Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column Sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck) Origin Insertion Action

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1 Muscular movements of the head (at the cervical spine/neck) and of the torso (thoracic and lumbar spine/upper, middle, and lower back): flexion, extension, lateral flexion, rotation. Muscles of the Neck and Vertebral Column Sternocleidomastoid (anterior neck) Semispinalis capitis Semispinalis cervicis/thoracis Splenius capitis Splenius cervicus Spinalis capitis Spinalis cervicis and thoracis Longissimus capitis Longissimus cervicis and thoracis Iliocostalis cervicis Iliocostalis thoracis and lumborum (erector spinae) Manubrium of sternum and medial clavicle Transverse process of cervical and thoracic cervical and thoracic thoracic cervical and thoracic thoracic and lumbar Transverse process of Transverse process of, sacrum Ribs Iliac crest, sacrum, ribs Mastoid process of temporal bone Occipital bone. Spinous process of cervical & thoracic Mastoid process and occipital bone Transverse process of cervical Occipital bone Superior (upper) spinous processes Mastoid process Superior (upper) transverse processes Transverse process of cervical and upper ribs Upper ribs, transverse process Quadratus lumborum Iliac crest Transverse process of lumbar & 12 th rib Flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation of the head at the neck Extension and rotation of the head at the neck. Extension of the neck and upper back (cervical and thoracic spine) Extension (both), lateral flexion and rotation (one side) of the head at the neck Extension of cervical spine/neck Extension of the head at the neck Extension of the upper spine/back Extension (both), lateral flexion and rotation (one) of head at the neck Extension and lateral flexion of the upper spine/back Extension of cervical spine/upper back Extension of spine/back, lateral flexion of spine/back Lateral flexion of lumbar spine, stabilization of pelvis/lumbar spine

2 Muscles of the Abdominal Wall Rectus abdominis External oblique Internal oblique Transverse abdominis Pubis: Pubic crest and symphysis Lower eight ribs Iliac crest and inguinal ligament Costal cartilage of ribs and iliac crest Xiphoid process (of sternum) and costal cartilage of ribs (#5-7) Linea alba, Iliac crest and pubic bone Costal cartilage of ribs #8-10, linea alba Linea alba and pubis (pubic crest) Flexion and lateral flexion of vertebral column, compression of abdomen, stabilization of pelvis (controls tilt of the pelvis) Flexion, lateral flexion, and rotation of vertebral column Flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of vertebral column Compression of abdomen i.e. forced expiration Other muscles of the Axial Skeleton: Deep muscles of the vertebral column Multifidus, Rotators, Interspinales, Intertransversarius Can produce some movement (extension, lateral flexion, and rotation) of the vertebral column, but are primarily stabilization muscles of the Muscles of the thorax Scalenes, Intercostals, Diaphram These muscles are primarily used in respiration, although the scalenes can produce slight movement of the cervical spine

3 Scapular movements: Protraction, Retration, Elevation, Depression, Rotation Muscles of the Anterior and Posterior Thorax (Scapular) Serratus anterior Trapezius Levator e Rhomboids (major and minor) Pectoralis minor Ribs 3-5 Surface of upper 9 ribs Occipital bone and spinous processes of C7 and all thoracic Transverse process of cervical (C1-4) Spinous processes of cervical and thoracic Subclavius Costal cartilage of rib #1 Clavicle Vertebral (medial) border of Clavicle; acromion process and spine of Vertebral(medial) border of superior to the spine Vertebral (medial) border of Coracoid process of Humeral movements: Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction, Medial rotation, Lateral rotation, Circumduction Protraction (abduction) and rotation of the Elevation (upper), depression (lower), retraction(adduction), rotation and stabilization Elevation and retraction (adduction) of Retraction, downward rotation, stabilization of the Depression of, also can elevate ribs when arms are raised Stabilization of shoulder girdle, depression Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint (humeral) Pectoralis major Clavicle, sternum and costal cartilage of ribs Intertubercular groove of Flexion, horizontal flexion, internal rotation, and adduction of Latissimus dorsi Iliac crest, posterior sacrum, spinous processes of lower thoracic, lumbar Intertubercular groove of Extension, adduction and internal rotation of the Deltoid Clavicle, acromion, and spine of Deltoid of Abduction; flexion and medial rotation; extension and lateral rotation of

