SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS"

Transcription

1 5-1 LAB 5: SKELETAL SYSTEM (APPENDICULAR SKELETON) AND ARTICULATIONS In this lab you will continue to study the skeletal system. appendicular skeleton and associated articulations (joints) The focus of this lab is the Prelab Complete p 1, 5, 9, 13-16, 21-22, 25, 27 Complete the flashcards by identifying the labeled structures on p 3, 7, 11, 17, 19 Label the diagram of the knee on p. 23 Objectives 1. the names of the bones and the bone landmarks (bumps and depressions), as indicated for each bone 2. the location of the bones in the body, and the structural relevance of the landmarks 3. identify bone landmarks on the body surface by palpation 4. the difference between left and right bones in the appendicular skeleton 5. the names of the joints (articulations) and their structural / functional classification Learning the skeletal system in detail will require continual review. Refer to the flash cards, locate the bones and landmarks on your own body, handle the bones in the lab. APPENDICULAR SKELETON The appendicular skeleton consists of the girdle and the arm bones girdle and the leg bones Review the bones of both the axial and appendicular skeleton before beginning this lab

2 5-2 PART I : UPPER LIMB BONES STATION 1 PECTORAL GIRDLE Examine the scapula and clavicle both on the disarticulated and articulated skeletons. Note the "landmarks" (specific bumps and depressions) as requested. 1. Clavicle Acromial end (flat) Sternal end (cone shaped) NOTE: Inferior surface is rougher than superior 2. Scapula Identify the following on the bones and label on the diagrams; palpate structures indicated with a * on your body or your lab partner s body Spine: Site of attachments of trapezius and deltoid muscles, laterally becomes acromion process. * Supraspinous fossa: supraspinatus muscle arises from this area. Infraspinous fossa: infraspinatus muscle arises from this area Acromion process: tip of the shoulder (no muscle) * Coracoid process: three muscles attach here. - coracobrachialis, pectoralis minor, short head of the biceps brachii. Glenoid fossa: head of the humerus fits here. NOTE: practice differentiating left from right scapulae.

3 5-3

4 5-4

5 5-5 STATION 2 ARM / FOREARM 1. Humerus Head: articulates with of scapula Surgical neck: common fracture site. Greater tubercle: 3 rotator cuff muscles attach here. Lesser tubercle: subscapularis muscle inserts here. Intertubercular groove: for the tendon of biceps brachii (see orthopaedic skeleton and shoulder joint model) Deltoid tuberosity: deltoid muscle inserts at this site. * Medial epicondyle: origin of flexor muscle group of forearm. * Lateral epicondyle: origin of extensor muscle group in forearm. * Trochlea: (means "pulley") articulates with ulna. Capitulum: articulates with radius 2. Ulna Identify: Olecranon process: triceps brachii inserts here. (forms the elbow ) * Trochlear notch: articulates with trochlea of humerus. Styloid process of ulna: surface landmark * 3. Radius. Identify: Head: articulates with capitulum of humerus. Neck: held to the ulna by an annular ligament. Radial tuberosity: biceps brachii insets here. Styloid process of radius: surface landmark. *

6 5-6

7 5-7

8 5-8

9 5-9 HAND Carpal, metacarpal and phalanx bones make up the carpus (wrist), metacarpus (palm), and phalanges (fingers) of the hand. 1. Carpal Bones: (carpals) There are a total of eight carpal bones, you are NOT responsible for differentiating the individual carpal bones. What is the classification (as to shape) of these bones? NOTE: The scaphoid and lunate bones articulate with the radius, so, in a fall on the hands (using the hands to break a forward fall) the force of a sudden stop is almost directly placed on these two bones. Thus, of all the carpals, these are the ones most commonly fractured. 2. Metacarpals These bones form the palm of your hand. They are numbered from lateral to medial (in anatomical position). Locate metacarpals 1 through 5 on the articulated hand the base of each metacarpal the distal head of each metacarpal What is the classification (as to shape) of these bones)? 3. Phalanges. (singular: phalanx) Numbered 1-5 from lateral (thumb) to medial, like the metacarpals. Note that the thumb has only proximal and distal phalanges while all the fingers have proximal, middle and distal phalanges. Locate: the proximal and distal phalanges of the thumb (I proximal phalanx and I distal phalanx) II, III, IV, and V proximal, middle and distal phalanges What is the anatomical term for the thumb?

10 5-10

11 5-11

12 5-12

13 5-13 STATION 3 JOINTS OF UPPER LIMB Examine the shoulder and elbow joint models and the articulated arm and locate the following. i) Glenohumeral joint articulating surfaces of the meeting bones: the of the scapula articulates with the of the humerus ii) Elbow joint Examine the following articulating points. Of the 2 bones of the forearm, the ulna contributes most to movements at the elbow joint. humeroulnar trochlea of fits into trochlear notch of radiohumeral capitulum of glides over superior surface of the head of the radius iii) Radioulnar joint The radius and ulna articulate with each other both proximally and distally at small radioulnar joints, and are connected along their length by a flexible interosseous membrane (see photo). In anatomical position, the radius lies laterally (on the thumb side) and the ulna lies medially (supinated position). When the hand is rotated so the palm faces posteriorly (pronated position), the radius crosses over the ulna and the two bones form an X. TRY THIS: Place the index finger and thumb of the right hand on the edges of the radius and ulna (about half way up the forearm). Now, rotate the forearm so you switch from supination to pronation. Can you feel the two bones cross over one another?

