Skin of eyebrows galea aponeurotica. Muscle and skin of mouth

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1 : SEE ALSO THE AP SITE FOR OTHER TABLES GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEMM Muscles of the Head and Neck: Occipitofrontalis Frontalis Occipitalis Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Buccinator Masseter Temporalis Sternocleidomastoid Platysma Galea aponeurotica Occipital & temporal Frontal & maxillary bones Maxilla & mandible Maxilla and mandible Zygomatic arch and maxilla Temporal fossa Sternum & clavicle Fascia of chest Skin of eyebrows galea aponeurotica Eyelids Muscle and skin of mouth Orbicularis oris Body and ramus of mandible Coronoid of mandible Mastoid Lower margin of mandible and skin of mouth raises eyebrows; wrinkles skin of forehead fixes aponeurosis and pulls scalp posteriorly Closes eye; blinking, squinting; draws eyebrows inferiorly Closes lips; purses and protrudes lips (as in kissing) Draws corner of mouth laterally; compresses cheek (whistling, sucking); holds food between teeth Prime mover of mandible elevation Elevates, retracts and moves mandible side-to-side Each turns head toward opposite side or tilts head laterally; together, flex head on chest Depresses mandible (agonist); pulls lip down and back; tenses skin of neck. Trigeminal (Mandibular Branch) Trigeminal (Mandibular Branch) Accessory, Cervical Spinal Nerves (2-4) 1

2 Rotator Cuff GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM Muscles of the Thorax, Shoulder, and Abdominal Wall: Scapula Greater Supraspinatus (supraspinous tubercle of (rotator cuff) fossa) humerus Infraspinatus (rotator cuff) Subscapularis (rotator cuff) Teres minor (rotator cuff) Teres major Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Scapula (infraspinous foss) Subscapular fossa dorsal scapula Posterior inferior scapula clavicle; sternum; costal cartilages Ribs 3-5 (or ) Serratus anterior Ribs 1-8 (or 9) Greater tubercle Lesser tubercle Greater tubercle Intertubercular groove Intertubercular groove Coracoid of scapula Vertebral border of scapula Stabilizes shoulder (helps prevent downward dislocation); assists in abduction Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity; stabilizes shoulder; rotates humerus laterally ly rotates humerus; helps hold humerus in glenoid cavity Holds head of humerus in glenoid cavity; stabilizes shoulder; rotates humerus laterally; adducts arm at shoulder Extends, medially rotates, adducts humerus (synergist of latissimus dorsi) Prime mover of arm flexion at shoulder; rotates arm medially; adducts arm against resistance; pulls ribs upward Draws scapula forward and down (with ribs fixed); draws ribs up (with scapula fixed) Protracts and holds scapula against ribs; rotates scapula laterally and upward; raises point of shoulder; boxer s muscle Suprascapular Suprascapular Subscapular nerve Axillary Lower subscapular Pectoral nerves Pectoral nerves Long thoracic nerve 2

3 Muscles of the Thorax, Shoulder and Abdominal Wall (continued): Clavicle; Deltoid Deltoid acromion & tuberosity spine Trapezius Latissimus dorsi Internal intercostal muscles External intercostal muscles Diaphragm External oblique Occipital bone; cervical vertebrae Spines of lower thoracic & lumbar vertebrae Superior border of rib below Inferior border of rib above Ribs, sternum, costal cartilages Lower 8 ribs Acromion and spine of scapula; clavicle Intertubercular groove Inferior border of rib above Superior border of rib below Central tendon Linea alba (some to pubic crest and iliac crest) Abduction, flexion and extension of arm at shoulder; medial rotation (anterior); lateral rotation (posterior) Stabilizes, retracts, raises, rotates scapula; extends with scapula fixed Arm adduction, medial rotation and extension at shoulder; depresses scapula; brings arm down in power stroke Pull down on rib for forced expiration Pull up on rib for inspiration Increase size of thoracic cavity for inspiration Individually, flex vertebral column laterally or rotate trunk; together, aid flexion of vertebral column; increase intra-abdominal pressure Axillary Accessory and cervical spinal nerves Thoracodorsal nerve Phrenic 3

4 Internal oblique Lumbar fascia, iliac crest Linea alba (to pubic crest and iliac crest) Muscles of the Thorax, Shoulder and Abdominal Wall (continued): Inguinal Linea alba; Transversus abdominis ligament; last pubic crest 6 costal cartilages Rectus abdominis Levator scapulae Rhomboids Pubic crest and symphysis Transverse es C1- C4 Spinous es of C7 T5 Sternum & 5-7 costal cartilages border & spine of scapula border of scapula Muscles of the Upper Appendage (Arm) that act on the Forearm: Coracoid ; Radial Biceps brachii tubercle over tuberosity glenoid cavity Brachialis Front of distal humerus Coronoid Individually, flex vertebral column laterally or rotate trunk; together, aid flexion of vertebral column; increase intra-abdominal pressure increase intra-abdominal pressure Flex and rotate lumbar vertebral column; stabilize pelvis during walking; increase intra-abdominal pressure Elevates & adducts scapula; flexes neck to same side Retracts scapula; rotates scapula downward (when arm is lowered against resistance; paddling muscle); stabilizes scapula Flexes and supinates arm at elbow; weak flexor at shoulder Flexes arm at elbow Cervical spinal nerves & dorsal scapular nerve Dorsal scapular nerve Musculocutaneous Musculocutaneous 4

