Enthalpy of Reaction and Calorimetry worksheet

 To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video
Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Enthalpy of Reaction and Calorimetry worksheet 1. Calcium carbonate decomposes at high temperature to form carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, calculate the enthalpy of reaction. CaCO 3 CO 2 + CaO 2. Carbon tetrachloride can be formed by reacting chlorine with methane, calculate the enthalpy of reaction. CH Cl 2 CCl H 2 3. When potassium chloride reacts with oxygen under the right conditions, potassium chlorate is formed: 2 KCl + 3 O 2 2KClO 3 Given that the enthalpy of formation of potassium chloride is kj/mol and the enthalpy of formation of potassium chlorate is kj/mol, determine the enthalpy of reaction. Calorimetry Practice 4. Compound A is burned in a bomb calorimeter that contains 2.50 liters of water. If the combustion of moles of this compound causes the temperature of the water to rise C, what is the molar heat of combustion of compound A? 5. Compound B is burned in a bomb calorimeter that contains 1.50 liters of water. When I burned 50.0 grams of compound B in the calorimeter, the temperature rise of the water in the calorimeter was C. If the heat of combustion of compound B is 2,150 kj/mol, what is the molar mass of compound B? 6. The molar heat of combustion of compound C is 1,250 kj/mol. If I were to burn moles of this compound in a bomb calorimeter with a reservoir that holds 2.50 L of water, what would the expected temperature increase be?

2 INV MOLAR ENTHALPY of SOLUTION - MEDICAL COLD PACKS Part 2 1. Describe the difference between heat and temperature. 2. For the compounds used in this experiment ( Nelson Chemistry 12 p. 347): (a) Calculate the number of moles present in a g sample. (b) Calculate the molar enthalpy (c) Write the thermochemical chemical equation for your compound's dissociation in water. 3. (a) When a substance dissolves its heat content, or enthalpy, will either increase or decrease. This change in enthalpy is observed as a change in temperature of the water in the calorimeter. Sketch a graph showing the change in enthalpy for the dissolving of an ionic compound which is: (b) For your compound, state whether the dissolving was an endothermic or exothermic process. (c) Will the sign for _H in your case be positive or negative? 4. Describe two factors that affect the strength of an ionic bond in a compound. 5. (a) Define crystal lattice energy and hydration energy. (b) Which of the properties in part (a) reduces the solubility of an ionic compound? (c) Which property, when increased, increases the solubility? 6. For an ionic solid to melt, external energy must be applied to overcome the attractive forces holding its ions together. For example, sodium hydroxide must be heated to temperatures exceeding 318 C for it to melt. Despite such a high melting point, sodium hydroxide readily and exothermally dissolves and dissociates into its ions in water at room temperature. (a) What is the source of the energy required to separate the ions from the solid sodium hydroxide? (b) Why does the resulting sodium hydroxide solution feel hot? 7. Ammonium chloride is also soluble despite having a melting point of 320 C. Why does an ammonium chloride solution feel cold to the touch? 8. Magnesium oxide, MgO, and magnesium chloride, MgCl 2, are very similar, white, ionic solids with the following properties: Compound Melting Point Solubility MgO 2800 C insoluble MgCl C very soluble (a) Give the formula of the ions of each compound. (b) Account for the drastic difference in physical properties. 9. Consider the following data from the Group 1 chlorides. These compounds are similar in structure, each being formed from a + cation and the -1 chloride ion. However, they are quite different with respect to lattice energy, hydration energy, and enthalpy of solution. Explain these differences. Substance Lattice Energy (kj/mol) Hydration Energy (kj/mol) Enthalpy of Solution (kj/mol) LiCl NaCl KCI

