# AP Physics Problems Kinetic Theory, Heat, and Thermodynamics

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 AP Physics Problems Kinetic Theory, Heat, and Thermodynamics (KT & TD) One-tenth of a mole of an ideal monatomic gas undergoes a process described by the straight-line path AB shown in the p-v diagram below. a. Show that the temperature of the gas is the same at points A and 1-3. b. How much heat must be added to the gas during the process described by A B? c. What is the highest temperature of the gas during the process described by A B? (TD) One mole of a monatomic ideal gas enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston undergoes the process ABCDA shown on the pv diagram above. a. In terms of p 0 and V 0 calculate the work done by the gas in the process. b. In terms of p 0 and V 0 calculate the net heat absorbed by the gas in the process. c. At what two lettered points in the process are the temperatures equal? Explain your reasoning (HT) a. Explain why the temperature of the water at the base of a waterfall should be slightly higher than at the top of the fall. b. Calculate the minimum height of the waterfall that could cause a rise in water temperature of 1 Celsius degree. Explain clearly any assumptions you make. (Hint: Consider a given mass m of the water.) (TD) Four samples of ideal gas are each initially at a pressure P o and volume V o, and a temperature T o as shown on the diagram above. The samples are taken in separate experiment from this initial state to the final states I, II, III, and IV along the processes shown on the diagram. a. One of the processes is isothermal. Identify this one. Explain. b. One of the processes is adiabatic. Identify this one. Explain. c. in which process or processes does the gas do work? Explain. d. In which process or processes is heat removed from the gas? Explain. e. In which process or processes does the root-mean-square speed of the gas molecules increase? Explain (HT) The Sun is meters from Earth. Energy from the Sun is received at the Earth's surface at the rate of 1.4 kilowatts per square meter. This energy flux from the Sun falls on a pond of water 100 square meters in area and meter in depth. Assume all of this energy heats the water. Find the average temperature rise of the pond after 10 3 seconds (HT) A 100 watt heating coil is placed in a thermally insulated tank of negligible heat capacity. The tank contains 0.1 kilograms of water and 0.01 kilogram of ice, both initially at a temperature of 0 C. Calculate each of the following: a. The heat transferred to the water and ice by the heating coil in time t. b. The time t 1 necessary to melt all the ice. c. The additional time t 2 necessary to bring the water to a boil.

2 (KT & TD) The pv diagram above represents the states of an ideal gas during one cycle of operation of a reversible heat engine. The cycle consists of the following four processes. Process Nature of Process AB Constant temperature ( T h = 500 K) BC Adiabatic CD Constant temperature ( T c = 200 K) DA Adiabatic During process A B, the volume of the gas increases from V o to 2V o and the gas absorbs 1,000 joules of heat. a. The pressure at A is p o. Determine the pressure at B. b. Using the first law of thermodynamics, determine the work performed by or on the gas during the process AB. c. During the process AB, does the entropy of the gas increase, decrease, or remain unchanged? d. Calculate the heat Qc given off by the gas in the process CD. e. During the full cycle ABCDA is the total work the gas performs on its surroundings positive, negative, or zero? (HT) A kilogram sample of a material is initially a solid at a temperature of 20 C. Heat is added to the sample at a constant rate of 100 joules per second until the temperature increases to 60 C. The graph above represents the temperature of the sample as a function of time. a. Calculate the specific heat of the solid sample in units of J/kg C. b. Calculate the latent heat of fusion of the sample at its melting point in units of joules per kilogram. c. Referring to the three intervals AB, BC, and CD shown on the graph, select the interval or intervalson the graph during which: i. the average kinetic energy of the molecules of the sample is increasing ii. the entropy of the sample is increasing (HT) A freezer contains 20 kilograms of food with a specific heat of joules per kilogram C. The temperature inside the freezer is initially -5 C. The freezer then operates for 10 minutes, reducing the temperature to -8 C. The freezer motor operates at 400 watts. a. How much heat is removed from the food during this time? b. How much energy is delivered to the freezer motor during the 10-minute period? c. During this time how much total heat is ejected into the room in which the freezer is located? Determine the temperature change in the room if the specific heat of air is 700 J/kg C. Assume there are 80 kilograms of air in the room, the volume of the air is constant, and there is no heat loss from the room.