14 5-14 PART II : LOWER LIMB BONES STATION 4 PELVIC GIRDLE: COXAL BONES Coxal bones - from the Latin: Ossa coxae (hip bones) Each of the coxal bones starts out as three separate bones which are separated by cartilage until about age 14 then gradually fuse until, by approximately age twenty-two, they become one bone. Name the 3 bones that make up each coxal bone: Identify the following structures on the coxal bones: iliac crest - easily found on yourself (*locate by palpation) iliac fossa - large muscles arise here acetabulum What bone articulates here? ischial tuberosity - you sit on them (muscles of the hamstring group originate here) obturator foramen a large nerve runs through this hole symphyseal surface - joins with opposite pubic bone to form the pubic symphysis CONSIDER: Is the pelvic bone you are examining a left or right coxal bone? Is the skeleton at station 10 male or female? COMPARE THE MALE VS FEMALE PELVISES: Describe 4 ways in which the female pelvis differs from the male pelvis:

15 5-15 STATION 5 LEG BONES 1. Femur Identify the following structures on the femur: head - articulates with of hip neck - often a site of fracture greater trochanter - insertion site for gluteus medius and minimus and deep lateral rotator muscles lesser trochanter - site of attachment for iliopsoas muscle gluteal tuberosity - where gluteus maximus inserts patellar surface - where patella articulates medial femoral condyle * lateral femoral condyle * CONSIDER: The femur is the longest and heaviest bone in the body. It is secured in the acetabulum by a ligament (ligamentum teres) arising from a small pit (the fovea capitis) in the center of the ball-like head of the femur How do you differentiate a right femur from a left femur? 2. Patella The patella protects the knee joint anteriorly and improves the leverage of the thigh muscles. The patella also prevents friction from occurring where the quadriceps tendon crosses the joint. How would you classify the patella by shape?

16 Tibia Be able to identify right from left tibias by noting the following (structures indicated with an asterisk, you should be able to palpate): lateral tibial condyle * medial tibial condyle * tibial tuberosity * medial malleolus * (medial ankle bone ) 4. Fibula head (articulates with what bone? ) lateral malleolus * (lateral ankle bone ) Why is the fibula thinner and smaller than the other leg bones? (You are not responsible for distinguishing right from left fibulas). BONES OF THE FEET tarsals (ankle bones) There are a total of 7 tarsal bones. The only tarsal you need to know by name is the calcaneus (or heel bone ): metatarsals - five, numbered 1 5 from the great toe - locate the base and head of each metatarsal. phalanges (singular: phalanx) - there are only two phalanges (proximal and distal) in the great toe or hallux (phalanx #1), and 3 in each of the other toes; a proximal, middle and distal phalanx. CONSIDER: What structure makes up the ball of the foot?

17 5-17

18 5-18

19 5-19

20 5-20

21 5-21 STATION 6 JOINTS OF THE LOWER LIMB Using the skeleton, orthopaedic skeleton, joint models and diagrams, study the following joints of the lower limb. 1. Pelvic Joints (articulated skeletons and male and female pelvises). i) Sacroiliac Joint between and of coxal bone ii) Pubic Symphysis The superior rami of both pubic bones join at their symphyseal surfaces with cartilage to form the pubic symphysis Classify this joint: What type of cartilage forms this joint? 2. Hip Joint - refer to joint model, skeletons, and photographs. Identify the following in the hip joint model : acetabulum head of the femur ligaments reinforcing the capsule (three on each side) In a typical hip replacement surgery, what is actually replaced? In a typical hip fracture (common in elderly individuals with osteoporosis), what bone is actually fractured? what part of this bone is vulnerable to fracture?

22 Knee Joint - refer to knee joint model, articulated skeleton and photographs Identify: articular capsule medial meniscus lateral menisci What type of cartilage forms the menisci? The lateral and medial menisci function to anterior cruciate ligaments posterior cruciate ligaments The cruciate ligaments function to medial (tibial) collateral ligament stabilize joint medially and lateral (fibular) collateral ligament stabilize joint laterally NOTE: Tendons of a number of muscles also reinforce the knee joint: CONSIDER: The knee joint is the most complex joint in the body and is subject to more than usual wear and tear due to the weight-bearing loads put on it throughout life. THINK: Knee injury commonly occurs when an individual receives a blow to the lateral side of the knee. What ligaments would most likely be torn in this type of injury? LABEL THE DIAGRAM OF THE KNEE JOINT WHICH FOLLOWS

23 5-23 THE KNEE JOINT

24 5-24 STATION 7 PART III. ARTICULATIONS (JOINTS) When skeletal muscle contracts, bones move. This movement occurs at joints or articulations. Many different types of supportive connective tissues come together at joints. JOINT CLASSIFICATION Joints can be classified on the basis of the range of motion that occurs at the joint. i) Synarthoses (singular synarthrosis) Define: ii) Amphiarthroses (singular amphiarthrosis) Define: iii) Diarthroses (singular diarthrosis) Define: Joints are also classified on the basis of structure ( how are bones held together and with what tissues). i) Fibrous joints Distinguish between the following suture syndesmosis gomphosis Examine a suture on the skull provided. Observe the interosseous membrane between the radius and ulna ii) Cartilagenous joints Distinguish between the following synchondrosis symphysis

25 5-25 iii) Synovial joints Synovial joints are classified by the number of axes along which movement occurs. Monaxial Biaxial Triaxial Various names are used to describe the different types of synovial joints. Give 1 example of each of the following types of synovial joints Planar (gliding) Hinge Pivot Condylar (ellipsoidal) Saddle Ball and socket JOINT ASSIGNMENT Five joints have been labelled on the skeleton at this station. Complete the joint assignment which was handed out at the beginning of class by classifying these 5 joints and completing the table provided. You and your lab partner(s) will hand this assignment in for grading.