3 Heats of Reaction Using the Standard values of Η f, calculate the heats of reaction, ΔΗ rxn, or heats of formation, ΔΗ f All answers must include the intermediate steps with the formation reaction from the elements and their manipulation to form the overall reaction. For #1-6, the equation: ΔHo rxn = ΣnΔHo products ΣnΔHo reactants eg. SO 2(g) + H 2 O (l) H 2 SO 4(aq) H kj (1) 1/8 S 8 + O 2 _ SO (2) H 2 + 1/2 O 2 _ H 2 O (3) H 2 + 1/2 O 2 + 1/8 S 8 _ H 2 SO Then multiply or reverse, whatever is needed so that they add to the original reaction. 1. C 6 H 6 (l) + 15/2 O 2 (g) 6 CO 2 (g) + 3 H 2 O (g) CANNOT BE USED HNO 3 (aq) + NO (g) 3 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) 3. C 2 H 2 (g) + C 2 H 6 (g) 2 C 2 H 4 (g) 4. PbO 2 (s) + CO (g) PbO (s) + CO 2 (g) 5. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (s) + 3 H 2 O (l) Al 2 O 3 (s) + 3 H 2 SO 4 (aq) 6. 3 SO 2 (s) + 2 HNO 3 (aq) + 2 H 2 O (l) 3 H 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 NO (g) 7. Given that H rxn = kj for the following, calculate the H f for ClF 3 (g). 2 ClF 3 (g) + 2 NH 3 (g) N 2 (g) + 6 HF (g) + Cl 2 (g) 8. Given that H rxn = kj for the following, calculate the H f for HNO 2 (g). HNO 2 (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) HNO 3 (aq) 9. Given that H rxn = kj for the following, calculate the H f for Fe(CO) 5 (g). Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 13 CO (g) 2 Fe(CO) 5 (g) + 3 CO 2 (g) 10. Given that H rxn = kj for the following, calculate the H f for Fe 3 O 4 (s). 2 Fe 3 O 4 (s) + CO 2 (g) 3 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + CO (g)

4 Practice Thermochemistry Questions 1. a) Urea (from urine) hydrolyzes slowly in the presence of water to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. What is the standard H, S and G for this reaction when 1 mole of urea reacts with water? b) What is the spontaneity of this reaction? 2. What is G for the combustion of liquid ethyl alcohol (C 2 H 5 OH) to give CO 2(g) and H 2 O (g)? Is the reaction spontaneous? 3. Calculate H and S for the following reaction and decide in which direction each of these factors will drive the reaction. N 2(g) + 3 H 2(g) 2 NH 3(g) Use the data given below to answer your questions: Compound H (kj/mol) S (J/(mol K)) G (kj/(mol K)) CO(NH 2 ) 2(aq) H 2 O (l) CO 2(g) NH 3(g) C 2 H 5 OH (l) H 2 O (g) N 2 (g) H 2 (g)

5 SUPPLEMENTARY ENTHALPY PROBLEMS 1. Construct an enthalpy diagram showing the enthalpy changes for a one step conversion of germanium, Ge(s), into GeO2 (s) and a two step conversion - first to the monoxide, GeO(s) followed by the oxidation to GeO2 (s). The relevant thermochemical equations are as follows; Ge(s) + 1/2 O2 (g) GeO(s) H = -255 kj Ge(s) + O2(g) GeO2 (s) H = kj Using this diagram, determine the value of H for the reaction GeO(s) + 1/2 O2 (g) GeO2 (s) 2. Nitrogen monoxide oxidizes to the toxic red brown gas nitrogen dioxide in air. Construct an accurate enthalpy diagram for this reaction. Use the diagram to explain which of the oxides of nitrogen has stronger covalent bonds. 2 NO(g) + O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g) 3. One of the building blocks for proteins such as those in muscles and in sinews, is an amino acid called glycine, C2H5NO2. The equation for its combustion is 4 C2H5NO2 (s) + 9 O2 (g) 8 CO2 (g) + 10 H2O(l) + 2 N2 (g) The value of its H comb is kj/mol. Calculate H f for glycine. 4. On Easter Sunday, April 3, 1983, nitric acid spilled from a tank car near Denver, Colorado. The spill was neutralized with sodium carbonate. The reaction is 2 HNO3 (aq) + Na2CO3 (s) 2 NaNO3 (aq) + H2O(l) + CO2 (g) (a)calculate H for this reaction. H f for NaNO3 (aq) is -467 kj/mol, H f for HNO3 (aq) is kj/mol, H f for Na2CO3 (aq) is kj/mol] (b) Approximately 9.1 x 10 4 L of nitric acid was spilled. Assuming a molar concentration of 15.4M, how much sodium carbonate was required for complete neutralization and how much heat was evolved. (c) According to the Denver Post for April 4, 1983, authorities feared a volatile reaction might occur during the neutralization. Considering the magnitude of H, what was their major concern? The large amount of heat energy released in this neutralization reaction could cause the decomposition of the nitrate compounds into toxic oxides of nitrogen.