3 (TD) A proposed ocean power plant will utilize the temperature difference between surface seawater and seawater at a depth of 100 m. Assume the surface temperature is 25 C and the temperature at the 100-meter depth is 3 C. a. What is the ideal (Carnot) efficiency of the plant? b. If the plant generates useful energy at the rate of 100 megawatts while operating with the efficiency found in part (a), at what rate is heat given off to the surroundings? c. A nuclear power plant operates with an overall efficiency of 40 percent. At what rate must mass be converted into energy to give the same 100-megawatt output as the ocean power plant above? Express your answer in kilograms per second. d. In the chart to the right, for each part of the cycle indicate with +, -, or 0 whether the heat transferred Q and temperature change ΔT are positive, negative, or zero, respectively (HT) A ball thrown vertically downward strikes a horizontal surface with a speed of 15 meters per second. It then bounces, and reaches a maximum height of 5 meters. Neglect air resistance on the ball. a. What is the speed of the ball immediately after it rebounds from the surface? b. What fraction of the ball's initial kinetic energy is apparently lost during the bounce? c. If the specific heat of the ball is 1,800 J/kg C, and if all of the lost energy is absorbed by the molecules of the ball, by how much does the temperature of the ball increase? (TD) An ideal gas initially has pressure p o, volume V o, and absolute temperature T o. It then undergoes the following series of processes: I. It is heated, at constant volume, until it reaches a pressure 2p o. II. It is heated, at constant pressure, until it reaches a volume 3V o. III. It is cooled, at constant volume, until it reaches a pressure p o. IV. It is cooled, at constant pressure, until it reaches a volume V o. a. On the axes to the right i. draw the pv diagram representing the series of processes; ii. label each end point with the appropriate value of absolute temperature in terms of T o. b. For this series of processes, determine the following in terms of p o and V o. i. The net work done by the gas ii. The net change in internal energy iii. The net heat absorbed c. Given that C p = (5/2)R and C v = (3/2)R, determine the heat transferred during process 2 in terms of p o and V o.

4 (KT & TD) One mole of an ideal monatomic gas, initially at point A at a pressure of N/m 2 and a volume of 25 l0-3 m 3, is taken through a 3-process cycle, as shown in the pv diagram above. Each process is done slowly and reversibly. For a monatomic gas, the heat capacities for constant volume and constant pressure are, respectively, C v = (3/2)R and C p = (5/2)R, where R is the universal gas constant, 8.32 J/mole K. Determine each of the following: a. the temperature of the gas at each of the vertices, A, B. and C, of the triangular cycle b. the net work done by the gas for one cycle c. the net heat absorbed by the gas for one full cycle d. the heat given off by the gas for the third process from C to A e. the efficiency of the cycle (Modified) (HT) A 90.0 watt heating coil is embedded in 0.20 kilogram of a solid substance in a calorimeter. a. Assuming that all of the heat generated by the heating coil is absorbed by the solid substance, and that it takes 4 minutes to raise the temperature of the substance from 20 C to 80 C, calculate the specific heat of the substance. b. At 80 C the substance begins to melt. The heat of fusion of the substance is joules per kilogram. How long after the temperature reaches 80 C will it take to melt all of the substance? (300 s) c. Draw a graph of the heating curve for the substance on axes like those above, showing the temperature as a function of time until all of the solid has melted. Be sure to put numbers and units on the time scale (TD) A heat engine operating between temperatures of 500 K and 300 K is used to lift a 10-kilogram mass vertically at a constant speed of 4 meters per second. a. Determine the power that the engine must supply to lift the mass. b. Determine the maximum possible efficiency at which the engine can operate. c. If the engine were to operate at the maximum possible efficiency, determine the following. i. The rate at which the hot reservoir supplies heat to the engine ii. The rate at which heat is exhausted to the cold reservoir (HT) You are to design a procedure to determine experimentally the specific heat of an unknown liquid. You may not damage or destroy any equipment you use, and your method must be feasible and practical. a. List the equipment you would need. Include a labeled diagram. b. Describe the measurements you would make. Assign each measurement a symbol (such as time = t). c. Show explicitly using equations how the measured quantities would be used to determine the specific heat of the unknown liquid. d. Indicate one possible source of experimental error and discuss how it would affect your value for the specific heat.

