Chapter 10: The Muscular System

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 10: The Muscular System"

Transcription

1 Chapter 10: The Muscular System Objectives: 1. Describe the function of prime movers, antagonists, synergists, and fixators. 2. List the criteria used in naming muscles. Provide an example to illustrate the use of each criterion. 3. Name the common patterns of muscle fascicle arrangement and relate these to power generation. 4. Define lever, and explain how a lever operating at a mechanical advantage differs from one operating at a mechanical disadvantage. 5. Name the three types of lever systems and indicate the arrangement of effort, fulcrum, and load in each. Also note the advantages of each type of lever system. 6. Name and identify the muscles described in Tables 10.1 to State the origin, insertion and action of each. I. Interactions of Skeletal Muscles in the Body A. Skeletal muscles work together or in opposition B. Muscles only pull (never push) C. As muscles shorten, the insertion generally moves toward the origin D. Whatever a muscle (or group of muscles) does, another muscle (or group) undoes E. Muscle Classification: Functional Groups 1. Prime movers a. provide the major force for producing a specific movement 2. Antagonists a. oppose or reverse a particular movement 3. Synergists a. Add force to a movement b. Reduce undesirable or unnecessary movement 4. Fixators a. synergists that immobilize a bone or muscle s origin II. Naming Skeletal Muscles A. Location of muscle 1. bone or body region associated with the muscle B. Shape of muscle 1. deltoid muscle (deltoid = triangle) C. Relative size 1

2 1. maximus (largest) 2. minimus (smallest) 3. longus (long) D. Direction of fibers 1. rectus (fibers run straight) 2. transversus, and oblique (fibers run at angles to an imaginary defined axis) E. Number of origins 1. biceps (two origins) 2. triceps (three origins) F. Location of attachments 1. named according to point of origin or insertion E. Action 1. flexor or extensor, as in the names of muscles that flex or extend, respectively III. Muscle Mechanics: Importance of Fascicle Arrangement and Leverage A. Arrangement of Fascicles 1. Parallel a. fascicles run parallel to the long axis of the muscle b. sartorius 2. Fusiform a. spindle-shaped muscles b. biceps brachii 3. Pennate a. short fascicles that attach obliquely to a central tendon running the length of the muscle b. rectus femoris 4. Convergent a. fascicles converge from a broad origin to a single tendon insertion b. pectoralis major 5. Circular a. fascicles are arranged in concentric rings b. orbicularis oris B. Lever Systems: Bone-Muscle Relationship 1. Lever a. rigid bar that moves on a fulcrum, or fixed point 2. Effort a. force applied to a lever 2

3 3. Load a. resistance moved by the effort C. Lever Systems: Classes 1. First class a. fulcrum is between the load and the effort 2. Second class a. load is between the fulcrum and the effort 3. Third class a. effort is applied between the fulcrum and the load IV. Major Skeletal Muscles of the Body A. Muscles: Name, Action and Innervation 1. Name and description of the muscle a. be alert to information given in the name 2. Origin and insertion a. Origin attachment to the immovable bone b. Insertion attachment to the movable bone c. There is always a joint between the origin and insertion 3. Action a. best learned by acting out a muscle s movement on one s own body 4. Nerve supply a. name of major nerve that innervates the muscle V. Muscles of the Head & Neck A. Muscles of the Scalp 1. Epicranius (occipitofrontalis) a. bipartite muscle consisting of the: 1) Frontalis 2) Occipitalis 2. Galea aponeurotica a. cranial aponeurosis connecting above muscles 3. These two muscles have alternate actions of pulling the scalp forward and backward B. Muscles of the Face muscles are involved in lifting the eyebrows, flaring the nostrils, opening and closing the eyes and mouth, and smiling 2. All are innervated by cranial nerve VII (facial nerve) 3. Usually insert in skin (rather than bone), and adjacent muscles often fuse 3

4 C. Muscles of Mastication 1. There are four pairs of muscles involved in mastication a. Prime movers 1. temporalis 2. masseter b. Grinding movements 1. pterygoids 2. buccinators 2. All are innervated by cranial nerve V (trigeminal nerve) D. Extrinsic Tongue Muscles 1. Three major muscles that anchor and move the tongue 2. All are innervated by cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve) E. Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Suprahyoid 1. Four deep throat muscles 2. Form the floor of the oral cavity 3. Anchor the tongue 4. Elevate the hyoid 5. Move the larynx superiorly during swallowing F. Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Infrahyoid 1. Straplike muscles that depress the hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speaking G. Muscles of the Neck: Head Movements 1. Major head flexor is the sternocleidomastoid 2. Synergists to head flexion are the suprahyoid and infrahyoid 3. Lateral head movements are accomplished by the sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles 4. Head extension is accomplished by the deep splenius muscles and aided by the superficial trapezius VI. Muscles of the Trunk A. Deep Back Muscles 1. The prime mover of back extension is the erector spinae a. Erector spinae, or sacrospinalis, muscles consist of three columns on each side of the vertebrae 1) iliocostalis 2) longissimus 3) spinalis 2. Lateral bending of the back is accomplished by unilateral contraction of these muscles 4

5 3. Other deep back extensors include the semispinalis muscles and the quadratus lumborum B. Short Muscles 1. Four short muscles extend from one vertebra to another 2. These muscles are synergists in extension and rotation of the spine C. Muscles of Respiration: External Intercostals 1. The primary function of deep thoracic muscles is to promote movement for breathing 2. External intercostals a. more superficial layer that lifts the rib cage and increases thoracic volume to allow inspiration D. Internal Intercostals 1. Internal intercostals a. deeper layer that aids in forced expiration 2. Diaphragm a. most important muscle in inspiration E. Muscles of the Abdominal Wall 1. The abdominal wall is composed of four paired muscles a. internal and external obliques b. transversus abdominis c. rectus abdominis 2. Fascicles of these muscles run at right and oblique angles to one another, giving the abdominal wall added strength 3. In addition to forming the abdominal wall, these muscles: a. Are involved with lateral flexion and rotation of the trunk b. Help promote 1) urination 2) defecation 3) childbirth 4) vomiting 5) coughing 6) screaming F. Muscles of the Pelvic Floor (Pelvic Diaphragm) 1. The pelvic diaphragm is composed of two paired muscles a. levator ani b. coccygeus 2. These muscles: a. Close the inferior outlet of the pelvis b. Support the pelvic floor 5