26 5-26 STATION 8 SYNOVIAL JOINT STRUCTURE The majority of joints are diarthrotic and synovial. Recall the basic structure of a synovial joint: Articular cartilage composed of tissue Joint cavity filled with Articular capsule composed of two layers: Outer fibrous capsule composed of tissue Inner layer the secretes Recall the accessory structures by completing the following table: structure tissue function Ligaments Tendons Menisci Fat pads Bursa Tendon sheath DISSECTED BEEF LEG JOINT Examine the beef leg joint and locate the following structures: articular cartilage, synovial membrane, articular (joint) capsule, adipose tissue, ligament, tendon (if muscle is present)

27 5-27 Examine the photograph of a human hip joint below. Using your textbook as a reference, identify the following features: articular (fibrous) capsule, synovial cavity, articular cartilage, ligamentum teres (at head of femur), ischiofemoral ligament

28 5-28 STATION 9 REVIEW Identify the 10 loose bones (by name), indicate whether each is part of the axial or appendicular skeleton, and determine whether the bone is from the left or right side of the body (if possible)

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I

THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON BIO 137 ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I MARY CATHERINE FLATH, Ph.D. Dr. Mary Cat Flath, Copyright 2015 AXIAL SKELETON SKULL (all flat bones) Cranium = 8 bones Facial Skeleton with Mandible

More information

Lab 07 SGOs: Articulations and Movement (20 points)

Lab 07 SGOs: Articulations and Movement (20 points) Pierce College Putman/Biol 241 Name: Lab 07 SGOs: Articulations and Movement (20 points) Lab Report 7: Marieb & Mitchell 9 th Ed: Exercise 13 (Reference only), Exercise 13 Review Sheet Questions + Addendum;

More information

Upper Limb QUESTIONS UPPER LIMB: QUESTIONS

Upper Limb QUESTIONS UPPER LIMB: QUESTIONS 1 Upper Limb QUESTIONS 1.1 Which of the following statements best describes the scapula? a. It usually overlies the 2nd to 9th ribs. b. The spine continues laterally as the coracoid process. c. The suprascapular

More information

Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton

Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton Vertebral Column and Upper Appendicular Skeleton The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones in the head and trunk of the human body. In this lab you will look at the vertebral column, just one part of that

More information

Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY

Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY ANATOMICAL TERMS 1. Use the word bank to fill in the missing words. All anatomical terms have a(n) reference point which is called the This is a(n) forward facing position where

More information

ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy

ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy ANAT2111 Introductory Anatomy Lecture 4 Articular System Structural Classes of Joints Based on the type of substance between articulating bones: Fibrous joints - least mobile Cartilaginous joints Synovial

More information

Practical 1 Worksheet

Practical 1 Worksheet Practical 1 Worksheet ANATOMICAL TERMS 1. Use the word bank to fill in the missing words. reference side stand body arms palms anatomical forward All anatomical terms have a(n) point which is called the

More information

Articulations - where two bones interconnect.

Articulations - where two bones interconnect. Articulations Articulations - where two bones interconnect. Immovable joints Synarthroses, or fibrous Example: Sutures of skull Slightly moveable joints Amphiarthroses, or cartilaginous Example: Symphysis

More information

Abductor Pollicis Longus. Biceps Brachii. Brachioradialis. Brachialis. Deltoid. Calcaneal Tendon. Muscles of the Arms & Legs

Abductor Pollicis Longus. Biceps Brachii. Brachioradialis. Brachialis. Deltoid. Calcaneal Tendon. Muscles of the Arms & Legs Abductor Pollicis Longus Biceps Brachii Brachioradialis Brachialis Calcaneal Tendon Deltoid Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Digitorum Fibularis Longus & Fibularis Brevis Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor

More information

Skeletal system. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Skeletal system. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. NURS1004 Week 6 Part I Prepared by Didy Button Skeletal system An Introduction to the Skeletal System The Skeletal System Includes: Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues 6-1

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Introduction: Bone Markings Overview: Divisions of the skeleton:

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. Introduction: Bone Markings Overview: Divisions of the skeleton: THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Introduction: The skeleton is the body s structural framework and is composed of two of the supportive tissues studied earlier; bone and cartilage. The main functions of the skeleton

More information

II. Axial Skeleton (Skull, Thoracic Cage, and Vertebral Column)

II. Axial Skeleton (Skull, Thoracic Cage, and Vertebral Column) THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Lab Objectives Students should be able to: 1. Recognize bones and bone markings for the axial and appendicular skeleton 2. Recognize bones disarticulated and/or articulated 3. Identify

More information

THE SHOULDER JOINT T H E G L E N O H U M E R A L ( G H ) J O I N T

THE SHOULDER JOINT T H E G L E N O H U M E R A L ( G H ) J O I N T THE SHOULDER JOINT T H E G L E N O H U M E R A L ( G H ) J O I N T CLARIFICATION OF TERMS Shoulder girdle = scapula and clavicle Shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) = scapula and humerus Lippert, p115

More information

In which arm muscle are intramuscular injections most often given? (not in text)

In which arm muscle are intramuscular injections most often given? (not in text) AP1 Lab 9 - Muscles of the Arms and Legs Locate the following muscles on the models and on yourself. Recall anatomical position. Directional terms such as anterior, posterior, lateral, etc. all assume

More information

Chapter 9 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture

Chapter 9 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Chapter 9 1 JOINTS Chapter 9 Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Chapter 9 2 JOINTS (Bones are too rigid to bend without causing damage.) (Bones are held together at joints by flexible connective tissue.) (Imagine

More information

LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION

LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION LABORATORY EXERCISE 12 BONE STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION FIG. 12.1 1. Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) 6. Periosteum 2. Spongy bone (red marrow) 7. Proximal epiphysis 3. Medullary cavity 8. Diaphysis