7 (TD) The diagram to the right of pressure P versus volume V shows the expansion of 2.0 moles of a monatomic ideal gas from state A to state B. As shown in the diagram, P A = P B = 600 N/m 2, V A = 3.0 m 3, and V B = 9.0 m 3. a. i. Calculate the work done by the gas as it expands. ii. Calculate the change in internal energy of the gas as it expands. iii. Calculate the heat added to or removed from the gas during this expansion. b. The pressure is then reduced to 200 N/m2 without changing the volume as the gas is taken from state B to state C. Label state C on the diagram and draw a line or curve to represent the process from state B to state C. c. The gas is then compressed isothermally back to state A. i. Draw a line or curve on the diagram to represent this process. ii. Is heat added to or removed from the gas during this isothermal compression? added to removed from (KT) An experiment is performed to determine the number n of moles of an ideal gas in the cylinder shown above. The cylinder is fitted with a movable, frictionless piston of area A. The piston is in equilibrium and is supported by the pressure of the gas. The gas is heated while its pressure P remains constant. Measurements are made of the temperature T of the gas and the height H of the bottom of the piston above the base of the cylinder and are recorded in the table to the right. Assume that the thermal expansion of the apparatus can be ignored. a. Write a relationship between the quantities T and H, in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants, that will allow you to determine n. b. Plot the data on the axes to the right so that you will be able to determine n from the relationship in part (a). Label the axes with appropriate numbers to show the scale. c. Using your graph and the values A = m 2 and P = 1.0 atmosphere, determine the experimental value of n (KT and TD) A cylinder with a movable frictionless piston contains an ideal gas that is initially in state 1 at Pa, 373 K, and 0.25 m 3. The gas is taken through a reversible thermodynamic cycle as shown in the PV diagram to the right. a. Calculate the temperature of the gas when it is in the following states. i. State2 ii. State 3 b. Calculate the net work done on the gas during the cycle. c. Was heat added to or removed from the gas during the cycle? Added Removed Neither added nor removed

8 b-6 (KT) You are given a cylinder of cross-sectional area A containing n moles of an ideal gas. A piston fitting closely in the cylinder is lightweight and frictionless, and objects of different mass m can be placed on top of it, as shown in the figure above. In order to determine n, you perform an experiment that consists of adding 1 kg masses one at a time on top of the piston, compressing the gas, and allowing the gas to return to room temperature T before measuring the new volume V. The data collected are given in the table below. a. Write a relationship between total pressure P and volume V in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants that will allow you to determine n. You also determine that A = m 2 and T = 300 K. b. Calculate the value of P for each value of m and record your values in the data table above. c. Plot the data on the graph to the right, labeling the axes with appropriate numbers to indicate the scale. d. Using your graph in part c., calculate the experimental value of n. m (kg) V (m 3 ) 1/V (m -3 ) P (Pa) b-5 (KT and TD) A sample of ideal gas is taken through steps I, II, and III in a closed cycle, as shown on the pressure P versus volume V diagram to the right, so that the gas returns to its original state. The steps in the cycle are as follows. I. An isothermal expansion occurs from point A to point B, and the volume of the gas doubles. II. An isobaric compression occurs from point B to point C, and the gas returns to its original volume. III. A constant volume addition of heat occurs from point C to point A and the gas returns to its original pressure. a. Determine numerical values for the following ratios, justifying your answers in the spaces next to each ratio. PB i. P = ii. PC A P = iii. TB A T = iv. TC A T = A b. During step I, the change in internal energy is zero. Explain why. c. During step III, the work done on the gas is zero. Explain why.

9 (KT and TD) The figure above shows a 0.20 m diameter cylinder fitted with a frictionless piston, initially fixed in place. The cylinder contains 2.0 moles of nitrogen gas at an absolute pressure of 4.0x10 5 Pa. Nitrogen gas has a molar mass of 28 g mole and it behaves as an ideal gas. a. Calculate the force that the nitrogen gas exerts on the piston. b. Calculate the volume of the gas if the temperature of the gas is 300 K. c. In a certain process, the piston is allowed to move, and the gas expands at constant pressure and pushes the piston out 0.15 m. Calculate how much work is done by the gas. d. Which of the following is true of the heat energy transferred to or from the gas, if any, in the process in part c? Heat is transferred to the gas. Heat is transferred from the gas. No heat is transferred in the process b-5 (KT and TD) The cylinder above contains an ideal gas and has a movable, frictionless piston of diameter D and mass M. The cylinder is in a laboratory with atmospheric pressure P atm. Express all algebraic answers in terms of the given quantities and fundamental constants. a. Initially, the pistion is free to move but remains in equilibrium. Determine each of the following: i. The force that the confined gas exerts on the piston ii. The absolute pressure of the confined gas b. If a net amount of heat is transferred to the confined gas when the piston is fixed, what happens to the pressure of the gas? Pressure goes up. Pressure goes down. Pressure stays the same Explain your reasoning c. In a certain process the absolute pressure of the confined gas remains constant as the piston moves up a distance x 0. Calculate the work done by the confined gas during the process (KT & TD) A 0.03 mol sample of helium is taken through the cycle shown in the diagram the the right. The temperature of state A is 400 K. a. For each process in this cycle, indicate in the table below whether the quantities W, Q, and U are positive (+), negative (-), or zero (0). W is the work done on the helium sample. b. Explain your response for the signs of the quantities for process A B. c. Calculate V C b-6 (KT & TD) A mole sample of monatomic gas is taken through the cycle shown to the right. The temperature T 1 of state 1 is 300 K. a. Calculate T 2 and T 3. b. Calculate the amount of work done on the gas in one cycle. c. Is the net work done on the gas in one complete cycle positive, negative, or zero? d. Calculate the heat added to the gas during process 1 2.