6 c. Elevate the pelvic floor to help release feces d. Resist increased intra-abdominal pressure G. Muscles Inferior to the Pelvic Floor 1. Two sphincter muscles allow a. voluntary control of urination (sphincter urethrae) b. defecation (external anal sphincter) H. Extrinsic Shoulder Muscles 1. Muscles of the thorax 2. Anterior a. pectoralis major b. pectoralis minor c. serratus anterior d. subclavius 3. Posterior a. latissimus dorsi b. trapezius muscles c. levator scapulae d. rhomboids 4. These muscles are involved with the movements of the scapula including a. elevation b. depression c. rotation d. lateral and medial movements 5. Prime movers of shoulder elevation are a. trapezius b. levator scapulae I. Muscles Crossing the Shoulder 1. Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint and insert into the humerus 2. Prime movers include: a. Pectoralis major 1) arm flexion b. Latissimus dorsi and posterior fibers of the deltoid 1) arm extension c. Middle fibers of the deltoid 1) arm abduction 3. Rotator cuff muscles a. supraspinatus b. infraspinatus 6

7 c. teres minor d. subscapularis 4. Function mainly to reinforce the capsule of the shoulder 5. Secondarily act as synergists and fixators 6. The coracobrachialis and teres major: a. Act as synergists b. Do not contribute to reinforcement of the shoulder joint VII. Muscles of the Upper Limb A. Muscles Crossing the Elbow 1. Forearm extension a. The triceps brachii is the prime mover of forearm extension b. The anconeus is a weak synergist 2. Forearm flexion a. Brachialis and biceps brachii are the chief forearm flexors b. Brachioradialis acts as a synergist and helps stabilize the elbow B. Muscles of the Forearm 1. Forearm muscle groups: a. cause wrist movement b. those that move the digits 2. Anterior muscles are flexors 3. Posterior muscles are extensors 4. The pronator teres and pronator quadratus are not flexors, but pronate the forearm 5. The supinator muscle is a synergist with the biceps brachii in supinating the forearm C. Muscles of the Forearm: Anterior Compartment 1. These muscles are primarily flexors of the wrist and fingers D. Muscles of the Forearm: Posterior Compartment 1. These muscles are primarily extensors of the wrist and fingers E. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand 1. These small muscles: a. Lie in the palm of the hand (none on the dorsal side) b. Move the metacarpals and fingers c. Control precise movements (e.g., threading a needle) d. Are the main abductors and adductors of the fingers e. Produce opposition move the thumb toward the little finger F. Finger and Thumb Movements 1. Flexion 7

8 a. Thumb bends medially along the palm b. Fingers bend anteriorly 2. Extension a. Thumb points laterally b. Fingers move posteriorly G. Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Groups 1. There are two groups of intrinsic hand muscles a. Thenar eminence (ball of the thumb) b. Hypothenar eminence (ball of the little finger) c. Each have a flexor, an abductor, and an opponens muscle 2. The midpalm muscles a. the lumbricals b. interossei c. extend the fingers 3. The interossei also abduct and adduct the fingers VIII. Muscles of the Lower Limb A. Muscles Crossing Hip and Knee Joints 1. Most anterior compartment muscles of the hip and thigh flex the femur at the hip and extend the leg at the knee 2. Posterior compartment muscles of the hip and thigh extend the thigh and flex the leg 3. The medial compartment muscles all adduct the thigh 4. These three groups are enclosed by the fascia lata B. Movements of the Thigh at the Hip 1. The ball-and-socket hip joint permits a. flexion b. extension c. abduction d. adduction e. circumduction f. rotation 2. The most important thigh flexors are the a. iliopsoas (prime mover) b. tensor fasciae latae c. rectus femoris 3. The medially located adductor muscles and sartorius assist in thigh flexion 4. Thigh extension is primarily effected by the hamstring muscles a. biceps femoris 8

9 b. semitendinosus c. semimembranosus 5. Forceful extension is aided by the gluteus maximus 6. Abduction and rotation are effected by a. gluteus medius b. gluteus minimus c. are antagonized by the lateral rotators 7. Thigh adduction is the role of five adductor muscles a. adductor magnus b. adductor longus c. adductor brevis d. pectineus e. gracilis C. Movements of the Knee Joint 1. The sole extensor of the knee is the quadriceps femoris 2. The hamstring muscles flex the knee, and are antagonists to the quadriceps femoris D. Fascia of the Leg 1. A deep fascia of the leg is continuous with the fascia lata 2. This fascia segregates the leg into three compartments a. anterior b. lateral c. posterior 3. Distally, the fascia thickens and forms the flexor, extensor, and fibular retinaculae E. Muscles of the Leg: Movements 1. Various leg muscles produce the following movements at the: a. Ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion b. Intertarsal joints inversion and eversion of the foot c. Toes flexion and extension F. Muscles of the Anterior Compartment 1. These muscles are the primary toe extensors and ankle dorsiflexors 2. They include a. tibialis anterior b. extensor digitorum longus c. extensor hallucis longus d. fibularis tertius G. Muscles of the Lateral Compartment 1. These muscles plantar flex and evert the foot 9