6 Supplementary Thermochemistry Problems 1. a) Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔH rxn, for the following reaction using equations 1, 2 and 3. Given: FeO + CO Fe + CO 2 ΔH rxn (kj) 1) Fe 2 O CO 2 Fe + 3 CO ) 3 Fe 2 O 3 + CO 2 Fe 3 O 4 + CO ) Fe 3 O 4 + CO 3 FeO + CO Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔH rxn, for the following reaction using equations 1, 2 and 3. Given: 3 N 2 H ClF 3 3 N HF + 2 Cl 2 ΔH rxn (kj) 1) 2 ClF NH 3 N HF + Cl ) N 2 H 4 + O 2 N H 2 O ) 4 NH O 2 2 N H 2 O Calculate the enthalpy change, ΔH rxn, for the following reaction using equations 1, 2 and 3. Given: 2 H 3 BO 3 B 2 O H 2 O ΔH rxn (kj) 1) H 3 BO 3 HBO 2 + H 2 O ) 2 B 2 O 3 + H 2 O H 2 B 4 O ) H 2 B 4 O 7 + H 2 O 4 HBO Using the average bond energies, N N (941 kj/mol), N=N (418 kj/mol), N-N (160 kj/mol), N-H (391 kj/mol) and H-H (432 kj/mol) estimate the ΔH f for hydrazine, N 2 H The ΔH rxn of the gaseous reaction: XeF 2 + H 2 2 HF + Xe is found to be 430 kj. Use this value and average bond energies [H-F (565 kj/mol)] to determine the average bond energy of the Xe-F bond.

7 1. For the following reaction, KINETICS Rate Mechanisms and the RDS NO (g) + O 3 (g) NO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) Given: E a(forward) = 10.0 kj/mol and ΔH (forward) = kj/mol a) Draw the energy level diagram for this reversible reaction. b) Calculate the E a(reverse) and the ΔH (reverse). For the reaction the following data was obtained: Trial [O 3 ] i (mol / L) [NO] i (mol / L) Initial Rate of Formation of NO 2 (mol / L s) x x x c) What is the rate law for the reaction? d) The proposed mechanism is 3-step. The 1 st is the RDS producing O and NO 3, which are both rxn intermediates. Derive the other 2 elementary steps for the mechanism. 2. Propose a mechanism for the chain reaction: H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) 2 HI (g) Where, I, is a catalyst. Label each step as either chain initiation, propagation or termination. 3. For the reaction: 2 NO (g) + Br 2 (g) 2 NOBr (g) the following data was obtained: Trial [NO] i (mol / L) [Br 2 ] i (mol / L) Initial Rate of Formation of NOBr (mol / L s) x x x 10-4 a) Write the rate law equation that is consistent with the data. b) Calculate the value of the specific rate constant, k, and specify units. c) The following mechanism was proposed for the reaction: Br 2 (g) + NO (g) NOBr 2 (g) slow NOBr 2 (g) + NO (g) 2 NOBr (g) fast Is this mechanism consistent with the given experimental observations? Justify your answer. 4. Propose a mechanism for the chain reaction: H 2 (g) + I 2 (g) 2 HI (g) Where, I, is a reaction intermediate. Label each step as either chain initiation, propagation or termination.

8 5. The reaction: NO 2 (g) + CO (g) NO (g) + CO 2 (g) is believed to occur by the following reaction mechanism: NO 2 (g) + NO 2 (g) NO 3 (g) + NO (g) ( slow ) NO 3 (g) + CO (g) NO 2 (g) + CO 2 (g) ( fast ) a) What is the rate law according to this mechanism? b) What would be the rate law if the reaction occurred directly in a single step? 6. Draw an energy level diagram for: X + Y Z using the following information: a) The reaction is reversible b) The reaction consists of three elementary steps c) The rate determining step is the second step d) The forward reaction is endothermic e) The E a is twice the H for the forward reaction.

9 KINETICS - REVIEW 1. At high temperatures, the following reaction occurs: 4 NH 3 (g) + 5 O 2 (g) 4 NO (g) + 6 H 2 O (g) One experiment showed a concentration of ammonia of mol/l at 10 s and of mol/l at 55 s. Calculate the average rate, over this time interval, for each of the following: a) the rate of decomposition of NH 3. b) the rate of production of water. c) the rate of production of NO. d) the rate of consumption of oxygen. 2. For the following reactions, For the following reaction and its reverse activation energies were determined as follows: C2H4(g) + H2 (g) C2H6(g) Ea = 180 kj/mol C2H6(g) C2H4(g) + H2(g) Ea = 317 kj/mol Calculate H for the reaction of C2H4 with hydrogen 3. For the reaction: 2 A + 2 B C + D The following data about the reaction above were obtained from three experiments: Experiment [A] mol/l [B] mol/l Rate of Formation of C (mol/l min) x x x10-4 a) What is the rate equation for the reaction? b) What is the numerical value of the rate constant k? What are its dimensions? c) Propose a reaction mechanism for this reaction.