More information

Skin of eyebrows galea aponeurotica. Muscle and skin of mouth

Skin of eyebrows galea aponeurotica. Muscle and skin of mouth : SEE ALSO THE AP SITE FOR OTHER TABLES GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEMM Muscles of the Head and Neck: Occipitofrontalis Frontalis Occipitalis Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Buccinator Masseter

More information

Elbow & Forearm 10/15/2012. Clarification of Terms. Osteology of the Elbow & Forearm (Bones)

Elbow & Forearm 10/15/2012. Clarification of Terms. Osteology of the Elbow & Forearm (Bones) Elbow & Forearm H O W V I T A L I S T H E E L B O W T O O U R D A I L Y L I V E S? Clarification of Terms The elbow includes: 3 bones (humerus, radius, and ulna) 2 joints (humeroulnar and humeroradial)

More information

Based on the material that binds the bones together. Based on the degreee of movement they permit

Based on the material that binds the bones together. Based on the degreee of movement they permit Based on the material that binds the bones together Based on the degreee of movement they permit Diarthroses: Synovial Joints Freely movable Each joint contains a fluid filled joint cavity called the synovial

More information

Elbow & Forearm H O W V I T A L I S T H E E L B O W T O O U R D A I L Y L I V E S?

Elbow & Forearm H O W V I T A L I S T H E E L B O W T O O U R D A I L Y L I V E S? Elbow & Forearm H O W V I T A L I S T H E E L B O W T O O U R D A I L Y L I V E S? Clarification of Terms The elbow includes: 3 bones (humerus, radius, and ulna) 2 joints (humeroulnar and humeroradial)

More information

FUNCTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #7 UPPER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE

FUNCTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #7 UPPER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE FUNCTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #7 UPPER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE The following tips will help you in naming the muscles of the forearm and hand: The Ulna is located on the pinky side of the wrist, the Radius

More information

Osteology of the Elbow and Forearm Complex

Osteology of the Elbow and Forearm Complex Osteology of the Elbow and Forearm Complex The ability to perform m any activities of daily living (ADL) d epends upon the elbow. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Can you think of anything that you do

More information

Definition: A joint or articulation is a place in the body where two bones come together.

Definition: A joint or articulation is a place in the body where two bones come together. Definition: A joint or articulation is a place in the body where two bones come together. CLASSES OF JOINTS. 1. Joints are classified according to how the bones are held together. 2. The three types of

More information

Disclosure. Shoulder, Hip and Knee Pain and Assessment. Topics Covered. Shoulder and Shoulder Pain. Shoulder

Disclosure. Shoulder, Hip and Knee Pain and Assessment. Topics Covered. Shoulder and Shoulder Pain. Shoulder Disclosure Shoulder, Hip and Knee Pain and Assessment Jackie Rowles, MBA, CRNA, ANP BC, FAAPM, FAAN Advanced Physical Assessment for Differential Diagnosis In Pain Management AANA May 2015 I have no financial

More information

Muscles of Mastication

Muscles of Mastication Muscles of Mastication Masseter Zygomatic Arch Mandibular angle Elevates mandible Mandibular ramus Temporalis Temporal fossa of the temporal bone Coronoid process of the mandible Elevates mandible Retracts

More information

Anatomy and Physiology 121: Muscles of the Human Body

Anatomy and Physiology 121: Muscles of the Human Body Epicranius Anatomy and Physiology 121: Muscles of the Human Body Covers upper cranium Raises eyebrows, surprise, headaches Parts Frontalis Occipitalis Epicranial aponeurosis Orbicularis oculi Ring (sphincter)

More information

ACTIVITIES 5 & 6: APPENDICULAR AND AXIAL MUSCLES

ACTIVITIES 5 & 6: APPENDICULAR AND AXIAL MUSCLES ACTIVITIES 5 & 6: APPENDICULAR AND AXIAL MUSCLES Objectives: 1) How to get ready: Read Chapter 11 & 12, McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e. All text references are for this textbook. Begin identifying

More information

Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7. Functions of skeletal system : support of body. production of blood cells

Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7. Functions of skeletal system : support of body. production of blood cells Biology 2401 A&P I - Notes exam 2 - Skeletal System Ch. 7 Functions of skeletal system : support of body protection of soft organs production of blood cells movement (as levers) storage of minerals and

More information

Anterior Superior Iliac Spine. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine. head neck greater trochanter intertrochanteric line lesser trochanter

Anterior Superior Iliac Spine. Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine. head neck greater trochanter intertrochanteric line lesser trochanter Ilium Bones The Skeleton Ischium Pubis Sacro-iliac Joint Iliac Crest Anterior Superior Superior Pubic Ramus Anterior Inferior Acetabulum Obturator Foramen Ischio-pubic ramus Ischial tuberosity Pubic Crest

More information

Types of Synovial Joints Six major categories:

Types of Synovial Joints Six major categories: Types of Synovial Joints Six major categories: Plane Hinge Pivot Condyloid Saddle Ball & socket Plane Joint Plane joints Articular surfaces are essentially flat Allow only slipping or gliding movements

More information

Skeletal System. Overview and General Anatomy

Skeletal System. Overview and General Anatomy Skeletal System Overview and General Anatomy 1 Bone Functions Support Protection Movement Storage Fat, calcium, phosphorus Hemopoiesis While we usually think of the skeleton as just our support framework,

More information

Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6

Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Human Anatomy Study Guide The Skeletal System: Chapter 6 Name Unit Objectives At the end of this unit, you should be able to 1) List the functions of the skeletal system. 2) Describe the anatomy of a long