10 2. They include a. fibularis longus b. fibularis brevis H. Muscles of the Posterior Compartment 1. These muscles primarily flex the foot and the toes 2. They include a. gastrocnemius b. soleus c. tibialis posterior d. flexor digitorum longus e. flexor hallucis longus I. Muscle Actions of the Thigh 1. Flex and extend the thigh (posterior compartment) 2. Extend the leg (anterior compartment) 3. Adduct the thigh (medial compartment) J. Muscle Actions of the Leg 1. Plantar flex and evert the foot (lateral compartment) 2. Plantar flex the foot and flex the toes (posterior compartment) 3. Dorsiflex the foot and extend the toes (anterior compartment) K. Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot 1. These muscles help flex, extend, abduct, and adduct the toes 2. In addition, along with some leg tendons, they support the arch of the foot 3. There is a single dorsal foot muscle, the extensor digitorum brevis, which extends the toes 4. The plantar muscles occur in four layers L. Plantar Muscles: First Layer (Superficial) 1. Superficial muscles of the plantar aspect of the foot 2. These muscles are similar to the corresponding muscles of the hand 10

Actions Grouped= Synergists and Antagonists

Actions Grouped= Synergists and Antagonists Actions Grouped= Synergists and Antagonists Flexes Thigh At Hip 1.Iliopsoas 2.Sartorius 3.Pectineus 4.Tensor Fasciae Latae 5.Adductor Longus 6.Adductor Magnus 7.Rectus Femoris Extends Thigh at Hip 1.Gluteus

More information

The Muscular System Muscles are classified into 4 functional groups:

The Muscular System Muscles are classified into 4 functional groups: The Muscular System Muscles are classified into 4 functional groups: Prime movers (agonists) Antagonists Synergists Fixators 1 muscle can be all four Interactions of Skeletal Muscles Skeletal muscles work

More information

Anatomy of Human Muscles

Anatomy of Human Muscles Anatomy of Human Muscles PURPOSE: To develop skill in identifying muscle names and locations relative to other regional structures. To determine origin, insertion and principle action of muscles through

More information

Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Suprahyoid & Infrahyoid

Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Suprahyoid & Infrahyoid Muscles of the Anterior Neck and Throat: Suprahyoid & Infrahyoid Neck is divided into 2 triangle (anterior & posterior) by the sternocleidomastoid muscle Anterior Triangle: Suprahyoid muscles (found above

More information

Lab 09 SGOs: Muscle Gross Anatomy (20 points)

Lab 09 SGOs: Muscle Gross Anatomy (20 points) Pierce College Putman/Biol 241 Name: Lab 09 SGOs: Muscle Gross Anatomy (20 points) Lab Report 8: Marieb & Mitchell 9 th Ed: Exercise 15 (Activities 1-4) + Review Sheet; 10 th Ed: Exercise 13 (Activities

More information

GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM BIOLOGY 211: HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY ****************************************************************************************************** GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM ******************************************************************************************************

More information

38 CFR 4.73 Schedule of Ratings-Muscle Injuries HANDOUT 2

38 CFR 4.73 Schedule of Ratings-Muscle Injuries HANDOUT 2 The Shoulder Girdle and Arm 5301 Group I. Function: Upward rotation of scapula; elevation of arm above shoulder level. Extrinsic muscles of shoulder girdle: 1. Trapezius; 2. levator scapulae; 3. serratus

More information

Muscle Movements, Types, and Names

Muscle Movements, Types, and Names Muscle Movements, Types, and Names A. Gross Skeletal Muscle Activity 1. With a few exceptions, all muscles cross at least one joint 2. Typically, the bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint it crossed

More information

Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab #7 Muscle Tissue and Skeletal Muscles

Anatomy & Physiology 120. Lab #7 Muscle Tissue and Skeletal Muscles Anatomy & Physiology 120 Lab #7 Muscle Tissue and Skeletal Muscles What you Need to Know Look briefly at the Structure of: 1) Skeletal, 2) Smooth & 3) Cardiac Muscle Naming, Identification, Functions You

More information

Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint and insert into the humerus Prime movers include:

Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint and insert into the humerus Prime movers include: Muscles Crossing the Shoulder joint: Movements of the Arm Nine muscles cross the shoulder joint and insert into the humerus Prime movers include: Pectoralis major arm flexion Latissimus dorsi and posterior

More information

DIGASTRICUS. Palpation and massage

DIGASTRICUS. Palpation and massage DIGASTRICUS Function and PIR Home therapy 6 SPLENIUS Anatomy Function and PIR Home therapy 7 SEMISPINALIS; MULTIFUNDI; ROTATORES Anatomy Function and PIR Home therapy 8 RECTUS CAPITIS POSTERIOR MAJOR &

More information

Chapter 11. The Muscular System. Appendicular Musculature. Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College

Chapter 11. The Muscular System. Appendicular Musculature. Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College Chapter 11 The Muscular System Appendicular Musculature Lecture Presentation by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College Introduction Appendicular Musculature Appendicular muscles are responsible for:

More information

Mink Dissection of Muscles

Mink Dissection of Muscles In this portion of our study of the Mink, we will be focusing on the muscular system. These instructions tell you what muscles you are to identify and provide instructions on information you are expected

More information

Joint Range of Motion Chart- Hip

Joint Range of Motion Chart- Hip Joint Range of Chart- Hip Name Age Flexion- Knee Extended Psoas, Iliacus 90 Flexion- Knee Flexed Psoas, Iliacus 120 Biceps Femoris (long head) Semimembranosus Semitendinosus 35-45 Medial/ Internal Adductor

More information

Freestyle Swimming Muscle Analysis 1. A Comprehensive Joint and Muscle Analysis Regarding the Motion of Freestyle Swimming

Freestyle Swimming Muscle Analysis 1. A Comprehensive Joint and Muscle Analysis Regarding the Motion of Freestyle Swimming Freestyle Swimming Muscle Analysis 1 A Comprehensive Joint and Muscle Analysis Regarding the Motion of Freestyle Swimming Shawn Mantici and Mike Herrmann Rowan University Author Note Shawn Mantici and