10 A + A + B A 2 B A 2 B + B A 2 + B 2 Then 2 A + 2 B A 2 (or C) + B 2 (or D) 4. The following results were obtained when the reaction represented below was studied at 25 C ClO 2(g) + F 2(g) 2 ClO 2 F (g) Experiment [ClO 2 ] i (mol/l) [F 2 ] i (mol/l) Rate of Increase of [ClO 2 F] i (mol/l s) x x x10-3 a) Write the rate law expression for the reaction above. b) Calculate the numerical value of the rate constant and specify the units. c) In experiment 2, what is the initial rate of decrease of [F 2 ]? d) Which of the following reaction mechanisms is consistent with the rate law developed in (a). Justify your choice. I. ClO 2 + F 2 ClO 2 F 2 (fast) ClO 2 F 2 ClO 2 F + F (slow) ClO 2 + F ClO 2 F (fast) II. F 2 2 F (slow) 2 (ClO 2 + F ClO 2 F) (fast) 5. Freon gases, e.g. CCl 2 F 2 (g), from leaking air conditioners and refrigeration units also make their way into the upper atmosphere.. These gases catalyze the destruction of ozone. CCl 2 F 2 (g) + O 3 (g) CClF 2 (g) + ClO (g) + O 2 (g) Where, Cl, is a reaction intermediate. Propose a mechanism for this reaction.

11 6. Draw a potential energy diagram for the reaction X + Y Z showing the following information. (a) The mechanism consists of two elementary steps. (b) The second elementary step is the rate-determining step. (c) The overall reaction is exothermic. (d) What would happen to the shape of the graph if a catalyst were added?

21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11

21 st Century Chemistry Multiple Choice Question in Topic 3 Metals Unit 11 1. Consider the equation: 2Ca(s) + O 2 (g) 2CaO(s) Which of the following statements are correct? (1) Calcium and oxygen are reactants.

87 16 70 20 58 24 44 32 35 40 29 48 (a) graph Y versus X (b) graph Y versus 1/X

HOMEWORK 5A Barometer; Boyle s Law 1. The pressure of the first two gases below is determined with a manometer that is filled with mercury (density = 13.6 g/ml). The pressure of the last two gases below

Chemistry Guide

551534 - Chemistry Guide 1- Contents Question Item Objective Type Skill 1 0102 M03.02.04 Multiple-choice answer Mastery of Problem Solving 2 0099 M03.03.02 Multiple-choice answer Mastery of Concepts 3

CHEMISTRY 110 Assignment #3 - answers 2011.

1. Titanium metal is used as a structural material in many high tech applications such as in jet engines. What is the specific heat of titanium in J/() if it takes 89.7 J to raise the temperature of a

Chemical Reactions and Equations. Chapter 8

Chemical Reactions and Equations Chapter 8 Describing Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into different substances Reactants Products When

SUGGESTION ANSWER SCHEME CHAPTER 8: THERMOCHEMISTRY. 1 (a) Use the data in the table below to answer the following questions:

SUGGESTION ANSWER SCHEME CHAPTER 8: THERMOCHEMISTRY ANSWER SCHEME UPS 2004/2005 SK027 1 (a) Use the data in the table below to answer the following questions: Enthalpy change ΔH (kj/mol) Atomization energy

Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia.

Chemistry C2 Foundation and Higher Questions Q1. The chart shows the processes involved in the manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia. (a) Complete the word equation for the reaction that takes place

6.1 Some basic principles

Ch 6 Thermochemistry: Energy Flow and Chemical Change 6.1 Forms of Energy and Their Interconversion 6.2 Enthalpy: Heats of Reaction and Chemical Change 6.3 Calorimetry: Laboratory Measurement of Heats

CHM1 Review for Exam 9

Topics 1. Reaction Types a. Combustion b. Synthesis c. Decomposition d. Single replacement i. Metal activity series ii. Nonmetal activity series e. Double replacement i. Precipitates and solubility rules

Name AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16

Name AP CHEM / / Collected AP Exam Essay Answers for Chapter 16 1980 - #7 (a) State the physical significance of entropy. Entropy (S) is a measure of randomness or disorder in a system. (b) From each of

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?

12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances? Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry

Chapter 5 Thermochemistry I. Nature of Energy Energy units SI unit is joule, J From E = 1/2 mv 2, 1J = 1kg. m 2 /s 2 Traditionally, we use the calorie as a unit of energy. 1 cal = 4.184J (exactly) The

Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions. System loses heat (negative); gains heat (positive) Describe the difference between the two.

Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions Most reactions give off or absorb energy Energy is the capacity to do work or supply heat. Heat: transfer of thermal (kinetic) energy between two systems at different

The Relationships Between. Internal Energy, Heat, Enthalpy, and Calorimetry

The Relationships Between Internal Energy, Heat, Enthalpy, and Calorimetry Recap of Last Class Last class, we began our discussion about energy changes that accompany chemical reactions Chapter 5 discusses:

0.786 mol carbon dioxide to grams g lithium carbonate to mol

1 2 Convert: 2.54 x 10 22 atoms of Cr to mol 4.32 mol NaCl to grams 0.786 mol carbon dioxide to grams 2.67 g lithium carbonate to mol 1.000 atom of C 12 to grams 3 Convert: 2.54 x 10 22 atoms of Cr to

Kinetics/Equilibrium Review

1. What is required for a chemical reaction to occur? A) standard temperature and pressure B) a catalyst added to the reaction system C) effective collisions between reactant particles D) an equal number

Thermodynamics Review

Thermodynamics Review 1. According to Reference Table I, the dissolving of NH 4Cl(s) in water is 1) exothermic and the heat of reaction is negative 2) exothermic and the heat of reaction is positive 3)

Unit 14 Thermochemistry

Unit 14 Thermochemistry Name May 5 6 Unit 13 Acids and Bases Test Intro to Thermochemistry Videos (p.2-3) HW: p. 4-5 9 10 11 12 13 Thermochemistry Interpret graphs Heat of reaction & Specific Heat Heat

www.chemsheets.co.uk 17-Jul-12 Chemsheets A2 033 1

www.chemsheets.co.uk 17-Jul-12 Chemsheets A2 033 1 AS THERMODYNAMICS REVISION What is enthalpy? It is a measure of the heat content of a substance Enthalpy change ( H) = Change in heat content at constant

Problem Solving. Stoichiometry of Gases

Skills Worksheet Problem Solving Stoichiometry of Gases Now that you have worked with relationships among moles, mass, and volumes of gases, you can easily put these to work in stoichiometry calculations.

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014)

SCH3UI-02 Final Examination Review (Fall 2014) 1. Chlorine has an atomic number of 17. Create a Bohr Rutherford diagram of a Cl-35 atom. To achieve a stable arrangement, is this atom most likely to gain

System. System, Boundary and surroundings: Nature of heat and work: Sign convention of heat: Unit-7 Thermodynamics

Unit-7 Thermodynamics Introduction: The term Thermo means heat and dynamics means flow or movement.. So thermodynamics is concerned with the flow of heat. The different forms of the energy are interconvertible

Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations

1 Chemical Reactions Unit 8: Chemical Reactions and Equations What are chemical reactions and how do they occur? How are chemical reactions classified? How are products of chemical reactions predicted?

Bomb Calorimetry. Example 4. Energy and Enthalpy

Bomb Calorimetry constant volume often used for combustion reactions heat released by reaction is absorbed by calorimeter contents need heat capacity of calorimeter q cal = q rxn = q bomb + q water Example

LATTICE ENTHALPY. There can be two definitions - one is the opposite of the other! Make sure you know which one is being used.

Lattice Enthalpy F325 1 LATTICE WARNING There can be two definitions - one is the opposite of the other! Make sure you know which one is being used. Lattice Dissociation Enthalpy The enthalpy change when

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test

Unit 3 Notepack Chapter 7 Chemical Quantities Qualifier for Test NAME Section 7.1 The Mole: A Measurement of Matter A. What is a mole? 1. Chemistry is a quantitative science. What does this term mean?

Chapter 16 Review Packet

Chapter 16 Review Packet AP Chemistry Chapter 16 Practice Multiple Choice Portion 1. For which process is ΔS negative? Note: ΔS = S final S initial therefore, if ΔS is positive, S final > S initial if

Potassium + Chlorine. K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 KCl(s)

Types of Reactions Consider for a moment the number of possible chemical reactions. Because there are millions of chemical compounds, it is logical to expect that there are millions of possible chemical

Enthalpy, Entropy, and Free Energy Calculations

Adapted from PLTL The energies of our system will decay, the glory of the sun will be dimmed, and the earth, tideless and inert, will no longer tolerate the race which has for a moment disturbed its solitude.

3A Energy. What is chemical energy?

