Muscles of the Human Body

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1 Muscles of the Human Body over 600 in the human body allow the skeleton to move to cause movement both ends of each muscle must be attached to bone origin or proximal attachment ( the attachment closer to the centre of the body) insertion or distal attachment (the attachment away from the centre of the body) Various functions of the facial muscles Facial Muscles - enable you to change expression and display your emotions outwardly - allow you to close your eyes and blink - essential for opening and closing the mouth for: - keeping food in the mouth - allowing you to chew - allowing you to form words Tongue - function allows you move food around in your mouth and get it to a position to be swallowed allows you to pronounce words and speak intelligibly Neck Muscles There are muscles posterior, lateral and anterior to the neck or cervical region These muscles: st - maintain the position in which the head sits on the 1 cervical vertebra (atlas) (ie. they hold up our head) - also permit a wide range of movement A. Sternocleidomastoids (the most important anterior pair of muscles) Proximal - Medial Head (upper part of ant. surface of manubrium) rd Lateral Head (medial 3 of clavicle) Distal - mastoid process Function - flex the head towards the chest - individually, each muscle tilts the face up and toward the opposite side.

2 B. Erector Spinae Muscles (important posterior neck muscles) Proximal - base of skull Distal - sacrum Function - maintain your erect postition - therefore, also called anti-gravity muscles - when someone faints, these muscles no longer function and the body falls face forward to the ground Muscular System - Upper Limb Muscles of Scapular Stabilization (Posterior) C. Trapezius Proximal - Base of Skull, C1 - C7, T1 - T12 rd Distal - lateral 3 of clavicle, spine of scapula, acromion process Function - Retraction (Middle), Elevation (Superior), Depression (Inferior) of shoulder girdle D. Latissimus Dorsi Proximal - T7 - T12, L1 -L5, Crest of Illium Distal - Medial lip of bicipital groove, inferior angle of scapula Function - Adduction, Extension, Medial Rotation of Joint, Depression of girdle E. Rhomboids (Major & Minor) Proximal - Minor (C7 & T1) Major (T2 - T5) Distal - Minor (Root of Spine of Scapula) Major (Medial Border of Scapula) Function - Minor (Retraction of Scapula) Major (Retraction of Scapula) F. Levator Scapulae Proximal - (C1 - C4) Distal - Superior angle of scapula to root of the spine on medial border Function - Elevation of shoulder girdle (scapula)

3 Muscles of Scapular Stabilization (Anterior) G. Serratus Anterior Proximal - Medial anterior border of scapula Distal - Outer surface of upper 1-8 ribs Function - Protraction of shoulder girdle H. Pectoralis Minor rd th Proximal - Outer surface of 3 to 5 ribs Distal - Coracoid process of scapula Function - Protraction of shoulder girdle I. Pectoralis Major Proximal - Two Heads (Sternal - Sternum, upper 6 costal cartilage) (Clavicular - medial 1/3 side of clavicle) Distal - lateral lip of bicipital groove Function - Adduction, Medial Rotation, flexion of shoulder joint

4 Muscles Acting on the Shoulder Joint K. Deltoid (Lateral) Proximal - Three Heads (Anterior - Lateral 1/3 of clavicle) (Lateral - acromion process) (Posterior - Spine of scapula) Distal - deltoid tuberosity of humerus Function - Abduction of joint (with supraspinatous) Anterior - flexion, medial rotation Posterior - extension, lateral rotation L. Teres Major (Posterior) Proximal - inferior 1/3 of lateral border of scapula Distal - medial lip of bicipital groove of humerus Function - Adduction, Extension, Medial Rotation of Shoulder joint M. Supraspinatus N. Infraspinatus O. Teres Minor Proximal - supraspinous fossa of scapula Distal - superior facet of greater tubercle on humerus Function - Abduction of joint (with deltoid - Force couple) Proximal - infraspinous fossa of scapula Distal - middle facet of greater tubercle Function - lateral rotation Proximal - Upper 2/3 of lateral border of scapula Distal - lower facet of greater tubercle Function - lateral rotation P. Subscapularis (Anterior) Proximal - subscapularis fossa Distal - lesser tubercle of humerus Function - medial rotation, assists in flexion

5 Muscles Acting on the Forearm Q. Biceps Brachii Proximal - 2 Heads Distal - Radial tuberosity Long (Supraglenoid tubercle of Scapula) Short (Coracoid Process) R. Brachialis Function - Flexion of shoulder joint, Supination of proximal radioulnar jt, flexion of elbow jt. Proximal - Lower one half to 2/3 of anterior surface of humerus Distal - coronoid process and tuberosity of the ulna Function - flexion of the elbow joint S. Triceps Brachii Proximal - 3 Heads Long (infraglenoid tubercle of scapula) Lateral (posterior and lateral surface of humerus) Medial (posterior shaft of humerus (deep to lateral and long) Distal - olecranon process of ulna bone Function - extension of elbow and shoulder joint

6 Muscles of the Forearm forearm muscles act on the elbow, wrist, and digits (fingers) flexor - pronator group attached to the medial epicondyle of the humerus Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Palmaris Longus Flexor Carpi Radialis Proximal - medial epicondyle of humerus Function - wrist flexion, weak flexor of the elbow joint Proximal - medial epicondyle of humerus Function - flexes wrist, assists in pronation of elbow jt. Proximal - medial epicondyle of humerus Function - flex wrist and elbow jt, abduction of wrist jt (with ext carpi radialis longus & brevis) Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Proximal - medial epicondyle of humerus Function - flexion of elbow and wrist jt, flex of proximal phalanx jts of 2-5 extensor - supinator group - attached to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Proximal - lateral epicondyle of humerus Function - extension of elbow and wrist joint assists in adduction of wrist (with flex carpi ulnaris) Extensor Digiti Minimi Extensor Digitorum Proximal - lateral epicondyle of humerus th Function - extends, abducts 5 digit Proximal - lateral epicondyle of humerus Function - extension of elbow, wrist jt extension of metacarpals phalange jt (MCP) of digits 2-5