More information

Anatomy and Physiology 121: Muscles of the Human Body

Anatomy and Physiology 121: Muscles of the Human Body Epicranius Anatomy and Physiology 121: Muscles of the Human Body Covers upper cranium Raises eyebrows, surprise, headaches Parts Frontalis Occipitalis Epicranial aponeurosis Orbicularis oculi Ring (sphincter)

More information

Neck Extensor Stretch Muscle(s) Targeted: Erector Spinae. Assume start position standing or sitting

Neck Extensor Stretch Muscle(s) Targeted: Erector Spinae. Assume start position standing or sitting Neck Extensor Stretch Muscle(s) Targeted: Erector Spinae. Interlock your hands behind the head towards the top of the head. Inhale and then exhale as you pull your head forward. Try to touch your chin

More information

Chapter 6: The Muscular System

Chapter 6: The Muscular System Chapter 6: The Muscular System I. Overview of Muscle Tissues Objectives: Describe the similarities and differences in the structure and function of the three types of muscle tissue, and indicate where

More information

Buccinator Presses cheek against molar teeth Facial (CNVII) wrinkles forehead

Buccinator Presses cheek against molar teeth Facial (CNVII) wrinkles forehead Muscles to Identify on the Cadaver and/or Models You are required to identify each of the following muscles or associated structures on the cadavers and/or models in lab. If the box is shaded in a particular

More information

Learning Modules - Medical Gross Anatomy Movements of the Upper Limb - Page 1 of 18

Learning Modules - Medical Gross Anatomy Movements of the Upper Limb - Page 1 of 18 Movements of the Upper Limb - Page 1 of 18 Movements of the Upper Limb - Introduction This module presents the nomenclature of movement at the joints of the upper limb. When you first approach the upper

More information

Chapter 11 The Muscular System. Muscle Attachment Sites: Origin and Insertion

Chapter 11 The Muscular System. Muscle Attachment Sites: Origin and Insertion Chapter 11 The Muscular System Skeletal muscle major groupings How movements occur at specific joints Learn the origin, insertion, function and innervation of all major muscles Important to allied health

More information

Muscular System. Student Learning Objectives: Identify the major muscles of the body Identify the action of major muscles of the body

Muscular System. Student Learning Objectives: Identify the major muscles of the body Identify the action of major muscles of the body Muscular System Student Learning Objectives: Identify the major muscles of the body Identify the action of major muscles of the body Structures to be identified: Muscle actions: Extension Flexion Abduction

More information

BIOL 4260 Human Evolutionary Anatomy Lecture 14: Shoulder, Arm, Hand. Lecture 2: Fossil Record

BIOL 4260 Human Evolutionary Anatomy Lecture 14: Shoulder, Arm, Hand. Lecture 2: Fossil Record BIOL 4260 Human Evolutionary Anatomy Lecture 14: Shoulder, Arm, Hand Lecture 2: Fossil Record Appendicular Musculature Functions: Stabilizing the pectoral and pelvic girdles Moving the upper and lower

More information

Skin of eyebrows galea aponeurotica. Muscle and skin of mouth

Skin of eyebrows galea aponeurotica. Muscle and skin of mouth : SEE ALSO THE AP SITE FOR OTHER TABLES GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEMM Muscles of the Head and Neck: Occipitofrontalis Frontalis Occipitalis Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Buccinator Masseter

More information

Abductor Pollicis Longus. Biceps Brachii. Brachioradialis. Brachialis. Deltoid. Calcaneal Tendon. Muscles of the Arms & Legs

Abductor Pollicis Longus. Biceps Brachii. Brachioradialis. Brachialis. Deltoid. Calcaneal Tendon. Muscles of the Arms & Legs Abductor Pollicis Longus Biceps Brachii Brachioradialis Brachialis Calcaneal Tendon Deltoid Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Digitorum Fibularis Longus & Fibularis Brevis Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor

More information

Learning Modules - Medical Gross Anatomy Movements of the Lower Limb - Page 1 of 12

Learning Modules - Medical Gross Anatomy Movements of the Lower Limb - Page 1 of 12 Movements of the Lower Limb - Page 1 of 12 Movements of the Lower Limb - Introduction This module presents the nomenclature of movement at the joints of the lower limb. When you first approach your study

More information

The Muscular System. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres. Lone Star College North Harris. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Muscular System. PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres. Lone Star College North Harris. 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 The Muscular System PowerPoint Lecture Presentations prepared by Jason LaPres Lone Star College North Harris An Introduction to the Muscular System Learning Outcomes 11-1 Describe the arrangement of

More information

Deltoid Trapezius. Identify the muscle pair(s) that work together to produce the movements listed above.

Deltoid Trapezius. Identify the muscle pair(s) that work together to produce the movements listed above. Shoulder- the major muscles in this group are the infraspinatus, subscapularis, terems major, teres minor deltoid, and trapezius. These muscles work together to move the shoulder area, allowing you, for

More information

Chapter 13 Muscular Analysis of Trunk and Lower Extremity Exercises

Chapter 13 Muscular Analysis of Trunk and Lower Extremity Exercises Chapter 13 Muscular Analysis of and Lower 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 13-1 Muscular Analysis of & Lower Strength, endurance, & flexibility of the lower extremity, trunk, & muscles

More information

In which arm muscle are intramuscular injections most often given? (not in text)

In which arm muscle are intramuscular injections most often given? (not in text) AP1 Lab 9 - Muscles of the Arms and Legs Locate the following muscles on the models and on yourself. Recall anatomical position. Directional terms such as anterior, posterior, lateral, etc. all assume