3A Energy What is chemical energy? Chemical energy is a form of potential energy which is stored in chemical bonds. Chemical bonds are the attractive forces that bind atoms together. As a reaction takes

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY HOMEWORK

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY HOMEWORK 1. Which of the following can be classed as a raw material in the chemical industry? A. Iron ore B. Ammonia C. Methanol D. Petrol 2. Which of the following costs would be classed

3. Of energy, work, enthalpy, and heat, how many are state functions? a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 d) 3 e) 4 ANS: c) 2 PAGE: 6.1, 6.2

1. A gas absorbs 0.0 J of heat and then performs 15.2 J of work. The change in internal energy of the gas is a) 24.8 J b) 14.8 J c) 55.2 J d) 15.2 J ANS: d) 15.2 J PAGE: 6.1 2. Calculate the work for the

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

Test 4: Equations and Math of Equations Review

Name: Tuesday, November 27, 2007 Test 4: Equations and Math of Equations Review 1. Given the balanced equation: 2KClO 2KCl + 3O 3 2 Which type of reaction is represented by this equation? 1. synthesis

Stoichiometry Review. 1. Given the formula for a compound: 4. What is the chemical formula for zinc carbonate?

1. Given the formula for a compound: 4. What is the chemical formula for zinc carbonate? Which molecular formula and empirical formula represent this compound? A) C2HNO2 and CHNO B) C2HNO2 and C2HNO2 C)

Rate of Reaction and the Collision Theory. Factors that Affect the Rate of a Chemical Reaction

Chemical Kinetics and Thermodynamics Chemical Kinetics- concerned with: 1. Rates of Chemical Reactions- # of moles of reactant used up or product formed Unit time Or 2. Reaction Mechanisms- Rate of Reaction

Chapter 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 Chemical Equations and Reactions 1 Section 8.1 Objectives: List 3 observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place. List 3 requirements for a correctly written chemical reaction.

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A

Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A TEST 9 REVIEW Name Date Period Test Review # 9 Collision theory. In order for a reaction to occur, particles of the reactant must collide. Not all collisions cause reactions.

STOICHIOMETRY. - the study of the quantitative aspects of chemical

STOICHIOMETRY - the study of the quantitative aspects of chemical GENERAL PLAN FOR STOICHIOMETRY Mass reactant Mass product Moles reactant Stoichiometric factor Moles product STOICHIOMETRY It rests on

Example. c. Calculate the amount of heat (in kj) required to heat 1.00 kg (~1 L) of water at 25 C to its boiling point.

Example When consuming an ice-cold drink, one must raise the temperature of the beverage to 37.0 C (normal body temperature). Can one lose weight by drinking ice-cold beverages if the body uses up about

AP* Chemistry THERMOCHEMISTRY

AP* Chemistry THERMOCHEMISTRY Terms for you to learn that will make this unit understandable: Energy (E) the ability to do work or produce heat ; the sum of all potential and kinetic energy in a system

MOLE CONVERSION PROBLEMS. 2. How many moles are present in 34 grams of Cu(OH) 2? [0.35 moles]

MOLE CONVERSION PROBLEMS 1. What is the molar mass of MgO? [40.31 g/mol] 2. How many moles are present in 34 grams of Cu(OH) 2? [0.35 moles] 3. How many moles are present in 2.5 x 10 23 molecules of CH

Mr. Bracken. Multiple Choice Review: Thermochemistry

Mr. Bracken AP Chemistry Name Period Multiple Choice Review: Thermochemistry 1. If this has a negative value for a process, then the process occurs spontaneously. 2. This is a measure of how the disorder

Solutions Review Questions

Name: Thursday, March 06, 2008 Solutions Review Questions 1. Compared to pure water, an aqueous solution of calcium chloride has a 1. higher boiling point and higher freezing point 3. lower boiling point

Chapter 5. Thermochemistry

Chapter 5. Thermochemistry THERMODYNAMICS - study of energy and its transformations Thermochemistry - study of energy changes associated with chemical reactions Energy - capacity to do work or to transfer

Thermodynamics- Chapter 19 Schedule and Notes

Thermodynamics- Chapter 19 Schedule and Notes Date Topics Video cast DUE Assignment during class time One Review of thermodynamics 1_thermo_review AND Review of thermo Wksheet 2.1ch19_intro Optional: 1sc_thermo

Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510)

17 THERMOCHEMISTRY SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) This section explains the relationship between energy and heat, and distinguishes between heat capacity and specific heat.

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

4. Aluminum chloride is 20.2% aluminum by mass. Calculate the mass of aluminum in a 35.0 gram sample of aluminum chloride.