More information

Buccinator Presses cheek against molar teeth Facial (CNVII) wrinkles forehead

Buccinator Presses cheek against molar teeth Facial (CNVII) wrinkles forehead Muscles to Identify on the Cadaver and/or Models You are required to identify each of the following muscles or associated structures on the cadavers and/or models in lab. If the box is shaded in a particular

More information

Class Outline: Anterior Anatomy

Class Outline: Anterior Anatomy Class Outline: Anterior Anatomy 5 minutes Breath of Arrival and Attendance 5 minutes Howdy Partner 35 minutes Anterior Anatomy using Power Point Presentation 5 minutes Overview of skeletal segments 5 minutes

More information

The Pilates Studio of Los Angeles / PilatesCertificationOnline.com

The Pilates Studio of Los Angeles / PilatesCertificationOnline.com Anatomy Review Part I Anatomical Terminology and Review Questions (through pg. 80) Define the following: 1. Sagittal Plane 2. Frontal or Coronal Plane 3. Horizontal Plane 4. Superior 5. Inferior 6. Anterior

More information

DISLOCATIONS. Practical suggestions for the application of the OTA dislocation classification system. General principles.

DISLOCATIONS. Practical suggestions for the application of the OTA dislocation classification system. General principles. DISLOCATIONS Practical suggestions for the application of the OTA dislocation classification system. General principles. Although there are many different ways in which dislocations can be classified,

More information

Three bones take part in forming the knee joint : 1. Lower end of the femur 2. Upper end of tibia 3. Patella (knee cup).

Three bones take part in forming the knee joint : 1. Lower end of the femur 2. Upper end of tibia 3. Patella (knee cup). The knee is a hinge synovial joint between the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (shin bone). The joint is protected in front by the patella (knee cap). Knee joint is a complex compound synovial joint (3

More information

UPPER EXTREMITY INJURIES. Recognizing common injuries to the upper extremity

UPPER EXTREMITY INJURIES. Recognizing common injuries to the upper extremity UPPER EXTREMITY INJURIES Recognizing common injuries to the upper extremity ANATOMY BONES Clavicle Scapula Spine of the scapula Acromion process Glenoid fossa/cavity Humerus Epicondyles ANATOMY BONES Ulna

More information

CHAPTER 8: JOINTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. 4. Name the three types of fibrous joints and give an example of each.

CHAPTER 8: JOINTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM. 4. Name the three types of fibrous joints and give an example of each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Define the term articulation. 2. Distinguish between the functional and structural classification of joints, and relate the terms that are essentially synonymous. 3. Compare and contrast

More information

Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column Sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck) Origin Insertion Action

Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column Sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck) Origin Insertion Action Muscular movements of the head (at the cervical spine/neck) and of the torso (thoracic and lumbar spine/upper, middle, and lower back): flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation. Muscles of the Neck

More information

OBJECTIVES: WHAT TO KNOW FOR PRACTICAL

OBJECTIVES: WHAT TO KNOW FOR PRACTICAL THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Individual bones are composed of bone, cartilage, and connective tissue; thus, they are organs, collectively comprising the skeletal system. Functions of the skeletal system are many,

More information

Laerdal' Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton

Laerdal' Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton Laerdal Texas P.O. Box 38.226 EM. 116 Gatesville,Texas U.S.A.76528 U.S.A.1-800-433-5539 IntemationaI1-254-865-7221 24 Hour Fax 254-865-8011 ~ Laerdal' TABLE OF CONTENTS

More information

Model of the Human Skeleton

Model of the Human Skeleton Model of the Human Skeleton Have students read about the skeletal system below and take the two short answer quizzes. They can study the labeled skeleton and then try to label a whole skeleton themselves.

More information

21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies

21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies MUSCLE REVIEW 2 21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies a. anterior to the humerus b. posterior to the humerus c. anterior to the ulna and radius

More information

Cross section of Anterior compartment of proximal thigh

Cross section of Anterior compartment of proximal thigh Cross sectional Anatomy of lower limb Thigh Anatomy Thigh is divided into three compartments by three septae which extend from inner aspect of deep fascial sheath to the linea aspera of femur. Anterior

More information

MUSCLES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY: Movement of the hip and leg: Anterior Compartment Thigh Muscles:

MUSCLES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY: Movement of the hip and leg: Anterior Compartment Thigh Muscles: MUSCLES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY: Movement of the hip and leg: Anterior Compartment Thigh Muscles: Pectineus O: Superior ramus of pubis. Flexes, adducts and assists with medial rotation of hip. Nerve: Femoral

More information

The Skeleton. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi. ebneshahidi

The Skeleton. Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi. ebneshahidi The Skeleton Dr. Ali Ebneshahidi Axial Skeleton Skull 22 bones 8 cranial bones Frontal 1 Parietal 2 Occipital 1 Temporal 2 Sphenoid 1 Ethmoid 1 14 facial bones Maxilla 2 Palatine 2 Zygomatic 2 Lacrimal

More information

Chapter 5. The Shoulder Joint. The Shoulder Joint. Bones. Bones. Bones

Chapter 5. The Shoulder Joint. The Shoulder Joint. Bones. Bones. Bones Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Reprinted by permission. Chapter 5 The Shoulder Joint Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, Ed.D, ATC, CSCS Structural Kinesiology The Shoulder Joint 5-1 The Shoulder

More information

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review

Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review Name: Period: Unit 4: Skeletal System Test Review Test Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and

More information

An overview of the anatomy of the canine forelimb.

