy of the gas is a) 24.8 J b) 14.8 J c) 55.2 J d) 15.2 J ANS: d) 15.2 J PAGE: 6.1 2. Calculate the work for the

More information

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work.

The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work. Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. The first law: transformation of energy into heat and work Chemical reactions can be used to provide heat and for doing work. Compare fuel value of different compounds. What drives these reactions to proceed

More information

Enthalpy of Neutralization. Introduction

Enthalpy of Neutralization. Introduction Enthalpy of Neutralization Introduction Energy changes always accompany chemical reactions. If energy, in the form of heat, is liberated the reaction is exothermic and if energy is absorbed the reaction

More information

UNIT 1 THERMOCHEMISTRY

UNIT 1 THERMOCHEMISTRY UNIT 1 THERMOCHEMISTRY THERMOCHEMISTRY LEARNING OUTCOMES Students will be expected to: THERMOCHEMISTRY STSE analyse why scientific and technological activities take place in a variety individual and group

More information

Chapter 6 Thermodynamics: The First Law

Chapter 6 Thermodynamics: The First Law Key Concepts 6.1 Systems Chapter 6 Thermodynamics: The First Law Systems, States, and Energy (Sections 6.1 6.8) thermodynamics, statistical thermodynamics, system, surroundings, open system, closed system,

More information

CALORIMETRY AND HESS LAW: FINDING H o FOR THE COMBUSTION OF MAGNESIUM

CALORIMETRY AND HESS LAW: FINDING H o FOR THE COMBUSTION OF MAGNESIUM Experiment 12J FV 7/16/06 CALORIMETRY AND HESS LAW: FINDING H o FOR THE COMBUSTION OF MAGNESIUM MATERIALS: Styrofoam coffee cup and lid, thermometer, magnetic stirrer, magnetic stir bar, 50-mL and 100-

More information

Unit 19 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 19 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 19 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The first law of thermodynamics can be given as. A) E = q + w B) =

More information

q = (mass) x (specific heat) x T = m c T (1)

q = (mass) x (specific heat) x T = m c T (1) Experiment: Heat Effects and Calorimetry Heat is a form of energy, sometimes called thermal energy, which can pass spontaneously from an object at a high temperature to an object at a lower temperature.

More information

CHAPTER 14 (MOORE) CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

CHAPTER 14 (MOORE) CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM CHAPTER 14 (MOORE) CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM This chapter deals with chemical equilibrium, or how far chemical reactions proceed. Some reactions convert reactants to products with near 100% efficiency but others

More information

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin Ch. 10-11 Concept Ch. 10 #1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 Ch11, # 3, 6, 11 Problems Ch10 # 3, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25, 29, 33, 37, 39, 43, 47, 59 Problems: CH 11 # 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35 Temperature

More information

Transfer of heat energy often occurs during chemical reactions. A reaction

Transfer of heat energy often occurs during chemical reactions. A reaction Chemistry 111 Lab: Thermochemistry Page I-3 THERMOCHEMISTRY Heats of Reaction The Enthalpy of Formation of Magnesium Oxide Transfer of heat energy often occurs during chemical reactions. A reaction may

More information

Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, Maqqwertd ygoijpk[l

Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, Maqqwertd ygoijpk[l Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Quantities in Car an octane and oxygen molecules and carbon dioxide and water Chemical Reactions Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley

More information

11 Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry

11 Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry Copyright ç 1996 Richard Hochstim. All rights reserved. Terms of use.» 37 11 Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry Thermodynamics is the study of heat, and how heat can be interconverted into other energy

More information

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

States of Matter CHAPTER 10 REVIEW SECTION 1. Name Date Class. Answer the following questions in the space provided. CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas

More information

Energy Flow in Marine Ecosystem

Energy Flow in Marine Ecosystem Energy Flow in Marine Ecosystem Introduction Marin ecosystem is a functional system and consists of living groups and the surrounding environment It is composed of some groups and subgroups 1. The physical