7 Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Proximal - lateral epicondyle of humerus Function - extension of elbow, wrist jt abduction with flexor carpi radialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Proximal - lateral epicondyle of humerus Function - extension of elbow, wrist jt - abduction with flexor carpi radialis Muscular System - Lower Limb Muscles of the Gluteal Region A. Gluteus Maximus Proximal - posterior gluteal line on illium, posterior sacrum Distal - gluteal tuberosity, blends into illiotibial tract Function - extensor of hip joint, lateral rotator of jt when power is necessary B. Gluteus Medius Proximal - between posterior and anterior gluteal lines on posterior illium Distal - most superior and anterior part of greater trochanter of femur Function - abduct and medial rotation of hip jt, stability of gait C. Gluteus Minimus Proximal - anterior and inferior gluteal lines Distal - anterior border of the greater trochanter of femur Function - abduct and medial rotate hip jt, stability of gait D. Tensor Fasciae Latae Proximal - anterior superior illiac spine Distal - tibia lateral Function - tenses the illiotibial band aids in abduction, flexion and medial rotation of hip jt.

8 Muscles of the Posterior Thigh E. Semimembranosus Proximal - ishial tuberosity Distal - deep (medial border of tibia) superficial (oblique popliteal lig.) F. Semitendinosus Function - extend hip jt and flex knee jt. Proximal - ishial tuberosity Distal - medial proximal tibia Function - extend hip jt. and flex knee jt. G. Biceps Femoris Proximal - Long (ishial tuberosity) Distal - head of fibula and lateral tibia Short (Lateral lip of linea aspera of femur) Function - extend hip jt and flex knee jt. H. Pectineus Muscles of the Medial Thigh (Adductors) Proximal - pectineal line of pubis Distal - pectineal line of femur (under lesser trochanter) Function - flexion or adduction of hip jt. I. Adductor Brevis Proximal - body of pubis Distal - medial lip of linea aspera Function - adduct hip joint J. Adductor Longus Proximal - body of the pubis Distal - linea aspera of femur Function - adduct hip joint

9 K. Adductor Magnus Proximal - Adductor (inferior pubic ramus) Extensor (Ishial tuberosity) Distal - Adductor (medial lip of linea aspera of femur) Extensor (adductor tubercle) L. Gracilis Function - adduct hip jt, extends hip jt Proximal - pubis inferior Distal - tibia (upper medial) Function - adducts hip jt, flex knee jt M. Sartorius Muscles of the Anterior Thigh (Quadriceps) Proximal - anterior superior illiac spine Distal - medial proximal surface of tibia Function - flex hip jt, flex knee jt, laterally rotate hip jt N. Rectus Femoris Proximal - anterior inferior illiac spine Distal - tibial tuberosity and patella Function - extends knee, flexes hip O. Vastus Lateralis Proximal - inferior anterior greater trochanter and lateral lip of linea aspera Distal - tibial tuberosity and patella Function - extends knee jt P. Vastus Intermedius Proximal - upper 2/3 of anterior and lateral femur Distal - tibial tuberosity and patella Function - extends knee jt

10 Q. Vastus Medialis R. Peroneus Longus S. Peroneus Brevis Proximal - intertrochanteric line and medial lip of linea aspera Distal - tibial tuberosity and patella Function - extends knee Muscles of the Lateral Leg Proximal - head of fibula and interosseous membrane st Distal - cuboid and 1 metatarsal Function - evert the tarsal jts., assist in plantar flexion of ankle jt. Proximal - lateral tibia and fibula shaft th Distal - 5 metatarsal Function - evert the tarsal jts, and assist in plantar flexion of ankle jt. T. Tibialis Anterior Muscles of the Anterior Leg Proximal - upper ½ of lateral surface of tibia st Distal - medial cuniform and 1 metatarsal Function - dorsiflexion of ankle jt, inversion of tarsal jt. U. Extensor Digitorum Longus Proximal - lateral tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane Distal - dorsal expansion of digits 2-5 Function - extend MTP jts of digits 2-5 also assists tibialis anterior with dosiflexion V. Extensor Hallucis Longus Proximal - fibula, interosseous membrane Distal - distal phalanx of big toe st Function - extension of IP jt of 1 digit

11 Muscles of the Posterior Leg X. Soleus Proximal - head of fibula, soleal line of tibia Distal - calcaneous Function - plantar flexion of ankle jt Y. Gastrocnemius Proximal - Distal - Medial (medial condyle of femur) Lateral (lateral condyle of femur) Calcaneous Function - flexion of knee jt, plantar flexion of ankle jt. Muscles of the Abdomen Obliques external oblique internal oblique transversus abdominus reach from the vertebral column, ribs, and hip bone posteriorly meet in the midline anteriorly through rectus abdominus Functions: - lateral bending of the abdomen - rotation of the abdomen - extension of the abdomen during forced inspiration - allow the development of a pregnant uterus - contract to help expel fecal contents from the rectum Rectus Abdominus Paired midline muscles Powerful flexor of the anterior abdominal wall Strengthening of the abdominal muscles is a very important part of back therapy, because the abdominals act to support the back.

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