An overview of the anatomy of the canine forelimb. An overview of the anatomy of the canine forelimb. Darren Kelly Artwork by Paddy Lennon Original photos courtesy of Mary Ferguson Students at University College Dublin, School of Veterinary Medicine. Lateral

More information

www.ghadialisurgery.com

www.ghadialisurgery.com P R E S E N T S Dr. Mufa T. Ghadiali is skilled in all aspects of General Surgery. His General Surgery Services include: General Surgery Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery Surgical Oncology Gastrointestinal

More information

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM THE SKELETAL SYSTEM The skeleton is the body s bony framework which consists of 206 bones. The bones are made up of water(45%), calcium and phosphorous(35%) and other organic materials(20%). The calcium

More information

Diagnostic MSK Case Submission Requirements

Diagnostic MSK Case Submission Requirements Diagnostic MSK Case Submission Requirements Note: MSK Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (USGIP) is considered a separate specialty. Corresponds with 4/21/16 Accred Newsletter* From the main site:

More information

Arm, Elbow, Forearm. Two Compartments of Arm. Muscles of the Anterior Compartment. Anterior Muscles. Nerves. Anterior muscles

Arm, Elbow, Forearm. Two Compartments of Arm. Muscles of the Anterior Compartment. Anterior Muscles. Nerves. Anterior muscles Arm, Elbow, Forearm Two Compartments of Arm Arm = Shoulder to elbow; aka Brachium Anterior = flexors Innervated by Musculocutaneous Nerve Blood supply by brachial aa Posterior =extensors Innervated by

More information

Chapter 9 The Hip Joint and Pelvic Girdle

Chapter 9 The Hip Joint and Pelvic Girdle Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Reprinted by permission. The Hip Joint and Pelvic Girdle Chapter 9 The Hip Joint and Pelvic Girdle Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, Ed.D, ATC, CSCS Hip joint

More information

Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action Innervation Muscles of Upper Extremity Pectoralis Major Medial half of clavicle, front of sternum, costal

Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action Innervation Muscles of Upper Extremity Pectoralis Major Medial half of clavicle, front of sternum, costal Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action Innervation Muscles of Upper Extremity Pectoralis Major Medial half of clavicle, front of sternum, costal Crest of greater tubercle (Lateral lip of bicipital groove)

More information

Description. 354.0 Carpel tunnel syndrome. 355.5 Tarsal tunnel syndrome. 719.41 Pain in joint involving shoulder region

Description. 354.0 Carpel tunnel syndrome. 355.5 Tarsal tunnel syndrome. 719.41 Pain in joint involving shoulder region 354.0 Carpel tunnel syndrome 355.5 Tarsal tunnel syndrome 719.41 Pain in joint involving shoulder region 719.46 Pain in joint involving lower leg 720.0 Ankylosing spondylitis 720.1 Spinal enthesopathy

More information

The Knee Joint. Osteology.

The Knee Joint. Osteology. The Knee Joint. The knee joint is the largest joint in the human body, and is one of the most complicated. However, it is also one of the least stable joints, and is therefore prone to injury and osteoarthritic

More information

Skeletal System Review. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones.

Skeletal System Review. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. Skeletal System Review 1. List four functions of the skeletal system: a. b. c. d. 2. Define ossification and identify the roles of the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts in the growth of bones. 3.

More information

The Muscular System. Appendicular Musculature

The Muscular System. Appendicular Musculature 11 The Muscular System Appendicular Musculature CHAPTER OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the functions of the appendicular musculature. 2. Identify and locate the principal appendicular muscles of the body, together

More information

SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 2016 Suite Cambridge TECHNICALS LEVEL 3 SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Unit 1 Body systems and the effects of physical activity K/507/4452 Guided learning hours: 90 Version 2 - Revised content - March 2016

More information

EMG Practicum 1: Electrode location and placement

EMG Practicum 1: Electrode location and placement EMG Practicum 1: Electrode location and placement Objectives Learning to - Find the correct muscles - Find the correct electrode location on the muscle - Prepare the skin - Place the electrodes correctly

More information

Structure & Function of the Knee. One of the most complex simple structures in the human body. The middle child of the lower extremity.

Structure & Function of the Knee. One of the most complex simple structures in the human body. The middle child of the lower extremity. Structure & Function of the Knee One of the most complex simple structures in the human body. The middle child of the lower extremity. Osteology of the Knee Distal femur (ADDuctor tubercle) Right Femur

More information

Elbow & Forearm. Notes. Notes. Lecture Slides - A.D.A.M. Lab Pics. Bones & Joints: Elbow & Forearm

Elbow & Forearm. Notes. Notes. Lecture Slides - A.D.A.M. Lab Pics. Bones & Joints: Elbow & Forearm Elbow & Forearm Elbow & Forearm Notes Lecture Slides - A.D.A.M. Lab Pics Notes Bones & Joints: The elbow joint is a combination of joints but common reference is usually to the articulation of the distal

More information

International Standards for the Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Motor Exam Guide

International Standards for the Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Motor Exam Guide C5 Elbow Flexors Biceps Brachii, Brachialis Patient Position: The shoulder is in neutral rotation, neutral flexion/extension, and adducted. The elbow is fully extended, with the forearm in full supination.