10 Answers to AP Physics Problems-Kinetic Theory, Heat, and Thermodynamics 1. b. 2 liter-atm c. 243 K 2. a. 4p 0 V 0 b. 4p 0 V 0 c. B and D d. BC 3. b. 427 m 4. a. Process II b. Process III c. Processes I, II, and III d. Process IV e. Process I K 6. a. (100 W)t b s c. 461 s 7. a. p 0 /2 b J c. increases d. 400 J e. positive 8. a J/kg C b J/kg c. i. AB, CD c. ii. AB, BC, CD 9. a J b J c J d. 6.4 C 10. a b MW c kg/s d. 11. a. 9.9 m/s b c C 12. b. i. 2p 0 V 0 b. ii. 0 b. iii. 2p 0 V 0 c. 10p 0 V a. T A = 300 K, T B = 600 K, T C = 600 K b J c J d J e a J/kg C b. 300 s 15. a. 400 W b. 40% c. i W c. ii. 600 W 16. Explanations 17. a. mgh b. gh/c c K d. no 18. a Pa b m 3 c. isobaric d. yes e m a. 565 J b J c J d. added to the gas 20. a. 481 K b J c. i. removed ii J d. same e. same 21. a. T 1 /2 b. 2P 1 c. P 1 V 1 /2 d. BC, CA 22. a. i J ii J iii J c. ii. removed 23. a. H = nr PA T c moles 24. a. i. 746 K ii. 546 K b J c. Removed 25. a. PV = nrt b , , , , d mol 26. a. i. ½ ii. ½ iii. 1 iv. ½ 27. a N b m 3 c J d. Heat is transferred to the gas 28. a. i. F = P atm! D 2 + Mg ii. P abs = P atm + 4Mg 4! D b. Pressure goes up c. W = " P atm! D 2 % + Mg 2 # \$ 4 & ' x a. c m 3 Process W Q U A B B C C A a. T 2 = 1500 K, T 3 = 1800 K b. 100 J c. negative d. 60 J Q AB - 0 BC 0 - CD + 0 DA 0 + T

### Expansion and Compression of a Gas

Physics 6B - Winter 2011 Homework 4 Solutions Expansion and Compression of a Gas In an adiabatic process, there is no heat transferred to or from the system i.e. dq = 0. The first law of thermodynamics

### Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1

Answer, Key Homework 6 David McIntyre 1 This print-out should have 0 questions, check that it is complete. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page: find all choices before making

### c. Applying the first law of thermodynamics from Equation 15.1, we find that c h c h.

Week 11 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution

### THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure

### Thermodynamics AP Physics B. Multiple Choice Questions

Thermodynamics AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice Questions 1. What is the name of the following statement: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium

### Chapter 15: Thermodynamics

Chapter 15: Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat

### The final numerical answer given is correct but the math shown does not give that answer.

Note added to Homework set 7: The solution to Problem 16 has an error in it. The specific heat of water is listed as c 1 J/g K but should be c 4.186 J/g K The final numerical answer given is correct but

### The Equipartition Theorem

The Equipartition Theorem Degrees of freedom are associated with the kinetic energy of translations, rotation, vibration and the potential energy of vibrations. A result from classical statistical mechanics

### PSS 17.1: The Bermuda Triangle

Assignment 6 Consider 6.0 g of helium at 40_C in the form of a cube 40 cm. on each side. Suppose 2000 J of energy are transferred to this gas. (i) Determine the final pressure if the process is at constant

### Lesson 42c: PV Diagrams

Lesson 42c: V Diagrams From the last section, you were probably wondering what happens when we do something like add heat to a sealed cylinder. This sounds like a pretty dangerous idea if you think back

### Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics. Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57

Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity

### 20 m neon m propane 20

Problems with solutions:. A -m 3 tank is filled with a gas at room temperature 0 C and pressure 00 Kpa. How much mass is there if the gas is a) Air b) Neon, or c) Propane? Given: T73K; P00KPa; M air 9;

### Heat as Energy Transfer. Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature

Unit of heat: calorie (cal) Heat as Energy Transfer Heat is energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in temperature 1 cal is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature

### ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Chapter 20: ENTROPY AND THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 1. In a reversible process the system: A. is always close to equilibrium states B. is close to equilibrium states only at the beginning and end

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics The First Law of Thermodynamics Thermodynamic Processes (isobaric, isochoric, isothermal, adiabatic) Reversible and Irreversible Processes Heat Engines Refrigerators and Heat Pumps The Carnot

### Basic problems for ideal gases and problems to the first law of thermodynamics and cycles

Basic problems for ideal gases and problems to the first law of thermodynamics and cycles SHORT SUMMARY OF THE FORMS: Equation of ideal gases: Number of moles: Universal gas constant: General gas equation

### The First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems. Heat Transfer

The First Law of Thermodynamics: Closed Systems The first law of thermodynamics can be simply stated as follows: during an interaction between a system and its surroundings, the amount of energy gained

### FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant

### Problem Set 1 3.20 MIT Professor Gerbrand Ceder Fall 2003

LEVEL 1 PROBLEMS Problem Set 1 3.0 MIT Professor Gerbrand Ceder Fall 003 Problem 1.1 The internal energy per kg for a certain gas is given by U = 0. 17 T + C where U is in kj/kg, T is in Kelvin, and C

### Physics 2101 Section 3 April 26th: Chap. 18 : Chap Ann n ce n e t nnt : Exam #4, April Exam #4,

Physics 2101 Section 3 April 26 th : Chap. 18-1919 Announcements: n nt Exam #4, April 28 th (Ch. 13.6-18.8) 18.8) Final Exam: May 11 th (Tuesday), 7:30 AM Make up Final: May 15 th (Saturday) 7:30 AM Class

### HEAT UNIT 1.1 KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. 1.1.1 Introduction. 1.1.2 Postulates of Kinetic Theory of Gases

UNIT HEAT. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES.. Introduction Molecules have a diameter of the order of Å and the distance between them in a gas is 0 Å while the interaction distance in solids is very small. R. Clausius

### Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat

Chapter 10 Temperature and Heat What are temperature and heat? Are they the same? What causes heat? What Is Temperature? How do we measure temperature? What are we actually measuring? Temperature and Its

### Phys222 W11 Quiz 1: Chapters 19-21 Keys. Name:

Name:. In order for two objects to have the same temperature, they must a. be in thermal equilibrium.

### Lecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.5-6,)

Lecture 36 (Walker 18.8,18.5-6,) Entropy 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Dec. 11, 2009 Help Session: Today, 3:10-4:00, TH230 Review Session: Monday, 3:10-4:00, TH230 Solutions to practice Lecture 36 final on

### Esystem = 0 = Ein Eout

AGENDA: I. Introduction to Thermodynamics II. First Law Efficiency III. Second Law Efficiency IV. Property Diagrams and Power Cycles V. Additional Material, Terms, and Variables VI. Practice Problems I.

### Boltzmann Distribution Law

Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce

### 5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C

1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )

### The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second aw of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics asserts that processes occur in a certain direction and that the energy has quality as well as quantity. The first law places no restriction

### Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible

### Esystem = 0 = Ein Eout

AGENDA: I. Introduction to Thermodynamics II. First Law Efficiency III. Second Law Efficiency IV. Property Diagrams and Power Cycles V. Additional Material, Terms, and Variables VI. Practice Problems I.

### Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law

Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume.

### Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Adiabatic Expansion of Gases

Lecture 7 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 15/08/07 The Adiabatic Expansion of Gases In an adiabatic process no heat is transferred, Q=0 = C P / C V is assumed to be constant during this process

### Lecture 6: Intro to Entropy

Lecture 6: Intro to Entropy Reading: Zumdahl 0., 0., 0.3 Outline: Why enthalpy isn t enough. Statistical interpretation of entropy Boltzmann s Formula Heat engine leads to Entropy as a state function Problems:Z0.-4,

### Temperature Scales. temperature scales Celsius Fahrenheit Kelvin

Ch. 10-11 Concept Ch. 10 #1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 Ch11, # 3, 6, 11 Problems Ch10 # 3, 5, 11, 17, 21, 24, 25, 29, 33, 37, 39, 43, 47, 59 Problems: CH 11 # 1, 2, 3a, 4, 5, 6, 9, 13, 15, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35 Temperature

### Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics (SL) Entropy and The Second Law of Thermodynamics Explain and manipulate the second law State and illustrate by example the second law of thermodynamics Write both the

### IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES

2/2016 ideal gas 1/8 IDEAL AND NON-IDEAL GASES PURPOSE: To measure how the pressure of a low-density gas varies with temperature, to determine the absolute zero of temperature by making a linear fit to

### Energy Matters Heat. Changes of State

Energy Matters Heat Changes of State Fusion If we supply heat to a lid, such as a piece of copper, the energy supplied is given to the molecules. These start to vibrate more rapidly and with larger vibrations

### Chapter 22. Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Chapter 22 Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics C HAP T E R O UTLI N E 221 Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics 222 Heat Pumps and Refrigerators 223 Reversible and Irreversible

### Physics 5D - Nov 18, 2013

Physics 5D - Nov 18, 2013 30 Midterm Scores B } Number of Scores 25 20 15 10 5 F D C } A- A A + 0 0-59.9 60-64.9 65-69.9 70-74.9 75-79.9 80-84.9 Percent Range (%) The two problems with the fewest correct

### dm 3. dm 3 ) b Find the buoyant force (noste) on the stone when immersed in water. B = r f Vg)

CHAPTER 9 1 Archimedes Law The magnitude of the buoyant force always equals the weight of the fluid displaced by the object Noste nesteessä on yhtä suuri kuin syrjäytetyn nestemäärän paino. Hpätee myös

### Laws of Thermodynamics

Laws of Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is the study of the effects of work, heat, and energy on a system Thermodynamics is only concerned with macroscopic (large-scale) changes and observations

### Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 7 Ideal Gas Laws, Different Processes Let us continue

### EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

### CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8

CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 Kinetic Theory Information concerning the initial motions of each of the atoms of macroscopic systems is not accessible, nor do we have the computational capability even with

### LAB 15: HEAT ENGINES AND

251 Name Date Partners LAB 15: HEAT ENGINES AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS... the quantity of heat produced by the friction of bodies, whether solid or liquid, is always proportional to the quantity

### Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen

Vaporization of Liquid Nitrogen Goals and Introduction As a system exchanges thermal energy with its surroundings, the temperature of the system will usually increase or decrease, depending on the direction

### The First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law of Thermodynamics (FL) The First Law of Thermodynamics Explain and manipulate the first law Write the integral and differential forms of the first law Describe the physical meaning of each

### Physics 2326 - Assignment No: 3 Chapter 22 Heat Engines, Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics

Serway/Jewett: PSE 8e Problems Set Ch. 22-1 Physics 2326 - Assignment No: 3 Chapter 22 Heat Engines, Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics Objective Questions 1. A steam turbine operates at a boiler

### Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

### a) Use the following equation from the lecture notes: = ( 8.314 J K 1 mol 1) ( ) 10 L

hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 4. 1. One mole of nitrogen gas is allowed to expand from 0.5 to 10 L reversible and isothermal process at 300 K. Calculate the change in molar entropy using a the ideal

### 20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

20 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics An anonymous graffito on a wall of the Pecan Street Cafe in Austin, Texas, reads: Time is God s way of keeping things from happening all at once. Time also

### So T decreases. 1.- Does the temperature increase or decrease? For 1 mole of the vdw N2 gas:

1.- One mole of Nitrogen (N2) has been compressed at T0=273 K to the volume V0=1liter. The gas goes through the free expansion process (Q = 0, W = 0), in which the pressure drops down to the atmospheric

### Final Exam. Wednesday, December 10. 1:30 4:30 pm. University Centre Rooms

16.102 Final Exam Wednesday, December 10 1:30 4:30 pm University Centre Rooms 210 224 30 questions, multiple choice The whole course, equal weighting Formula sheet provided 26 Lab and Tutorial Marks Final

### 18 Q0 a speed of 45.0 m/s away from a moving car. If the car is 8 Q0 moving towards the ambulance with a speed of 15.0 m/s, what Q0 frequency does a

First Major T-042 1 A transverse sinusoidal wave is traveling on a string with a 17 speed of 300 m/s. If the wave has a frequency of 100 Hz, what 9 is the phase difference between two particles on the

### Type: Single Date: Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12

Type: Single Date: Objective: Latent Heat Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 AP Physics B Date: Mr. Mirro Heat and Phase Change When bodies are heated or cooled their

### THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS

THERMOCHEMISTRY & DEFINITIONS Thermochemistry is the study of the study of relationships between chemistry and energy. All chemical changes and many physical changes involve exchange of energy with the

### = 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

### Thermodynamics Heat & Work The First Law of Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics Heat & Work The First Law of Thermodynamics Lana Sheridan De Anza College April 20, 2016 Last time applying the ideal gas equation thermal energy heat capacity phase changes Overview latent

### = T T V V T = V. By using the relation given in the problem, we can write this as: ( P + T ( P/ T)V ) = T

hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 3. 1. Show that C / = 0 for a an ideal gas, b a van der Waals gas and c a gas following P = nr. Assume that the following result nb holds: U = P P Hint: In b and c,

### Reversible & Irreversible Processes

Reversible & Irreversible Processes Example of a Reversible Process: Cylinder must be pulled or pushed slowly enough (quasistatically) that the system remains in thermal equilibrium (isothermal). Change

### 9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J

1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9

### 1) 0.33 m/s 2. 2) 2 m/s 2. 3) 6 m/s 2. 4) 18 m/s 2 1) 120 J 2) 40 J 3) 30 J 4) 12 J. 1) unchanged. 2) halved. 3) doubled.

Base your answers to questions 1 through 5 on the diagram below which represents a 3.0-kilogram mass being moved at a constant speed by a force of 6.0 Newtons. 4. If the surface were frictionless, the

### Thermochemistry. r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc. Ron Robertson

Thermochemistry r2 d:\files\courses\1110-20\99heat&thermorans.doc Ron Robertson I. What is Energy? A. Energy is a property of matter that allows work to be done B. Potential and Kinetic Potential energy

### ENERGY. Thermochemistry. Heat. Temperature & Heat. Thermometers & Temperature. Temperature & Heat. Energy is the capacity to do work.

ENERGY Thermochemistry Energy is the capacity to do work. Chapter 6 Kinetic Energy thermal, mechanical, electrical, sound Potential Energy chemical, gravitational, electrostatic Heat Heat, or thermal energy,

### Chapter 6 Work and Energy

Chapter 6 WORK AND ENERGY PREVIEW Work is the scalar product of the force acting on an object and the displacement through which it acts. When work is done on or by a system, the energy of that system

### The Kinetic Theory of Gases Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 18

The Kinetic Theory of Gases Sections Covered in the Text: Chapter 18 In Note 15 we reviewed macroscopic properties of matter, in particular, temperature and pressure. Here we see how the temperature and

### THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

1 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The FIRST LAW is a statement of the fact that ENERGY (a useful concept) is conserved. It says nothing about the WAY, or even WHETHER one form of energy can be converted

### 15 THERMODYNAMICS. Learning Objectives

CHAPTER 15 THERMODYNAMICS 505 15 THERMODYNAMICS Figure 15.1 A steam engine uses heat transfer to do work. Tourists regularly ride this narrow-gauge steam engine train near the San Juan Skyway in Durango,

### Practice Test. 4) The planet Earth loses heat mainly by A) conduction. B) convection. C) radiation. D) all of these Answer: C

Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B

### 1. The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that all matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are in a constant state of constant random motion

Physical Science Period: Name: ANSWER KEY Date: Practice Test for Unit 3: Ch. 3, and some of 15 and 16: Kinetic Theory of Matter, States of matter, and and thermodynamics, and gas laws. 1. The Kinetic

### WORK DONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE

WORK DONE BY A CONSTANT FORCE The definition of work, W, when a constant force (F) is in the direction of displacement (d) is W = Fd SI unit is the Newton-meter (Nm) = Joule, J If you exert a force of

### CO 2 41.2 MPa (abs) 20 C

comp_02 A CO 2 cartridge is used to propel a small rocket cart. Compressed CO 2, stored at a pressure of 41.2 MPa (abs) and a temperature of 20 C, is expanded through a smoothly contoured converging nozzle

### Thermodynamics is the study of heat. It s what comes into play when you drop an ice cube

Chapter 12 You re Getting Warm: Thermodynamics In This Chapter Converting between temperature scales Working with linear expansion Calculating volume expansion Using heat capacities Understanding latent

### Section 7. Laws of Thermodynamics: Too Hot, Too Cold, Just Right. What Do You See? What Do You Think? Investigate.

Chapter 6 Electricity for Everyone Section 7 Laws of Thermodynamics: Too Hot, Too Cold, Just Right What Do You See? Learning Outcomes In this section, you will Assess experimentally the final temperature

### APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES INTRODUCTION This tutorial is designed for students wishing to extend their knowledge of thermodynamics to a more

### Name Class Date. You do twice as much work. b. You lift two identical books one meter above the ground.

Exercises 9.1 Work (pages 145 146) 1. Circle the letter next to the correct mathematical equation for work. work = force distance work = distance force c. work = force distance d. work = force distance

### Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer

F L E X I B L E L E A R N I N G A P P R O A C H T O P H Y S I C S Module P7.3 Internal energy, heat and energy transfer 1 Opening items 1.1 Module introduction 1.2 Fast track questions 1.3 Ready to study?