1. Calculate the molecular mass of table sugar sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). A. 342.30 amu C. 320.05 amu B. 160.03 amu D. 171.15 amu 2. How many oxygen atoms are in 34.5 g of NaNO 3? A. 2.34 10 23 atoms C.

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

Chemistry 10 Chapter 14 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Reactions that can go in both directions are called reversible reactions. These reactions seem to stop before they go to completion. When the rate of the forward

Name Class Date. Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Assessment Chapter Test B Chapter: Chemical Equations and Reactions PART I In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

CHE11 Chapter Chapter Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficients are. NH (g) + O (g) NO (g) + H O (g) (a). 1, 1, 1, 1

Chapter 7: Chemical Equations. Name: Date: Period:

Chapter 7: Chemical Equations Name: Date: Period: 7-1 What is a chemical reaction? Read pages 232-237 a) Explain what a chemical reaction is. b) Distinguish between evidence that suggests a chemical reaction

4/16/13 Objective Review ionic and covalent bonding Identify the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations 4/15/13

4/15/13 Illustrate bonding Describe the signs of a chemical reaction and discuss chemical equations Find the charge of the ions below: (int: Ignore the neutrons and compare p and e) 1.5 protons, 6 electrons,

Standard Free Energies of Formation at 298 K. Average Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K

1 Thermodynamics There always seems to be at least one free response question that involves thermodynamics. These types of question also show up in the multiple choice questions. G, S, and H. Know what

Net Ionic Equations Making Sense of Chemical Reactions

14 Making Sense of Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVE Students will be able to write net ionic equations from balanced molecular equations. LEVEL Chemistry NATIONAL STANDARDS UCP.1, UCP.2, B.3 T E A C H E R

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions 1 Avogadro's Number Small particles such as atoms, molecules, and ions are counted using the mole. 1 mole = 6.02 x 10 23 items Avogadro s number 602 000 000

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1

Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu

Subscripts and Coefficients Give Different Information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Goal is to understand and become proficient at working with: 1. Chemical equations (Balancing REVIEW) 2. Some simple patterns of reactivity 3. Formula weights (REVIEW) 4. Avogadro's

Chemical Reactions Chapter 8 Assignment & Problem Set

Chemical Reactions Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Chemical Reactions 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the

Calorimeter: A device in which the heat associated with a specific process is measured.

1 CALORIMETRY p. 661-667 (simple), 673-675 (bomb) Calorimeter: A device in which the heat associated with a specific process is measured. There are two basic types of calorimeters: 1. Constant-pressure

London Examinations IGCSE

Centre No. Candidate No. Surname Signature Initial(s) Paper Reference(s) 4335/2H London Examinations IGCSE Chemistry Paper 2H Higher Tier Monday 9 May 2005 Morning Time: 2 hours Examiner s use only Team

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions: An Introduction. Chemical Reactions, Equations and Balancing

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions: An Introduction Chemical Reactions, Equations and Balancing Learning Target Chapter 7 Vocabulary 4 words 1. Chemical reaction 2. Reactant 3. Product 4. Coefficients balanced

Thermodynamics. S (reactants) S S (products) AP Chemistry. Period Date / / R e v i e w. 1. Consider the first ionization of sulfurous acid:

AP Chemistry Thermodynamics 1. Consider the first ionization of sulfurous acid: H 2SO 3(aq) H + (aq) + HSO 3 - (aq) Certain related thermodynamic data are provided below: H 2SO 3(aq) H + (aq) HSO 3 - (aq)

Chemical bonding is the true difference between compounds and mixtures. Atomic elements:

Chapter 3 - Molecules, compounds, and chemical equations Elements and compounds Chemical bonding is the true difference between compounds and mixtures Atomic elements: Ionic bond: attraction of oppositely

PART I: EQUILIBRIUM. 3. Explain why the tetraamminecopper(ii) solution appears blue.

Part A: Formation of a Complex Ion PART I: EQUILIBRIUM Anhydrous copper(ii) sulfate is white, whereas hydrated copper(ii) sulfate is blue. The structure of the hydrated compound is more accurately represented

Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide

Name: Class: Date: Chapter 8 Review and Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Knowledge about what products are produced in a chemical

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

Stoichiometry. 1. The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 0.1; (4) 0.2.

Stoichiometry 1 The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 01; (4) 02 2 A 44 gram sample of a hydrate was heated until the water of hydration was driven

Ch.4 Solutions. Solutions for Practice Problems p Consider the following reaction. 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) 2H 2 O (l)

Solutions for Practice Problems p. 114 Ch.4 Solutions 1. Consider the following reaction. 2H 2(g) + O 2(g) 2H 2 O (l) (a) Write the ratio of H 2 molecules: O 2 molecules: H 2 Omolecules. The ratio is given

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products?