More information

Chapter 5 The Skeletal System

Chapter 5 The Skeletal System Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Elaine N. Marieb Seventh Edition Chapter 5 The Skeletal System The Skeletal System Parts of the skeletal system Bones (skeleton) Joints Cartilages Ligaments (bone

More information

Knee Muscle Actions. Popliteus (externally rotates femur if foot is planted; internally rotates tibia if foot is free)

Knee Muscle Actions. Popliteus (externally rotates femur if foot is planted; internally rotates tibia if foot is free) Knee Muscle Actions Knee Extension (Concentric) Quads (Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius) (Rectus Femoris Also flexes hip!!!) Knee Flexion (Concentric) Hamstrings (Biceps

More information

Clarification of Terms

Clarification of Terms Clarification of Terms The plantar aspect of the foot refers to the sole or its bottom The dorsal aspect refers to the top or its superior portion The ankle and foot perform three main functions: 1. shock

More information

The skeletal and muscular systems

The skeletal and muscular systems anatomy and physiology The skeletal and muscular systems CHAPTER 1: Anatomy and physiology LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter, you should be able to: Describe an overview of the skeletal system

More information

Anatomy of the Arm 1

Anatomy of the Arm 1 Anatomy of the Arm 1 Your Ideas How can you find out or see inside the arm? What imaging techniques can we use? 2 Imaging Techniques X-ray http://health.howstuffworks.com/x-ray.htm http://web.kanazawa-u.ac.jp/~med23/nmc/prepcase9912.html

More information

Chapter 10 The Knee Joint

Chapter 10 The Knee Joint Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Reprinted by permission. The Knee Joint Chapter 10 The Knee Joint Structural Kinesiology R.T. Floyd, Ed.D, ATC, CSCS Knee joint largest joint in body very complex

More information

Structure and Function of the Bones and Noncontractile Elements of the Knee

Structure and Function of the Bones and Noncontractile Elements of the Knee Structure and Function of the Bones and Noncontractile Elements of the Knee BONES OF THE KNEE JOINT Shaft and Distal Femur Linea aspera gives rise to quadriceps. Flatten into supracondylar ridges End in

More information

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS. The Bones & Joints

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS. The Bones & Joints THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS The Bones & Joints CLOSE YOUR POWERPOINT HANDOUTS!! Think-Pair-Share: Why do we need bones? Try to think of 3 reasons. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM Is made up of numerous bones

More information

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT UNIT - HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Chapter 18 LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT Movement is an important feature of living organism. Both the microbes and macrobes show wide range of movements. The movements results in change

More information

Muscle Movements, Types, and Names

Muscle Movements, Types, and Names Muscle Movements, Types, and Names A. Gross Skeletal Muscle Activity 1. With a few exceptions, all muscles cross at least one joint 2. Typically, the bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint it crossed

More information

THE KNEE JOINT. Muscles That Act On The Knee

THE KNEE JOINT. Muscles That Act On The Knee THE KNEE JOINT Muscles That Act On The Knee Muscles of the Knee Joint Hamstrings All - flexion B.F. - external rotation S.T. and S.M - internal rotation Quadriceps All - extension Unclassified Sartorius

More information

Unit 2. The skeletal system. In this unit. Warm-up. Listening. Bones of the human skeleton. Exercise 1 4

Unit 2. The skeletal system. In this unit. Warm-up. Listening. Bones of the human skeleton. Exercise 1 4 Unit 2 The skeletal system In this unit Bones of the human skeleton: medical and common names Plural nouns of Latin origin Describing bones Adjectives describing anatomical position Bone structure Osteoporosis

More information

www.ghadialisurgery.com

www.ghadialisurgery.com P R E S E N T S Dr. Mufa T. Ghadiali is skilled in all aspects of General Surgery. His General Surgery Services include: General Surgery Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery Surgical Oncology Gastrointestinal

More information

Ankle Joint Type: Uniaxial hinge joint. (Dorsiflexion 10 0 with straight knee, 30 with flexed knee; Plantar flexion 30. Articulating Surfaces: Lower

Ankle Joint Type: Uniaxial hinge joint. (Dorsiflexion 10 0 with straight knee, 30 with flexed knee; Plantar flexion 30. Articulating Surfaces: Lower Ankle Joint Type: Uniaxial hinge joint. (Dorsiflexion 10 0 with straight knee, 30 with flexed knee; Plantar flexion 30. Articulating Surfaces: Lower end of tibia & medial malleolus. -Lateral Malleolus

More information

Surgical Art. Formulaic Drawing Method. DRAWING WORKSHOP Learning to sketch for patient notes

Surgical Art. Formulaic Drawing Method. DRAWING WORKSHOP Learning to sketch for patient notes DRAWING WORKSHOP Learning to sketch for patient notes Surgical Art Formulaic Drawing Method Formulaic figure drawing systems involve using abstract rhythms and interlocking shapes to construct the human

More information

Anatomy Lecture Notes Chapters 7 and 8

Anatomy Lecture Notes Chapters 7 and 8 I. axial vs appendicular axial skeleton forms long axis of body: skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular - bones of upper and lower limbs including girdles that attach limbs to axial skeleton II.

More information

Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company

Chapter 2 Skeletal System. Copyright 2001, F. A. Davis Company Chapter 2 Skeletal System Objectives Describe the functions of the skeleton Differentiate axial and appendicular skeleton Recognize and describe the composition of bone Identify and explain the structure

More information

Kinesio Taping. Muscle Anatomy and Basic Tape Application

Kinesio Taping. Muscle Anatomy and Basic Tape Application Kinesio Taping Muscle Anatomy and Basic Tape Application Why Kinesio Tape? The method of kinesio taping is derived from the science of kinesiology and uses the body s own natural healing process by recognizing

More information

Questions. Close-packed: Maximum congruency, tight i.e. Knee extension

Questions. Close-packed: Maximum congruency, tight i.e. Knee extension Plane: Sagittal Axis: Coronal Action: Flexion/Extension Plane: Frontal AKA Coronal Axis: Sagittal Abduction/Adduction Plane: Transverse AKA Horizontal Axis: Vertical Rotation Cardinal Plane: where all

More information

Rotator Cuff Pathophysiology. treatment program that will effectively treat it. The tricky part about the shoulder is that it is a ball and

