# HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE

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1 303 HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE OBJECTIVES FOR THE EXPERIMENT The student will be able to do the following: 1. Calculate the change in enthalpy (heat of reaction) using the Law of Hess. 2. Find heats of reaction using a coffee-cup (open) calorimeter. 3. Calculate the heat capacity of a coffee-cup calorimeter. 4. Calculate the amount of heat involved in a specific temperature change of water. BACKGROUND The heat of formation of ammonium nitrate is the heat liberated when one mole of solid ammonium nitrate forms at constant pressure from its component elements in their standard states. N 2 (g) + 2H 2 (g) + 3 2O 2 (g) NH 4 NO 3 (s) DH = DH f NH 4 NO 3 (s) Even though this reaction does not take place, we still would like to know the value so it could be used in calculations of DHs for reactions that do take place. For example, we could use the heat of formations for ammonium nitrate, dinitrogen monoxide, and water to calculate the DH for the following reaction. NH 4 NO 3 (s) N 2 O(g) + 2H 2 O(l ) DH rxn = DH f N 2 O(g) + 2 DH f H 2 O(l ) - DH f NH 4 NO 3 (s) Because the reaction for the heat of formation of ammonium nitrate does not take place, we cannot determine it directly in the laboratory. Like many heats of reaction, we can determine this value indirectly using the Law of Hess. We will determine the heats of reaction for four reactions whose equations can be summed to yield the equation for the heat of formation of ammonium nitrate. The sum of the heats of reaction for each equation will yield the heat of formation of ammonium nitrate. ½N 2 (g) H 2 (g) NH 3 (aq) ½H 2 (g) + ½N 2 (g) + 3 2O 2 (g) HNO 3 (aq) NH 3 (aq) + HNO 3 (aq) NH 4 NO 3 (aq) DH f NH 3 (aq) = kj/mole DH f HNO 3 (aq) = kj/mole DH neut NH 4 NO 3 (aq) NH 4 NO 3 (s) -DH solution N 2 (g) + 2H 2 (g) + 3 2O 2 (g) NH 4 NO 3 (s) DH f NH 4 NO 3 (s) = DH f NH 3 (aq) + DH f HNO 3 (aq) + DH neut + (-DH solution ) The heat of formation of aqueous ammonia is kj/mole, and the heat of formation of aqueous nitric acid is kj/mole. You will determine the heat of neutralization and the heat of solution experimentally using an open or coffee-cup calorimeter. You can determine the amount of heat involved in a reaction from the amount of heat exchanged with the rest of the system. If the reaction evolves heat, its heat of reaction is negative. The rest of the system absorbs an equal amount of heat, and its heat value is positive. If the reaction absorbs heat, its heat of reaction is positive. The rest of the system gives off an equal amount of heat, so its heat value is negative. Thus, the heat of the

2 304 Lab Manual Heat of Formation of Ammonium Nitrate reaction is always equal to the opposite of the heat of the system. In this experiment, heat can be exchanged with the calorimeter, the products of the reaction, the water in which the reactants were dissolved, and the surroundings. q reaction = -q solution = -[q calorimeter + q product + q water + q surroundings ] We will assume that the heat exchanged with the products and surroundings is negligible. You can calculate the heat exchanged with the calorimeter from the heat capacity of the calorimeter and its change in temperature. You can calculate the heat exchanged with the water from the specific heat of water, /g C, the water s mass, and the change in temperature of the water. q reaction = -[q calorimeter + q water ] q rxn = [C cal T cal + m w T w ] The change in temperature is the same for the calorimeter and the water. q rxn = [C cal + m w ] T To determine the heat of reaction, we must first determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter. We will do this by measuring the heat absorbed by the calorimeter when 75 ml of hot water is added to 75 ml of cold water in the calorimeter. When the hot water combines with the cold water in the calorimeter, it loses heat to the cold water and the calorimeter. q hot water = -[q calorimeter + q cold water ] m hot T hot = [C cal T cal + m cold T cold ] The changes in temperature for the cold water and the calorimeter are the same. You can calculate the masses of water from the volumes of water added. Assume that the density of water is 1.0 g/ml. You can determine the changes in temperature from measurements of the initial and final temperatures. Thus, the only unknown in the above equation is the heat capacity of the calorimeter. You can solve the equation for C cal and calculate its value from the experimental data.

4 306 Lab Manual Heat of Formation of Ammonium Nitrate

5 307 NAME REPORT SHEET FOR THE HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HEAT CAPACITY OF THE CALORIMETER Volume cold water Mass cold water Volume hot water Mass hot water Temperature cold Temperature hot Final temperature Change in temperature cold Change in temperature hot C cal Show your calculations for the heat capacity of the calorimeter here. HEAT OF NEUTRALIZATION Volume 1.50 M NH 3 Volume 1.50 M HNO 3 Initial T Final T Change in temperature Mass water q neut Molar DH neut Show your calculations here. Watch your significant figures and signs.

6 308 Lab Manual Heat of Formation of Ammonium Nitrate HEAT OF SOLUTION Mass of NH 4 NO 3 Volume water Initial T Final T Change in temperature Mass water q soln Molar DH soln Show your calculations here. Watch your significant figures and signs. CALCULATION OF THE HEAT OF FORMATION OF AMMONIUM NITRATE DH f of ammonium nitrate Show your calculations here. Watch your significant figures and signs.

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