More information

ACTIVITIES 5 & 6: APPENDICULAR AND AXIAL MUSCLES

ACTIVITIES 5 & 6: APPENDICULAR AND AXIAL MUSCLES ACTIVITIES 5 & 6: APPENDICULAR AND AXIAL MUSCLES Objectives: 1) How to get ready: Read Chapter 11 & 12, McKinley et al., Human Anatomy, 4e. All text references are for this textbook. Begin identifying

More information

Isolating UE muscles with Manual Muscle Testing

Isolating UE muscles with Manual Muscle Testing Shoulder Flexion Isolation of Anterior Deltoid Patient starts in sitting position Arm placed in shoulder abduction (~90 o ) with shoulder flexion (~90 o ) and slight external rotation Stabilize: With one

More information

21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies

21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies MUSCLE REVIEW 2 21. Because the biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm when it contracts, most of the muscle lies a. anterior to the humerus b. posterior to the humerus c. anterior to the ulna and radius

More information

[SECTION A : ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] Anatomy and Physiology

[SECTION A : ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY] Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy and Physiology This section focuses on the impact of physical activity on the systems of the body and on young people s participation and performance in physical activity as part of a balanced,

More information

Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column Sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck) Origin Insertion Action

Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column Sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck) Origin Insertion Action Muscular movements of the head (at the cervical spine/neck) and of the torso (thoracic and lumbar spine/upper, middle, and lower back): flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation. Muscles of the Neck

More information

Muscles. Fascicle Orientation of Muscles. Chapter 10 Objectives: The Muscular System

Muscles. Fascicle Orientation of Muscles. Chapter 10 Objectives: The Muscular System Chapter 10 Objectives: The Muscular System Learn major groupings of Skeletal muscles Understand how movements occur at joints Learn the origin, insertion, function of some major muscles Muscles about 600

More information

Class Outline: Anterior Anatomy

Class Outline: Anterior Anatomy Class Outline: Anterior Anatomy 5 minutes Breath of Arrival and Attendance 5 minutes Howdy Partner 35 minutes Anterior Anatomy using Power Point Presentation 5 minutes Overview of skeletal segments 5 minutes

More information

Chapter 8. Muscular System: Skeletal Muscles of the Body

Chapter 8. Muscular System: Skeletal Muscles of the Body Chapter 8 Muscular System: Skeletal Muscles of the Body INTRODUCTION This chapter continues our study of the muscular system by examining the distribution of muscles throughout the body. We learned in

More information

Questions on muscles. Q1: A muscles source of energy is: Q2: A muscle provides movement by: Q3: What holds a muscle to a bone?

Questions on muscles. Q1: A muscles source of energy is: Q2: A muscle provides movement by: Q3: What holds a muscle to a bone? Questions on muscles Q1: A muscles source of energy is: [ A ] Glucose [ B ] Oxygen [ C ] Lactic acid [ D ] Fibre Q2: A muscle provides movement by: [ A ] Pronating [ B ] Pivoting [ C ] Pulling [ D ] Pushing

More information

Objectives. Gross Anatomy: Muscles of the Arm and Leg MUSCLES OF UPPER ARM MUSCLES OF LOWER ARM

Objectives. Gross Anatomy: Muscles of the Arm and Leg MUSCLES OF UPPER ARM MUSCLES OF LOWER ARM Objectives Gross Anatomy: s of the Arm and Leg Chapter 6 1. Name and locate major muscles of the human body on a torso or diagram. 2. State the action of the major muscles of the human body 3. State the

More information

Knee Muscle Actions. Popliteus (externally rotates femur if foot is planted; internally rotates tibia if foot is free)

Knee Muscle Actions. Popliteus (externally rotates femur if foot is planted; internally rotates tibia if foot is free) Knee Muscle Actions Knee Extension (Concentric) Quads (Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius) (Rectus Femoris Also flexes hip!!!) Knee Flexion (Concentric) Hamstrings (Biceps

More information

بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم

بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم The introduction * The lower muscles are subdivided according to regional origin which indicates the bone of lower limb that affected of muscle contraction into: 1. Muscles of gluteal

More information

THE BIOMECHANICS OF SKIING

THE BIOMECHANICS OF SKIING THE BIOMECHANICS OF SKIING 4 This chapter provides background information on the biomechanics most relevant to skiing. It outlines how the muscles and skeleton function as a system to create balanced movement.

More information

FUNCTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #7 UPPER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE

FUNCTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #7 UPPER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE FUNCTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #7 UPPER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE The following tips will help you in naming the muscles of the forearm and hand: The Ulna is located on the pinky side of the wrist, the Radius

More information

Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 10: Axial and Appendicular Musculature

Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 10: Axial and Appendicular Musculature Human Anatomy and Physiology - Problem Drill 10: Axial and Appendicular Musculature Question No. 1 of 10 There are a number of muscles that position the girdle and coordinate with the muscles that move

More information

The Muscular System General & Anatomy

The Muscular System General & Anatomy The Muscular System General & Anatomy General Functions: 1. movement voluntary skeletal muscles 2. internal movement of substances through various tubes and passageways eg blood, food, urine heart pumps

More information

Ken Ross BSc ST, Nat Dip ST

Ken Ross BSc ST, Nat Dip ST Ken Ross BSc ST, Nat Dip ST Trunk Most people will suffer from back pain at some point in their lives. Good spinal posture places minimal strain on the muscles which maintain the natural curve of the spine

More information

Lab 8 FUNTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #8 LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE

Lab 8 FUNTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #8 LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE FUNTIONAL HUMAN ANATOMY LAB #8 LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCULATURE The following tips will help you in naming the muscles of the leg and foot: The Tibia is located on the medial side of the leg. The Fibula is

More information

Flexibility Assessment and Improvement Compiled and Adapted by Josh Thompson

Flexibility Assessment and Improvement Compiled and Adapted by Josh Thompson Flexibility Assessment and Improvement Compiled and Adapted by Josh Thompson Muscles must have a full and normal range of motion in order for joints and skeletal structure to function properly. Flexibility