More information

HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE

HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE 303 HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE OBJECTIVES FOR THE EXPERIMENT The student will be able to do the following: 1. Calculate the change in enthalpy (heat of reaction) using the Law of Hess. 2. Find

More information

= T T V V T = V. By using the relation given in the problem, we can write this as: ( P + T ( P/ T)V ) = T

= T T V V T = V. By using the relation given in the problem, we can write this as: ( P + T ( P/ T)V ) = T hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 3. 1. Show that C / = 0 for a an ideal gas, b a van der Waals gas and c a gas following P = nr. Assume that the following result nb holds: U = P P Hint: In b and c,

More information

Chemical Thermodynamics

Chemical Thermodynamics Chemical Thermodynamics David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Tucson, AZ 85709, USA First Law of Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics was expressed in the study of thermochemistry.

More information

Heat as Energy Transfer. Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature

Heat as Energy Transfer. Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature Unit of heat: calorie (cal) Heat as Energy Transfer Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature 1 cal is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature

More information

SUGGESTION ANSWER SCHEME CHAPTER 8: THERMOCHEMISTRY. 1 (a) Use the data in the table below to answer the following questions:

SUGGESTION ANSWER SCHEME CHAPTER 8: THERMOCHEMISTRY. 1 (a) Use the data in the table below to answer the following questions: SUGGESTION ANSWER SCHEME CHAPTER 8: THERMOCHEMISTRY ANSWER SCHEME UPS 2004/2005 SK027 1 (a) Use the data in the table below to answer the following questions: Enthalpy change ΔH (kj/mol) Atomization energy

More information

Module 5: Combustion Technology. Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels

Module 5: Combustion Technology. Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels 1 P age Module 5: Combustion Technology Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels 2 P age Keywords : Gross calorific value, Net calorific value, enthalpy change, bomb calorimeter 5.3 Calculation

More information

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner

APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner Grade Level/Subject APS Science Curriculum Unit Planner Enduring Understanding Chemistry Stage 1: Desired Results Topic 3: Kinetics: The Kinetic Theory can explain the phases of matter, the energetics

More information

CHEM 105 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99. = -163 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Ni(CO) 4 (g) = -260 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Cr(CO) 6 (g)

CHEM 105 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99. = -163 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Ni(CO) 4 (g) = -260 kj/mole determine H f 0 for Cr(CO) 6 (g) CHEM 15 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99 NAME (please print) 1. a. given: Ni (s) + 4 CO (g) = Ni(CO) 4 (g) H Rxn = -163 k/mole determine H f for Ni(CO) 4 (g) b. given: Cr (s) + 6 CO (g) = Cr(CO) 6 (g) H Rxn = -26

More information

Chapter 20. Thermodynamics p. 811 842. Spontaneity. What have we learned about spontaneity during this course?

Chapter 20. Thermodynamics p. 811 842. Spontaneity. What have we learned about spontaneity during this course? Chapter 20 p. 811 842 Spontaneous process: Ex. Nonspontaneous process: Ex. Spontaneity What have we learned about spontaneity during this course? 1) Q vs. K? 2) So.. Spontaneous process occurs when a system

More information

Explorations in Thermodynamics: Calorimetry, Enthalpy & Heats of Reaction

Explorations in Thermodynamics: Calorimetry, Enthalpy & Heats of Reaction Explorations in Thermodynamics: Calorimetry, Enthalpy & Heats of Reaction Dena K. Leggett, Ph.D. and Jon H. Hardesty, Ph.D. Collin County Community College Dept. of Chemistry 1. Introduction: One of the

More information

Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics).

Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics). Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics). Rates of chemical reactions are controlled by activation

More information

Experiment 6 Coffee-cup Calorimetry

Experiment 6 Coffee-cup Calorimetry 6-1 Experiment 6 Coffee-cup Calorimetry Introduction: Chemical reactions involve the release or consumption of energy, usually in the form of heat. Heat is measured in the energy units, Joules (J), defined

More information

CHEM 36 General Chemistry EXAM #1 February 13, 2002

CHEM 36 General Chemistry EXAM #1 February 13, 2002 CHEM 36 General Chemistry EXAM #1 February 13, 2002 Name: Serkey, Anne INSTRUCTIONS: Read through the entire exam before you begin. Answer all of the questions. For questions involving calculations, show

More information

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Chemistry 10 Chapter 14 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Reactions that can go in both directions are called reversible reactions. These reactions seem to stop before they go to completion. When the rate of the forward

More information

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

More information

Energy. Work. Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Learning Check 2.1. Energy. Energy. makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work.

Energy. Work. Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Learning Check 2.1. Energy. Energy. makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work. Chapter 2 Energy and Matter Energy 2.1 Energy Energy makes objects move. makes things stop. is needed to do work. 1 2 Work Potential Energy Work is done when you climb. you lift a bag of groceries. you

More information

Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal

Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal Staten Island Technical High School Vincent A. Maniscalco, Principal The Physical Setting: CHEMISTRY Science Department Mark Erlenwein, Assistant Principal - Unit 1 - Matter and Energy Lessons 9-14 Heat,

More information

Entropy Changes & Processes

Entropy Changes & Processes Entropy Changes & Processes Chapter 4 of Atkins: he Second Law: he Concepts Section 4.3, 7th edition; 3.3, 8th edition Entropy of Phase ransition at the ransition emperature Expansion of the Perfect Gas

More information

Problem # 2 Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces present in each element or compound:

Problem # 2 Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces present in each element or compound: Chapter 11 Homework solutions Problem # 2 Determine the kinds of intermolecular forces present in each element or compound: A. Kr B. NCl 3 C. SiH 4 D. HF SOLUTION: Kr is a single atom, hence it can have

More information

Name AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16

Name AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16 Name AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16 1980 - #7 (a) State the physical significance of entropy. Entropy (S) is a measure of randomness or disorder in a system. (b) From each of

More information

L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N

L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N Class Date Name Partner(s) L A T E N T H E A T O F F U S I O N Materials LoggerPro Software and Real Time Physics Thermodynamics Experiment Files Stainless Steel Temperature Probes (2) Styrofoam Cup Film

More information

Equilibrium Practice Problems

Equilibrium Practice Problems Equilibrium Practice Problems 1. Write the equilibrium expression for each of the following reactions: N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) 2 NH 3 (g) K = [NH 3 ] 2 [N 2 ] [H 2 ] 3 I 2 (s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 ICl (g) K = [ICl]

More information

AP Chem Lab 2 Quiz #1 Calorimetry. Conceptual Understanding. Write complete sentences to show your understanding.

AP Chem Lab 2 Quiz #1 Calorimetry. Conceptual Understanding. Write complete sentences to show your understanding. AP Chem Lab 2 Quiz #1 Calorimetry Name Conceptual Understanding. Write complete sentences to show your understanding. Differentiate between kinetic energy and potential energy. Energy may be transferred

More information

Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 13 Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium Physical Equilibrium refers to the equilibrium between two or more states of matter (solid, liquid and gas) A great example of physical equilibrium is shown

More information

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will

Test 5 Review questions. 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below

More information

R = J/mol K R = L atm/mol K

R = J/mol K R = L atm/mol K version: master Exam 1 - VDB/LaB/Spk This MC portion of the exam should have 19 questions. The point values are given with each question. Bubble in your answer choices on the bubblehseet provided. Your

More information

1. solid, vapor, critical point correct. 2. solid, liquid, critical point. 3. liquid, vapor, critical point. 4. solid, liquid, triple point

1. solid, vapor, critical point correct. 2. solid, liquid, critical point. 3. liquid, vapor, critical point. 4. solid, liquid, triple point mcdonald (pam78654) HW 7B: Equilibria laude (89560) 1 This print-out should have 18 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering. 001 10.0

More information

k is change in kinetic energy and E

k is change in kinetic energy and E Energy Balances on Closed Systems A system is closed if mass does not cross the system boundary during the period of time covered by energy balance. Energy balance for a closed system written between two