Rotator Cuff Pathophysiology. treatment program that will effectively treat it. The tricky part about the shoulder is that it is a ball and Rotator Cuff Pathophysiology Shoulder injuries occur to most people at least once in their life. This highly mobile and versatile joint is one of the most common reasons people visit their health care

More information

BONES AND JOINTS. Axial Skeleton

BONES AND JOINTS. Axial Skeleton BONES AND JOINTS The adult human skeleton usually consists of 206 bones which are connected by various joints. Muscles produce force which causes movement at these joints. These bones can be grouped in

More information

Anatomy of Skeletal System

Anatomy of Skeletal System Anatomy of Skeletal System two main subdivisions of skeletal system: axial : skull, vertebral column, rib cage appendicular: arms and legs and girdles Bone Markings: Foramen: opening in bone passageway

More information

MSK MRI PROTOCOL OVERVIEW

MSK MRI PROTOCOL OVERVIEW TABLE OF CONTENTS UNSUPERVISED PROTOCOLS SHOULDER (ROUTINE)...2 SHOULDER + PROXIMAL BICEPS...6 ELBOW (ROUTINE)...10 ELBOW + DISTAL BICEPS TENDON...13 ELBOW + DISTAL TRICEPS TENDON...17 WRIST (ROUTINE)...20

More information

Shoulder MRI for Rotator Cuff Tears. Conor Kleweno,, Harvard Medical School Year III Gillian Lieberman, MD

Shoulder MRI for Rotator Cuff Tears. Conor Kleweno,, Harvard Medical School Year III Gillian Lieberman, MD Shoulder MRI for Rotator Cuff Tears Conor Kleweno,, Harvard Medical School Year III Goals of Presentation Shoulder anatomy Function of rotator cuff MRI approach to diagnose cuff tear Anatomy on MRI images

More information

Anatomy and Pathomechanics of the Sacrum and Pelvis. Charles R. Thompson Head Athletic Trainer Princeton University

Anatomy and Pathomechanics of the Sacrum and Pelvis. Charles R. Thompson Head Athletic Trainer Princeton University Anatomy and Pathomechanics of the Sacrum and Pelvis Charles R. Thompson Head Athletic Trainer Princeton University Simplify Everything There are actually only three bones: Two innominates, one sacrum.

More information

Avian Skeletal Morphology

Avian Skeletal Morphology Avian Skeletal Morphology To Know Skull/Face Trunk and Limbs Cranium Vertebral ribs Occipital Sternal ribs Parietal Uncinate processes Frontal Sternum and keel Squamosal Pectoral Girdle Jugal (zygomatic

More information

MRI Anatomy of the Knee and Shoulder

MRI Anatomy of the Knee and Shoulder November 2002 MRI Anatomy of the Knee and Shoulder James Y. Song, UC San Francisco MSIV Gillian Lieberman MD Agenda Knee Sagittal, Coronal FSE PD Ligamentous (ACL, PCL, MCL, LCL) and meniscal injury Shoulder

More information

Comprehensive Anatomy and Physiology for ICD-10-CM Coding

Comprehensive Anatomy and Physiology for ICD-10-CM Coding 2011 Comprehensive Anatomy and Physiology for ICD-10-CM Coding Your guide to the anatomical and physiological specificity of ICD-10-CM coding NEW! See sample pages of this new product. ICD-10 A full suite

More information

BODY BODY PEDICLE PEDICLE TRANSVERSE TRANSVERSE PROCESS PROCESS

BODY BODY PEDICLE PEDICLE TRANSVERSE TRANSVERSE PROCESS PROCESS Learning Objective Radiology Anatomy of the Spine and Upper Extremity Identify anatomic structures of the spine and upper extremities on standard radiographic and cross-sectional images Timothy J. Mosher,

More information

Knee Anatomy. A Brief Review

Knee Anatomy. A Brief Review Knee Anatomy A Brief Review TURNER A. BLACKBURN, MEd, and EMILY CRAIG, MS Key Words: Knee joint. To understand knee problems, you must know the anatomy of this most complex joint. This usually calls for

More information

Middle California Region USPC Upper Level Horse Management Education. Tendons, Ligaments, Joints & the Skeletal System By Claudia Deffenbaugh

Middle California Region USPC Upper Level Horse Management Education. Tendons, Ligaments, Joints & the Skeletal System By Claudia Deffenbaugh Tendons - connect Muscle to Bone Middle California Region USPC Upper Level Horse Management Education Tendons, Ligaments, Joints & the Skeletal System By Claudia Deffenbaugh Tendons are fibrous cords of

More information

Biology 105 Human Biology PRACTICE MIDTERM EXAM 1. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System

Biology 105 Human Biology PRACTICE MIDTERM EXAM 1. Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology, 5e (Martini/Nath) Chapter 6 The Skeletal System Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Functions of the skeletal system include A) support. B) storage. C) protection. D) blood

More information

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS

THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS THE SKELETAL & ARTICULAR SYSTEMS The Bones & Joints Is made up of numerous bones and is the rigid framework of the human body It gives support and shape to the body It protects vital organs such as the

More information

9/3/2013 JOINTS. Joints. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:

9/3/2013 JOINTS. Joints. Axial Skeleton STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: JOINTS Joints A connection between 2 or more bones A pivot point for bony motion The features of the joint help determine The ROM freedom Functional potential of the joint Axial

More information

Chapter 8. Muscular System: Skeletal Muscles of the Body

Chapter 8. Muscular System: Skeletal Muscles of the Body Chapter 8 Muscular System: Skeletal Muscles of the Body INTRODUCTION This chapter continues our study of the muscular system by examining the distribution of muscles throughout the body. We learned in

More information