More information

ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT

ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT Introductory anatomy of the skeletal and muscular systems The skeletal system A general overview of the skeletal system is meant to be used as an introduction, but will not be directly examined. Your main

More information

Practical 2 Worksheet- KEY

Practical 2 Worksheet- KEY Practical 2 Worksheet- KEY Upper Extremity BONES 1. Which end of the clavicle is on the lateral side (acromial or sternal)? Acromial 2. Describe the difference in the appearance of the acromial and sternal

More information

Muscle Organization and Function. Chapter 10: The Muscular System. Parallel (Fusiform) Muscles. Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

Muscle Organization and Function. Chapter 10: The Muscular System. Parallel (Fusiform) Muscles. Organization of Skeletal Muscle Fibers Muscle Organization and Function Chapter 10: The Muscular System Muscle organization affects power, range, and speed of muscle movement Muscle cells (fibers) are organized in bundles (fascicles) Fibers

More information

Client Home Care Instructions

Client Home Care Instructions Client Home Care Instructions Stretches You need a stretch rope, towel, or even a long belt and only 5 minutes per day. The best time to stretch is after a warm shower when the muscles are warm. DO NOT

More information

10/17/2012. Muscles Promoting Facial Expressions ORIGIN: epicranial aponeurosis (tendinous sheet)

10/17/2012. Muscles Promoting Facial Expressions ORIGIN: epicranial aponeurosis (tendinous sheet) Muscles Promoting Facial Expressions epicranial aponeurosis (tendinous sheet) Frontalis (Epicranius) raises eyebrows; wrinkles forehead skin of eyebrows; root of nose occipital bone; temporal bone epicranial

More information

Chapter 2: Human Anatomy. ACE Personal Trainer Manual Third Edition

Chapter 2: Human Anatomy. ACE Personal Trainer Manual Third Edition Chapter 2: Human Anatomy ACE Personal Trainer Manual Third Edition Anatomical Terminology Anterior (Ventral) Toward the Front Medial Toward the Midline of the Body Posterior (Dorsal) Toward the Back Lateral

More information

CHAPTER 3 - ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT

CHAPTER 3 - ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT CHAPTER 3 - ANALYSIS OF MOVEMENT Text between pages 52 and 68, answers to questions on page 66 to 68 of the text book. Warm-up question 1) Hockey involves movement at many joints in the body. Identify

More information

MUSCLES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY: Movement of the hip and leg: Anterior Compartment Thigh Muscles:

MUSCLES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY: Movement of the hip and leg: Anterior Compartment Thigh Muscles: MUSCLES OF THE LOWER EXTREMITY: Movement of the hip and leg: Anterior Compartment Thigh Muscles: Pectineus O: Superior ramus of pubis. Flexes, adducts and assists with medial rotation of hip. Nerve: Femoral

More information

International Standards for the Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Motor Exam Guide

International Standards for the Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Motor Exam Guide C5 Elbow Flexors Biceps Brachii, Brachialis Patient Position: The shoulder is in neutral rotation, neutral flexion/extension, and adducted. The elbow is fully extended, with the forearm in full supination.

More information

National Fitness Leadership Alliance

National Fitness Leadership Alliance National Fitness Leadership Alliance Resistance Training Leadership Performance Standards National Fitness Leadership Alliance (NFLA) 1 National Fitness Leadership Alliance Resistance Training Leadership

More information

Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY

Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY Practical 1 Worksheet- KEY ANATOMICAL TERMS 1. Use the word bank to fill in the missing words. All anatomical terms have a(n) reference point which is called the This is a(n) forward facing position where

More information

Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action Innervation Muscles of Upper Extremity Pectoralis Major Medial half of clavicle, front of sternum, costal

Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action Innervation Muscles of Upper Extremity Pectoralis Major Medial half of clavicle, front of sternum, costal Muscle Name Origin Insertion Action Innervation Muscles of Upper Extremity Pectoralis Major Medial half of clavicle, front of sternum, costal Crest of greater tubercle (Lateral lip of bicipital groove)

More information

Muscles of Mastication

Muscles of Mastication Muscles of Mastication Masseter Zygomatic Arch Mandibular angle Elevates mandible Mandibular ramus Temporalis Temporal fossa of the temporal bone Coronoid process of the mandible Elevates mandible Retracts

More information

GIRLFIT STRETCH ZONE GET LONG AND LEAN!

GIRLFIT STRETCH ZONE GET LONG AND LEAN! GIRLFIT STRETCH ZONE GET LONG AND LEAN! Neck Stretches Lateral Neck Flexion Great stretch for people who suffer from tight, aching muscles in the upper back and neck Look straight forward and do not let

More information

EXERCISE MANUAL PERSONALITY GYM

EXERCISE MANUAL PERSONALITY GYM EXERCISE MANUAL PERSONALITY GYM EXERCISE MANUAL PERSONALITY GYM legs. 1 calves raise Stand with the wide part of one foot on the seated row foot support. Start in a position with your calves stretched.

More information

Stretching the Major Muscle Groups of the Lower Limb

Stretching the Major Muscle Groups of the Lower Limb 2 Stretching the Major Muscle Groups of the Lower Limb In this chapter, we present appropriate stretching exercises for the major muscle groups of the lower limb. All four methods (3S, yoga, slow/static,

More information

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Function. Iliotibial tract of fascia latae. Medial surface of the tibia just inferomedial to the tibial tuberosity

Muscle Origin Insertion Innervation Function. Iliotibial tract of fascia latae. Medial surface of the tibia just inferomedial to the tibial tuberosity KinetaCore Functional Dry Needling Level I Muscle Chart Listed below are the muscles you will be expected to treat in FDN Level 1. Use this chart as a guide to focus on attachments, segments of innervation,