1. Balance the following equation. What is the sum of the coefficients of the reactants and products? 1 Fe 2 O 3 (s) + _3 C(s) 2 Fe(s) + _3 CO(g) a) 5 b) 6 c) 7 d) 8 e) 9 2. Which of the following equations

Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.)

Types of Chemical Reactions (rxns.) Chemical reactions occur when bonds (between the electrons of atoms) are formed or broken Chemical reactions involve l changes in the chemical composition of matter

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

Chemical Reactions in Water

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Acids, Bases and Salts Acids dissolve in water to give H + ions. These ions attach

Chapter 5 Energy Relationships in Chemistry: Thermochemistry

Chapter 5 Energy Relationships in Chemistry: Thermochemistry In order to study thermochemical changes, we first have to define (a) system that specify part of the universe of interest to us. (b) surrounding

Chemistry Final Exam Review

Name: Date: Block: Chemistry Final Exam Review 2012-2013 Unit 1: Measurement, Numbers, Scientific Notation, Conversions, Dimensional Analysis 1. Write 0.000008732 in scientific notation 8.732x10-6 2. Write

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

6/27/2014. Periodic Table of the ELEMENTS. Chemical REACTIONS you should know. Brief Review for 1311 Honors Exam 2

Brief Review for 3 Honors Exam 2 Chapter 2: Periodic Table I. Metals. Representative Metals Alkali Metals Group Alkaline Earth Metals. Group 2 2. Transition Metals II. Metalloids Chapter 3: All Chapter

Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry

Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCE Centre Number Chemistry Advanced Subsidiary Unit 1: The Core Principles of Chemistry Candidate Number Tuesday 15 May 2012 Afternoon Time: 1 hour 30

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

ENERGY. Thermochemistry. Heat. Temperature & Heat. Thermometers & Temperature. Temperature & Heat. Energy is the capacity to do work.

ENERGY Thermochemistry Energy is the capacity to do work. Chapter 6 Kinetic Energy thermal, mechanical, electrical, sound Potential Energy chemical, gravitational, electrostatic Heat Heat, or thermal energy,

CHEMISTRY Practice exam #4 answer key October 16, 2007

CHEMISTRY 123-01 Practice exam #4 answer key October 16, 2007 1. An endothermic reaction causes the surroundings to a. warm up. b. become acidic. c. condense. 2. Which of the following is an example of

c. PCl 3 (l) + 3H 2 O(l) H 3 PO 3 (l) + 3HCl(g)

Chapter 9 Chemical Quantities 1. Although we define mass as the amount of matter in a substance, the units in which we measure mass are a human invention. Atoms and molecules react on an individual particleby-particle

Laboratory 6: Double Displacement Reactions

Introduction Double displacement reactions are among the most common of the simple chemical reactions to study and understand. We will explore the driving forces behind the chemical reactions, and use

Balancing Equations Notes

. Unit 9 Chemical Equations and Reactions What is a Chemical Equation? A Chemical Equation is a written representation of the process that occurs in a chemical reaction. A chemical equation is written

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

Chem. 1A Final Exam Review Problems From ch. 11, 12 & 13

Chem. A Final Exam Review Problems From ch., 2 & 3 f Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.. Place the following cations in order from lowest to

Chemistry Stoichiometry Lesson 8 Lesson Plan David V. Fansler

Chemistry Stoichiometry Lesson 8 Lesson Plan David V. Fansler The Arithmetic of Equations Objectives: Interpret balanced chemical equations in terms of interacting moles, representative particles, masses,

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

CHEMISTRY 3310 PROBLEM SHEET #4

CHEMISTRY 3310 PROBLEM SHEET #4 1. The specific heats of a number of materials are listed below. Calculate the molar heat capacity for each. (a) gold, (b) rust (Fe 2 O 3 ) (c) sodium chloride 2. Calculate

What is a chemical reaction?

Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations What is a chemical reaction? How do we know a chemical reaction occurs? Writing chemical equations Predicting chemical reactions Representing reactions in aqueous

Spring 2009. kj mol 125 0-229 -92. H f. H rxn = Σ H f (products) - Σ H f (reactants)

Spring 2009 2. The reaction of an elemental halogen with an alkane is a very common reaction. The reaction between chlorine and butane is provided below. (NOTE: Questions a d and f pertain to this reaction.)

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and