4 Teres major Teres minor Infraspinatus Supraspinatus Subris Coracobrachialis Posterior surface of Axillary (lateral) border of the Infraspinous fossa of Supraspinous fossa of Subr fossa of the Coracoid process of the Intertubercular groove of Greater tubercle of Greater tubercle of Greater tubercle of Lesser tubercle of the Medial surface of humeral shaft Extension, adduction and internal rotation of Lateral rotation of (rotator cuff) Lateral rotation of (rotator cuff) Assists in abduction (rotator cuff) Medial rotation of the (rotator cuff) Flexion and adduction of the Movements at : Flexion, Extension, Supination, Pronation Movements at the fingers: Flexion, Extension Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint or Wrist joint Triceps brachii Biceps brachii Long head: infraglenoid tubercle; Medial and Lateral heads: posterior shaft of the Short head: coracoid process of ; Long head: supra glenoid tubercle of Olecranon process of ulna Radial of radius Extension at the elbow Flexion at the elbow and supination at the elbow and wrist Brachialis Humerus Coronoid process of Ulna Flexion at the elbow Brachioradialis Anconeus Pronator teres Lateral supracondylar ridge of the ; ulna Styloid process of the radius Olecranon process of ulna Lateral surface of radius Flexion at the elbow Extension at the elbow, stabilization Pronation at the elbow and wrist Pronator quadratus Ulna (distal, anterior) Radius (distal, anterior) Pronation at Supinator Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris Palmaris ; ulna ; ulna Radius (proximal) Metacarpals (base, 2-3rd) 5th metacarpal, pisiform, hamate (carpals) Palmar aponeurosis Supination at the elbow Flexion and abduction at Flexion and adduction at Flexion at

5 Flexor digitorum profundus and superficialis Humerus, ulna, radius Middle (FDS) and distal (FDP) phlanges #2-5 Flexor Pollicus Longus Radius and ulna Distal phalanx #1 Extensor carpi radialis Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor carpi Ulnaris Extensor digitorum Extensor Pollicis Longus Lateral supracondylar ridge of ; ulna Base of 2nd metacarpal Base of 3rd metacarpal Base of 5th metacarpal Phalanges #2-5 Ulna Phalanx #1 Flexion at and fingers Flexion at and thumb Extension and abduction at Extension and abduction at Extension and adduction at Extension at and fingers Extension at and thumb

6 Muscles Crossing the Hip and Knee Joint Psoas major Iliacus Sartorius Adductor magnus Lumbar Iliac Fossa Anterior superior iliac spine Ischium and pubis Lesser trochanter of Lesser trochanter of the Medial aspect of proximal tibia (pes anserine) Linea aspera and adductor tubercle Flexes the hip Flexes the hip Flexes, adducts and externally rotates the hip, also flexes the knee Adducts the thigh Adductor Pubis (Anterior) Linea aspera Adducts the thigh Adductor brevis Pectineus Gracilis Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius Tensor fasciae latae Pubis (Inferior) Pubis Pubis (Inferior) Anterior inferior iliac spine Greater trochanter, Linea aspera,and intertrochanteric line of Linea aspera, intertrochanteric line Anterior surface of Iliac crest, and anterior superior iliac spine Linea aspera above adductor Lesser trochanter to linea aspera of Medial surface of tibia (pes anserine) Iliotibial tract (IT band) Gluteus maximus Ilium, sacrum, and coccyx Femur and iliotibial tract Gluteus medius Gluteus minimus Biceps femoris Semitendinosis Lateral surface of the ilium Lateral surface of the ilium Two heads: Long head, Ischial / Short head, linea aspera Ischial Greater trochanter of Greater trochanter of Head of fibula and lateral side of tibia Medial Tibia (pes anserine) Semimembranosus Ischial Medial side of the tibia Adducts the thigh Adducts, flexes and medial rotates the thigh Adducts the thigh, flexes the knee Extends the knee and flexes the hip Extension of the knee Extension of the knee Extension of the knee Flexes and abducts the hip Extends and externally rotates the hip Abducts and internally rotates the hip Abducts and internally rotates the hip Extends the hip and flexes the knee Extends the hip and flexes the knee Extends the hip and flexes the knee Popliteus Posterolateral Femur Posteromedial Tibia Flexes the knee

7 Muscles of The Lower Leg Gastrocnemius Soleus Tibialis anterior Tibialis posterior Two heads from medial and lateral condyles of Proximal posterior tibia and head of fibula Lateral condyle and shaft of tibia Tibia and Fibula (Posterior) Achilles tendon to calcaneus Achilles tendon to calcaneus medial cuneiform and first metatarsal Bases of 2-5 metatarsals and cuneiforms Flexor digitorum Tibia (Posterior) Distal phalanges 2-5 Extensor digitorum Lateral condyle of tibia, anterior fibula middle and distal phalanges 2-5 Flexor hallucis Fibula (Posterior) Distal phalanx #1 Extensor hallucis Peroneus (fibularis) tertius Peroneus (fibularis) Peroneus (fibularis) brevis Plantaris Fibula (Anterior) Fibula (Anterior distal) Head of Fibula Fibula (Lateral) Lateral condyle of Distal phalanx of big toe 5th metatarsal Base of the 1st metatarsal Base of the 5th metatarsal Achilles tendon to calcaneus Plantarflexion of the ankle and flexion of the knee Plantarflexion of the ankle Dorsiflexion and inversion of the ankle Plantarflexion and inversion of the ankle Flexion of the toes and plantarflexion and inversion the ankle Toe extension and Dorsiflexion of the ankle Flexion of the great toe and plantarflexion and inversion of the ankle Extension of the big toe, dorsiflexion of the ankle Dorsiflexion and eversion of the ankle Plantarflexion and eversion of the ankle Plantarflexion and eversion of the ankle Plantarflexion of the ankle and flexion of the knee

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