More information

Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1

Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1 Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1 This print-out should have 0 questions, check that it is complete. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making

More information

Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES

Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES I. PROPERITIES OF GASES A. Gases have an indefinite shape. B. Gases have a low density C. Gases are very compressible D. Gases exert pressure equally in all

More information

Heat of Solution. Purpose To calculate the heat of solution for sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 )

Heat of Solution. Purpose To calculate the heat of solution for sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) Heat of Solution Purpose To calculate the heat of solution for sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonium nitrate (NH 4 NO 3 ) Background For a given solute, the heat of solution is the change in enerrgy that

More information

SUPPLEMENTARY TOPIC 3 ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

SUPPLEMENTARY TOPIC 3 ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS SUPPLEMENTARY TOPIC 3 ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS Rearranging atoms. In a chemical reaction, bonds between atoms in one or more molecules (reactants) break and new bonds are formed with other atoms to

More information

Thermochemistry I: Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions

Thermochemistry I: Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions THERMOCHEMISTRY I 77 Thermochemistry I: Endothermic & Exothermic Reactions OBJECTIVES: Learn elementary concepts of calorimetry and thermochemistry Practice techniques of careful temperature, mass, and

More information

vap H = RT 1T 2 = 30.850 kj mol 1 100 kpa = 341 K

vap H = RT 1T 2 = 30.850 kj mol 1 100 kpa = 341 K Thermodynamics: Examples for chapter 6. 1. The boiling point of hexane at 1 atm is 68.7 C. What is the boiling point at 1 bar? The vapor pressure of hexane at 49.6 C is 53.32 kpa. Assume that the vapor

More information

Ch 3. Rate Laws and Stoichiometry

Ch 3. Rate Laws and Stoichiometry Ch 3. Rate Laws and Stoichiometry How do we obtain r A = f(x)? We do this in two steps 1. Rate Law Find the rate as a function of concentration, r A = k fn (C A, C B ). Stoichiometry Find the concentration

More information

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion. Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

More information

FORMA is EXAM I, VERSION 1 (v1) Name

FORMA is EXAM I, VERSION 1 (v1) Name FORMA is EXAM I, VERSION 1 (v1) Name 1. DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL DIRECTED TO DO SO. 2. These tests are machine graded; therefore, be sure to use a No. 1 or 2 pencil for marking the answer sheets. 3.

More information

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (ICE METHOD)

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (ICE METHOD) CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM (ICE METHOD) Introduction Chemical equilibrium occurs when opposing reactions are proceeding at equal rates. The rate at which the products are formed from the reactants equals the

More information

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC

Determination of the enthalpy of combustion using a bomb calorimeter TEC Determination of the enthalpy of TEC Related concepts First law of thermodynamics, Hess s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of combustion, enthalpy of formation, heat capacity. Principle The bomb

More information

The Equipartition Theorem

The Equipartition Theorem The Equipartition Theorem Degrees of freedom are associated with the kinetic energy of translations, rotation, vibration and the potential energy of vibrations. A result from classical statistical mechanics

More information

Intermolecular Forces

Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular Forces: Introduction Intermolecular Forces Forces between separate molecules and dissolved ions (not bonds) Van der Waals Forces 15% as strong as covalent or ionic bonds Chapter 11 Intermolecular

More information

Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter

Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter Physical and Chemical Properties of Matter What is matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space Chemical or Physical Property? Physical properties of matter: characteristics that can be observed or

More information

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems

Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems Chem 1A Exam 2 Review Problems 1. At 0.967 atm, the height of mercury in a barometer is 0.735 m. If the mercury were replaced with water, what height of water (in meters) would be supported at this pressure?

More information

Reading: Moore chapter 18, sections 18.6-18.11 Questions for Review and Thought: 62, 69, 71, 73, 78, 83, 99, 102.