More information

Human Functional Anatomy Musculoskeletal Lab Notes and Guide

Human Functional Anatomy Musculoskeletal Lab Notes and Guide Human Functional Anatomy Musculoskeletal Lab Notes and Guide Station #1 Vertebral Column Objectives: 1. Identify the parts of a typical vertebrae 2. Identify cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

More information

Crowther s Tenth Martini, Chapter 11 Winter 2015

Crowther s Tenth Martini, Chapter 11 Winter 2015 Chapter 11: The Muscular System Chapter 11 can be described as a whole lot of muscle anatomy plus a few notes on muscle architecture and lever mechanics. In this summary we will focus on the conceptual

More information

MUSCLE THAT ORIGINATE ON. Upper part of dorsal surface of axillary border. Dorsal surface of inferior angle & lower part of axillary border of scapula

MUSCLE THAT ORIGINATE ON. Upper part of dorsal surface of axillary border. Dorsal surface of inferior angle & lower part of axillary border of scapula MUSCLE THAT ORIGINATE ON SCAPULA Supraspinatus: Teres Minor: Teres Major: Subscapularis: Infraspinatus: Triceps Brachii: Biceps Brachii: Deltoid Middle: Posterior Deltoid: Supraspinous fossa Upper part

More information

Chapter 10 Lecture Outline

Chapter 10 Lecture Outline Chapter 10 Lecture Outline See separate PowerPoint slides for all figures and tables preinserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or

More information

Section Section 4. Muscles and Movements Dr. Larry Van Such.

Section Section 4. Muscles and Movements Dr. Larry Van Such. Section 4 25 Section 4 Muscles and Movements Section 4 26 HIP FLEXORS Psoas Iliacus Sartorius Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Rectus Femoris Figure 4-1a. Hip Flexors. The hip flexor muscles (also

More information

K. Bo Foreman, PT, PhD. Hand. Hand

K. Bo Foreman, PT, PhD. Hand. Hand Hand Hand - Osteology Carpal bones (8) 1. Scaphoid 2. Lunate 3. Triquetrum 4. Pisiform 5. Trapezium 6. Trapezoid 7. Capitate 8. Hamate Metacarpal bones I-V (5) Phalanges (14) Joints Interphalangeal (DIP

More information

Principles of Active Isolated Stretching

Principles of Active Isolated Stretching Active Isolated Stretching Lower Body Taught by: Bruce Baltz, LMT Sponsored By: Principles of Active Isolated Stretching The client should start to exhale at the beginning of each stretch; this will help

More information

Chapter 8 - Muscular System 8.1 Introduction (p. 178 ) A. The three types of muscle in the body are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. B.

Chapter 8 - Muscular System 8.1 Introduction (p. 178 ) A. The three types of muscle in the body are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. B. Chapter 8 - Muscular System 8.1 Introduction (p. 178 ) A. The three types of muscle in the body are skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle. B. This chapter focuses on skeletal muscle. 8.2 Structure of a

More information

PRIMARY HUMAN ANATOMY: BIOL20600 SPRING 2014

PRIMARY HUMAN ANATOMY: BIOL20600 SPRING 2014 PRIMARY HUMAN ANATOMY: BIOL20600 SPRING 2014 Instructors: Kit Muma, Rm. 158 CNS, (607) 274-3610, muma@ithaca.edu Michelle Bamberger, Rm. 118A Williams Hall, mbamberger@ithaca.edu Mark Baustian, Rm. 118A

More information

Stretching Program 1. Ballistic 2. Dynamic 3. Static 4. PNF Important rules for stretching:

Stretching Program 1. Ballistic 2. Dynamic 3. Static 4. PNF Important rules for stretching: Stretching Program The four basic types of stretch techniques include ballistic, dynamic, static, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). 1. Ballistic The oldest technique is the ballistic

More information

The Pilates Studio of Los Angeles / PilatesCertificationOnline.com

The Pilates Studio of Los Angeles / PilatesCertificationOnline.com Anatomy Review Part I Anatomical Terminology and Review Questions (through pg. 80) Define the following: 1. Sagittal Plane 2. Frontal or Coronal Plane 3. Horizontal Plane 4. Superior 5. Inferior 6. Anterior

More information

Muscular System. Principles of Health Science Dr. Wood

Muscular System. Principles of Health Science Dr. Wood Muscular System Principles of Health Science Dr. Wood Characteristics of muscles Excitability: : irritability or ability to respond to stimulus Contractibility: : ability to contract (become short and

More information

GYMSTICK STRETCHES. Rhomboids and Trapezius Set up and alignment

GYMSTICK STRETCHES. Rhomboids and Trapezius Set up and alignment GYMSTICK STRETCHES Rhomboids and Trapezius Standing up, hold the stick with an over hand grip at chest level Extend elbows forward pressing the stick away from the body. Lower the chin towards the chest

More information

Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise. Key Terms Range of Motion Movement Planes Muscle Actions

Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise. Key Terms Range of Motion Movement Planes Muscle Actions Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise Key Terms Range of Motion Movement Planes Muscle Actions Anatomical LocationsKey Terms Midline: The invisible line that divides the body or a single body part in half

More information

TOTAL BODY: POWER/EXPLOSIVE EXERCISES

TOTAL BODY: POWER/EXPLOSIVE EXERCISES Referring to Chapters 12-14 TOTAL BODY: POWER/EXPLOSIVE EXERCISES Power Snatch hip extension Muscle group/ gluteals gluteus maximis hamstrings semimembranosus semitendinosus biceps femoris knee extension

More information

Practical 1 Worksheet

Practical 1 Worksheet Practical 1 Worksheet ANATOMICAL TERMS 1. Use the word bank to fill in the missing words. reference side stand body arms palms anatomical forward All anatomical terms have a(n) point which is called the

More information

Elbow, Shoulder and Shoulder Girdle

Elbow, Shoulder and Shoulder Girdle Elbow, Shoulder and Shoulder Girdle The Elbow Flexion and extension of the elbow are controlled by muscles in the upper arm. Pronation and supination of the forearm are controlled by muscles in the upper