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.3 Thermal Properties of Materials 1 Candidates should be able to : Define and apply the concept of specific heat capacity. Select and apply the equation : E = mcδθ The MASS (m) of

### We will try to get familiar with a heat pump, and try to determine its performance coefficient under different circumstances.

C4. Heat Pump I. OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT We will try to get familiar with a heat pump, and try to determine its performance coefficient under different circumstances. II. INTRODUCTION II.1. Thermodynamic

### Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Prof. M. Ramgopal Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture No. # 18 Worked Out Examples - I Welcome back in this lecture.

### THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY

Chapter 14 he Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic heory Chapter 14 HE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINEIC HEORY REIEW Kinetic molecular theory involves the study of matter, particularly gases, as very small particles in constant

### Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas

1 of 6 Thermodynamics Summer 2006 Kinetic Theory & Ideal Gas The study of thermodynamics usually starts with the concepts of temperature and heat, and most people feel that the temperature of an object

### The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Objectives MAE 320 - Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill,

### Heat and Work. First Law of Thermodynamics 9.1. Heat is a form of energy. Calorimetry. Work. First Law of Thermodynamics.

Heat and First Law of Thermodynamics 9. Heat Heat and Thermodynamic rocesses Thermodynamics is the science of heat and work Heat is a form of energy Calorimetry Mechanical equivalent of heat Mechanical

### AS CHALLENGE PAPER 2014

AS CHALLENGE PAPER 2014 Name School Total Mark/50 Friday 14 th March Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

### Entropy Changes & Processes

Entropy Changes & Processes Chapter 4 of Atkins: he Second Law: he Concepts Section 4.3, 7th edition; 3.3, 8th edition Entropy of Phase ransition at the ransition emperature Expansion of the Perfect Gas

### 7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

### Vapor Pressure Lowering

Colligative Properties A colligative property is a property of a solution that depends on the concentration of solute particles, but not on their chemical identity. We will study 4 colligative properties

### Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.

### Reservoir Fluids PETE 310

Reservoir Fluids PETE 31 Lab 2: Determination of the Vapor Pressure of Propane Learning Objectives When you complete this laboratory, you should be able to: Use closed-cell and sight-glass methods for

### Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

### FXA 2008. Candidates should be able to : Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion of atoms or molecules.

UNIT G484 Module 3 4.3.1 Solid, liquid and gas 1 Candidates should be able to : DESCRIPTION OF SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES Describe solids, liquids and gases in terms of the spacing, ordering and motion

### State Newton's second law of motion for a particle, defining carefully each term used.

5 Question 1. [Marks 20] An unmarked police car P is, travelling at the legal speed limit, v P, on a straight section of highway. At time t = 0, the police car is overtaken by a car C, which is speeding

### Work, Energy and Power

Work, Energy and Power In this section of the Transport unit, we will look at the energy changes that take place when a force acts upon an object. Energy can t be created or destroyed, it can only be changed

### Name Date Class THERMOCHEMISTRY. SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510)

17 THERMOCHEMISTRY SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) This section explains the relationship between energy and heat, and distinguishes between heat capacity and specific heat.

### THERMODYNAMICS NOTES - BOOK 2 OF 2

THERMODYNAMICS & FLUIDS (Thermodynamics level 1\Thermo & Fluids Module -Thermo Book 2-Contents-December 07.doc) UFMEQU-20-1 THERMODYNAMICS NOTES - BOOK 2 OF 2 Students must read through these notes and

### Lesson 5 Review of fundamental principles Thermodynamics : Part II

Lesson 5 Review of fundamental principles Thermodynamics : Part II Version ME, IIT Kharagpur .The specific objectives are to:. State principles of evaluating thermodynamic properties of pure substances

### THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND CALCULATION. Academic Resource Center

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES AND CALCULATION Academic Resource Center THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES A quantity which is either an attribute of an entire system or is a function of position which is continuous and