5 Brachioradialis Supracondylar ridge humerus Styloid of radius Synergist of arm flexion at elbow; stabilizes elbow (rapid movements) Radial nerve Triceps brachii Scapula; humerus Olecranon Extends arm at elbow; assists arm adduction Radial Supinator Proximal radius Supinates forearm Radial (Posterior Pronator teres ; coronoid radius (midshaft) Pronates forearm; weak elbow flexor Anconeus Olecranon Abducts ulna during pronation; aids elbow extension Radial Coracobrachialis Coracoid humerus Flexion and abduction of humerus Musculocutaneous Muscles of the Upper Appendage (Forearm) that act on the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers: Flexor carpi ulnaris ; olecranon Carpals; 5 th metacarpals Flexes wrist; adducts hand (with extensor carpi ulnaris); stabilizes wrist for finger extension Ulnar 5

6 Palmaris longus Palmar aponeurosis Weak wrist flexor; weak synergist of elbow flexion; not present in all people Flexor carpi radialis Base of 2 nd & 3 rd metacarpals Flexes wrist; abducts wrist; weak synergist of elbow flexion Flexor digitorum superficialis Extensor carpi ulnaris ; coronoid Middle phalanges 2-5 Base of 5 th metacarpal Flexes wrist and middle phalanges of digits 2-5 (fast acting) Extends wrist; adducts wrist Radial (Posterior Extensor digitorum Distal phalanges 2-5 Extends digits, weak wrist extensor; abducts (flares) fingers Radial (posterior Flexor pollicis longus Flexor digitorum profundus Radius; interosseous membrane Coronoid anterior ulna Distal thumb phalanx Distal phalanges of 2-5 Flexes distal phalanx of thumb Flexes digits (slow); weak synergist of wrist flexion Ulnar (medial half); median (lateral half) Pronator quadratus Distal ulna Distal anterior radius Prime mover of forearm pronation 6

7 Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi radialis brevis supracondylar ridge Base of 2 nd metacarpal Base of 3 rd metacarpal Extends wrist; abducts wrist (with flexor radialis) Extends wrist; abducts wrist; steadies wrist during finger extension Radial Radial Muscles of the Hand That Move the Thumb Extensor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Abductor pollicis longus Dorsal radius and ulna Dorsal radius and ulna Posterior radius & ulna Base of distal thumb phalanx Base of proximal thumb phalanx Base of metacarpal 1 Extends thumb Extends thumb Abducts and extends thumb; abducts wrist Radial (posterior Radial (posterior Radial (posterior Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Appendage That Act on the Thigh and Upper Leg Iliopsoas Iliacus Psoas major iliac fossa and crest; sacrum lumbar vertebrae femur below lesser trochanter lesser trochanter prime mover of thigh flexion at hip prime mover of thigh flexion at hip; lateral flexion of vertebral column; posture 7

8 Gluteus maximus Dorsal ilium; sacrum; coccyx Gluteal tuberosity; iliotibial tract Major thigh extensor, especially when thigh is flexed (as in climbing); laterally rotates & abducts thigh Inferior gluteal Gluteus medius ilium Greater trochanter Thigh abduction; medial thigh rotation; stabilizes hip when walking Superior gluteal Muscles of the Lower Appendage (Thigh) that act on the Knee: Hamstrings Biceps femoris Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Ischial tuberosity / linea alba Ischial tuberosity Ischial tuberosity condyle of tibia; fibula proximal tibia proximal tibia Extends thigh, flexes knee; laterally rotates leg Extends thigh, flexes knee; medially rotates leg Extends thigh, flexes knee; medially rotates leg Quadricep s femoris Rectus femoris Anterior inferior iliac spine tuberosity via patellar ligament Extends knee; flexes thigh on hip 8

9 Vastus lateralis Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis Sartorius Adductors Adductor magnus Greater trochanter; linea aspera linea aspera Anterolateral proximal femur Ischial tuberosity; pubis tuberosity via patellar ligament tuberosity via patellar ligament tuberosity via patellar ligament Linea aspera; adductor tubercle Adductor longus Pubis Linea aspera Gracilis Anterior superior iliac spine proximal tibia Pubis, ischium tibia Extends knee; stabilizes knee Extends knee; stabilizes knee Extends knee; stabilizes knee Flexes abducts, laterally rotates knee; tailor s muscle Anterior: adducts, medially rotates thigh; flexes thigh Posterior: extends thigh Adducts, flexes thigh, medially rotates thigh Adducts, flexes and medially rotates thigh; flexes knee Obturator Obturator Obturator Muscles of the Lower Appendage (Leg) that act on the Knee: 9

10 Triceps surae Gastrocnemius GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM & Plantar flexes foot when knee is lateral femoral Calcaneus extended; flexes knee when foot is condyles dorsiflexed Soleus Tibia, fibula Calcaneus Plantar flexes is anterior Condyle of Tibia, interosseous membrane cuneiform; 1 st metatarsal Muscles of the Lower Appendage (Leg) that act on the Foot Dorsiflexes and inverts foot Common Fibular is posterior Tibia & fibula Tarsals & metatarsals 2-4 Foot inversion; plantar flexion Fibularis (peroneus) longus Fibula 1 st metatarsal; medial cuneiform Plantar flexes & everts foot Common Fibular Fibularis (peroneus) tertius Distal anterior fibula 5 th metatarsal Dorsiflexes & everts foot Common Fibular Fibularis (peroneus) brevis Fibula 5 th metatarsal Plantar flexes & everts foot Common Fibular 10

11 Shaded: Do NOT need to know for lab. GROSS ANATOMY OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM NOT Shaded: Do need to know for lab. Flexor digitorum longus Tibia Distal phalanges 2-5 Plantar flexes & inverts foot; flexes toes Extensor digitorum longus Tibia; fibula Middle & distal phalanges 2-5 Toe extension; dorsiflexes foot Common Fibular 11

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