More information

Release: 2. SISFFIT418A Undertake appraisals of functional movement

Release: 2. SISFFIT418A Undertake appraisals of functional movement Release: 2 SISFFIT418A Undertake appraisals of functional movement SISFFIT418A Undertake appraisals of functional movement Modification History Not Applicable Unit Descriptor This unit describes the performance

More information

My approach as a teacher of asana is to create a space for individual exploration without the walls of dogma. A space of personal empowerment with

My approach as a teacher of asana is to create a space for individual exploration without the walls of dogma. A space of personal empowerment with . My approach as a teacher of asana is to create a space for individual exploration without the walls of dogma. A space of personal empowerment with the aid of the teacher not because of or through the

More information

The Iliopsoas Group Muscle origin insertion innervation function Psoas (major and minor) transverse processes of lesser trochanter of femoral nerve

The Iliopsoas Group Muscle origin insertion innervation function Psoas (major and minor) transverse processes of lesser trochanter of femoral nerve Gluteal Muscles Two nerve plexuses: sacral and lumbar Lumbar plexus contains femoral and obturator nerves Sacral plexus contains gluteal (superior/inferior), sciatic, common fibular, tibial common nerves

More information

SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 2016 Suite Cambridge TECHNICALS LEVEL 3 SPORT AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Unit 1 Body systems and the effects of physical activity K/507/4452 Guided learning hours: 90 Version 2 - Revised content - March 2016

More information

MUSCULAR SYSTEM REVIEW. 1. Identify the general functions of the muscular system

MUSCULAR SYSTEM REVIEW. 1. Identify the general functions of the muscular system MUSCULAR SYSTEM REVIEW 1. Identify the general functions of the muscular system 2. Define the four characteristics of muscular tissue a. irritability (excitability) - b. extensibility- c. contractibility

More information

Muscular System Tour Lab

Muscular System Tour Lab Name Hour 3 Types of Muscle Identify the three types of muscle from the diagram: Skeletal Muscle Move your bones. Voluntary ( ) Muscular System There are more than muscles in the Human Body!!! Muscles

More information

Objectives continued- Answer each of the objectives on a separate sheet of paper to demonstrate content mastery. Attach answers to back of packet.

Objectives continued- Answer each of the objectives on a separate sheet of paper to demonstrate content mastery. Attach answers to back of packet. Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 6: The Muscular System Name: Objectives- By the end of this chapter I will be able to: 1. Describe similarities and differences in the structure and function of the three

More information

JOINTS, MUSCLES AND MOVEMENT

JOINTS, MUSCLES AND MOVEMENT JOINTS, MUSCLES AND MOVEMENT Bones of the Skeleton JOINTS AND MOVEMENT NAME OF BONE Cranium Clavicle Scapula Sternum Ribs Humerus Ulna Radius Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Ilium/Pelvis Sacrum Coccyx Femur

More information

Arms Exercise Routine Sheet

Arms Exercise Routine Sheet Arms Exercise Routine Sheet Front Arm Strengthening with a Therapy Band Triceps Stretch Forearm Strengthening in Pronation with a Therapy Band Forearm Strengthening in Supination with a Therapy Band Elbow

More information

Questions. Close-packed: Maximum congruency, tight i.e. Knee extension

Questions. Close-packed: Maximum congruency, tight i.e. Knee extension Plane: Sagittal Axis: Coronal Action: Flexion/Extension Plane: Frontal AKA Coronal Axis: Sagittal Abduction/Adduction Plane: Transverse AKA Horizontal Axis: Vertical Rotation Cardinal Plane: where all

More information

Muscle Terminology. Intrinsic - pertaining usually to muscles within or belonging solely to body part upon which they act

Muscle Terminology. Intrinsic - pertaining usually to muscles within or belonging solely to body part upon which they act Muscle Terminology Intrinsic - pertaining usually to muscles within or belonging solely to body part upon which they act Ex. small intrinsic muscles found entirely within the hand or feet Muscle Terminology

More information

Exercise Science and Sports Medicine

Exercise Science and Sports Medicine Unit 3 B MUSCULAR SYSTEM Lecture notes I. Introduction a. Without the muscular system we would be unable to sit, stand, walk, speak, or grasp objects. Blood would not circulate, because there would be

More information

Wall Push Ups. Chest (Pectoralis major)

Wall Push Ups. Chest (Pectoralis major) Chest (Pectoralis major) Wall Push Ups 1 Do not drop body towards wall fast or bounce in movements Do not lock the elbows at any time stop exercise if there is any sharp pain in joints or muscles 2 Wall

More information

DSM Spine+Sport - Mobility

DSM Spine+Sport - Mobility To set yourself up for success, practice keeping a neutral spine throughout all of these movements. This will ensure the tissue mobilization is being applied to the correct area, and make the techniques

More information

Diagnostic MSK Case Submission Requirements

Diagnostic MSK Case Submission Requirements Diagnostic MSK Case Submission Requirements Note: MSK Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (USGIP) is considered a separate specialty. Corresponds with 4/21/16 Accred Newsletter* From the main site:

More information

Identify the tender point May be based on pain pattern, regional scan, observation, etc.

Identify the tender point May be based on pain pattern, regional scan, observation, etc. 1 Upper Extremity Counterstrain Dan Williams, D.O. Board Certified Neuromusculoskeletal Medicine And Osteopathic Manipulation 2 Counterstrain Osteopathic manipulation technique developed by Larry Jones,

More information

Exercise Theory Performance Standards 2014

Exercise Theory Performance Standards 2014 Exercise Theory s 2014 National Fitness Leadership Alliance Alberta Fitness Leadership Certification Association (AFLCA) British Columbia Recreation and Parks Association (BCRPA) Saskatchewan Parks and

More information