Laerdal' Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton

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1 Human Anatomy Manual The Skeleton Laerdal Texas P.O. Box EM. 116 Gatesville,Texas U.S.A U.S.A IntemationaI Hour Fax ~ Laerdal'

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Introduction 2 Skeleton 3 Skull 4 Vertebral Column 5-6 Vertebrae 7 Thorax Clavicle 8 Scapula 9 Humerus Radius and Ulna 10 Hand 11 Pelvis Innominate 12 Femur Tibia and Fibula 13 Patella Foot

3 INTRODUCTION Osteology (from the Greek "Osteon", meaning bone) Is tha branch of anatomy that describes the structure and functions of the skeletal system. Bones provide a firm framework that gives shape to the body, supports Its parts, and protects vital organs such as the brain, heart, lungs, etc., from Injury. The bones also facilitate body movement by acting In cooperation with numerous muscles attached to the bones by tendons. Bone growth and development continues from birth to about twenty years of age. Cartilage furnishes elastic, supporting connective tissues which protect the bones at the joints from shock and give the skeleton more flexibility. Infants have approximately three hundred fifty bones, many of which fuse during the process of growth. Adults vary somewhat In the number of bones, but a total of two hundred six bones Is considered normal or typical. The skeletal system consists of two divisions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton, the main framework of the body, consists of the spine, skull, and chest. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower extermltles. The skull Is defined as the bony framework of the head. The 29 bones of the skull include those of the cranium and face, the hyoid bone, and the ear osslcles. The 8 cranial bones enclose a cavity within which are the brain, 3 layers of protective membranes (pia mater, arachnoid, and dura mater), and numerous blood vessels. Fourteen Irregular bones, including the lower and upper Jaw bones, nasal bones, and cheek bones, form the bony framework of the face. The human skull, compared with the skulls of other animals, displays a relative decrease In the size of the face and a relative Increase In the size of the cranium. There are actually 5 great cavities of the skull: two cavities, or orbits, enclosing the eyes; the nasal cavity, with Its two chambers separated by the septum; the oral cavity, with the Jaw bones and maxillae, platlne, and sphenoid bones; and the cranial cavity. There are Important cavities, called paranasal sinuses, In the walls of some df the skull bones adjacent to the nasal cavity. These sinuses have a lining of ciliated mucous membrane which is continuous with that of the nasal cavity, and they drain into the nasal passageways and help to moisten them. The paranasal sinuses are useful resonating chambers for the voice, but the continuity of the membrane with that of the nose and mouth permits infectious material to spread rapidly through the various passageways, as in the common coid. The U-shaped bone In the neck, the hyoid bone, is the only bone that does not meet with other bones to form a joint; ligaments connect it with an extension of the temporal bone. Some of the muscles of the tongue and mouth Insert In the hyoid. A word about the quality of our MPL skeletons. These are not models in the usual context of the word since models are first sculpted or carved and then copied. Our skeletons are cast by hand from molds taken from a 5' 2" Human (male) skeleton and thus are not models but authentic anatomical reproductlons--wlth all the advantages of a human skeleton andnoneof thedisadvantages.

4 SKELETON Frontal Cervical Temporal Nasal Zygomatic Maxilla Mandible Body of sternum Humerus Xiphoid process of sternum Lumbar vertebrae (5) Coracoid process Scapula Ribs Thoracic vertebrae (12) IlIum Sacrum Coccyx Pubis Ischium Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Flbuiu 2 Calcaneus Talus ~Tarsals,~~.. ~'s-- Metatarsals

5 SKULL Frontal Coronal suture Temporal Lambdoidal suture Occipital Maxilla Mental foramen Mandible Coronoid procell 3

6 VERTEBRAL COLUMN Cervical (7) AxI8 Thoracic (12\ Lumbar (5) Sacrum Coccyx 4

7 VERTEBRAE Atlas Anterior tubercle Superior articular facet Transverse procell Posterior tubercle Axis Body Superior articular facet Tranlverse foramen LamIna Transverse procell SplnOUI procell Cervical Vertebra Transverse procell j t Costotranlverse bar Posterior tubercle Body Transverse foramen Pedicle Superior articular procell Lamina BIfId IplnOUI procell

8 - Thoracic Vertebra Superior vertebral \ Dotch Superior articular proces8 Body TraD8vene proce88 with tranaverh coat a) facet Inferior coatal facet Lumbar (lateral Vertebra view) Body TraD8vene proce88 Spmou8 proce.. (from above) Spmou8proce.. Inferior articular proce88 Mammary proces8 Superior articular proce.. Pedicle TraD8vene 'Y proce88 6

9 THORAX First thoracic vertebra Vertebrosternal or true ribs Manubrium Manubriosternal joint Body Stetnum Xiphisternal Joint Xiphoid process Vertebrocostal or false ribs Vertebral or fioating ribs RIGHT CLAVICLE (inferior view) (superior view) Sternal articular facet Acromial articular facet Conoid tubercle 7

10 LEFT SCAPULA (dorsal view) Scapular notch Acromion SupraBplnouB fobba Spine Medial border Inferior angle (costal view) Coracoid procesb Acromion SubBcapuiar fglba Glenoid cavity 8

11 RIGHT HUMERUS (anterior view) Greater tubercle Head Lesser tubercle Surgical neck Intertubercular groove ~ II i RIGHT RADIUS AND ULNA (anterior view) Head Neck. Radial tuberosity adial notch 'j Radial fossa ~i I) I} Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle [I I, 11(1\ Capitulum Radius ~ Ulna i \\1 I.I, Head Styloid process Ulnar notch Styloid proce88 9

12 LEFT HAND (dorsal view) Proximal Carpals fhamate Capitate Triquetrum Lunate 10

13 PELVIS Sacrum Iliac crest Ilium Sacral foramen Pubic arch RIGHT INNOMINATE Iliac crest Anterior superior Iliac spine Posterior superior Iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Superior ramus of pubis Tuberosity of Ischium inferior ramus of pubis Obturator foramen Ramus of Ischium 11

14 RIGHT FEMUR (posterior view) Head RIGHT TIBIA AND FIBULA (anterior view) Greater trochanter intertrochanteric line Leller trochanter Lateral condyle Styloid procell Head Neck. Medial condyle Fibula \\ \l~i :i,i Adductor tubercle j I! HI Tibia Medial epicondyle. Lateral epicondyle Medial condyle Lateral condyle Intercondylar foil a Lateral malleolul Medial mabeolui 12

15 PATELLA (anterior view) (posterior view) ~t.~ y-, J. "" \ Medial articular facet Lateral articular facet RIGHT FOOT (dorsal view) Calcaneus Talu, Cuboid Navicular } intermediate -Lateral.Medlal CUDelform, J Middle phalanx Diltal phalanx ~J}}. ",- _.~~ '\1.,."...1 }Promoal phalanle, 13

16 i! =1:1:.l:I.Q. C Copyright Medical Plastics Laboratory, Inc. Gatesville, Texas DocumenU rev B September 2003

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