Reading: Moore chapter 18, sections 18.6-18.11 Questions for Review and Thought: 62, 69, 71, 73, 78, 83, 99, 102. Thermodynamics 2: Gibbs Free Energy and Equilibrium Reading: Moore chapter 18, sections 18.6-18.11 Questions for Review and Thought: 62, 69, 71, 73, 78, 83, 99, 102. Key Concepts and skills: definitions

More information

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

More information

Simple Experiments in Thermochemistry

Simple Experiments in Thermochemistry Simple Experiments in Thermochemistry Purpose: To demonstrate the law of conservation of energy and propose a method for making a chemical heat pack using the heats of solution of sodium bicarbonate and

More information

Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 14 1 Equilibrium is a state in which there are no observable changes as time goes by. Chemical equilibrium is achieved when: the rates of the forward and reverse reactions

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A TEST 9 REVIEW Name Date Period Test Review # 9 Collision theory. In order for a reaction to occur, particles of the reactant must collide. Not all collisions cause reactions.

More information

Enthalpy of Reaction and Calorimetry worksheet

Enthalpy of Reaction and Calorimetry worksheet Enthalpy of Reaction and Calorimetry worksheet 1. Calcium carbonate decomposes at high temperature to form carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, calculate the enthalpy of reaction. CaCO 3 CO 2 + CaO 2. Carbon

More information

Chemical Equilibrium-A Dynamic Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium-A Dynamic Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium-A Dynamic Equilibrium Page 1 When compounds react, they eventually form a mixture of products and (unreacted) reactants, in a dynamic equilibrium Much like water in a U-shape tube,

More information

Chapter 13. Chemical Equilibrium

Chapter 13. Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 13 Chemical Equilibrium Chapter 13 Preview Chemical Equilibrium The Equilibrium condition and constant Chemical equilibrium, reactions, constant expression Equilibrium involving Pressure Chemical

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay

Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay 13 Ch a pt e r Chemical Equilibrium Chemistry 4th Edition McMurry/Fay Dr. Paul Charlesworth Michigan Technological University The Equilibrium State 01 Chemical Equilibrium: A state achieved when the rates

More information

Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations

Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations 1 Submicroscopic Macroscopic 2 Chapter Outline 1. Formula Masses (Ch 6.1) 2. Percent Composition (supplemental material) 3. The Mole & Avogadro s Number (Ch 6.2) 4. Molar

More information

PARADISE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PHYSICS 101 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS LABORATORY. Calorimetry

PARADISE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PHYSICS 101 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS LABORATORY. Calorimetry PARADISE VALLEY COMMUNITY COLLEGE PHYSICS 101 - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS LABORATORY Calorimetry Equipment Needed: Large styrofoam cup, thermometer, hot water, cold water, ice, beaker, graduated cylinder,

More information

Lecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.5-6,)

Lecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.5-6,) Lecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.5-6,) Entropy 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Dec. 11, 2009 Help Session: Today, 3:10-4:00, TH230 Review Session: Monday, 3:10-4:00, TH230 Solutions to practice Lecture 36 final on

More information

Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12

Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 Type: Single Date: Objective: Latent Heat Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 AP Physics B Date: Mr. Mirro Heat and Phase Change When bodies are heated or cooled their

More information

AAHS-CHEMISTRY FINAL EXAM PREP-REVIEW GUIDE MAY-JUNE 2014 DR. GRAY CLASS OF 2016

AAHS-CHEMISTRY FINAL EXAM PREP-REVIEW GUIDE MAY-JUNE 2014 DR. GRAY CLASS OF 2016 AAHS-CHEMISTRY FINAL EXAM PREP-REVIEW GUIDE MAY-JUNE 2014 DR. GRAY CLASS OF 2016 UNIT I: (CHAPTER 1-Zumdahl text) The Nature of Science and Chemistry 1. Explain why knowledge of chemistry is central to

More information

Chapter 18 Homework Answers

Chapter 18 Homework Answers Chapter 18 Homework Answers 18.22. 18.24. 18.26. a. Since G RT lnk, as long as the temperature remains constant, the value of G also remains constant. b. In this case, G G + RT lnq. Since the reaction

More information