Muscular System. Principles of Health Science Dr. Wood

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1 Muscular System Principles of Health Science Dr. Wood

2 Characteristics of muscles Excitability: : irritability or ability to respond to stimulus Contractibility: : ability to contract (become short and thick) Extensibility: : ability to be stretched Elasticity: : allows muscle to return to its original shape after being contracted or stretched

3 Three main kind of muscles Cardiac Visceral or smooth Skeletal

4 Cardiac muscle Forms the walls of the heart and contraction causes blood to circulate Involuntary: : functions without conscious thought

5 Visceral or smooth muscle Found in internal organs of the body such as digestive system, eye, blood vessels Also involuntary

6 Skeletal muscle Attached to bones and causes body movement Voluntary: : have control over its action

7 Functions of skeletal muscle Movement Produce heat and energy Posture Protection of internal organs

8 Muscle attachment Tendons: : strong connective tissue cords that attach muscle to bone Fascia: : tough sheet like membrane that covers and protects tissue

9 Muscle attachment to bone Origin: : the end that does not move Insertion: : the end that does move when the muscle contracts

10 Muscle tone: : state of partial contracture of a muscle Atrophy: : muscles shrink in size and lose strength when not used for a long period Contracture: : severe tightening of a flexor muscle resulting in bending of a joint also from lack of use

11 Abduction Moving a body part away from the midline

12 Muscle movements Adduction: : moving toward the body

13 Flexion Decreasing the angle between two bones or bending

14 Extension Increasing the angle between two bones or straightening

15 Pronation vs. Supination Supination: rotation of the forearm so that the palm is forward Pronation: : rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces backward

16 Ankle movement Dorsiflexion: movement of the top of the foot upward toward the lower leg Plantarflexion: downward movement of the top of the foot

17 More muscle movements Rotation: : turning a body part around its own axis, turning the head from side to side Circumduction: : moving in a circle at a joint, swinging the arm in a circle

18

19 Gastrocnemius Back of the lower leg Flexes the sole of the foot

20 Quadriceps femoris Front of the thigh Extends the leg

21 Gluteus maximus Buttocks Extends the thigh Injection site

22 Latissimus dorsi Spine around to the chest Extends and adducts the upper arm

23 Rectus abdominus Ribs to the pubis Compresses the abdomen

24 Intercostals Between the ribs Moves ribs for breathing

25 Triceps brachii Upper arm Extends the lower arm

26 Biceps brachii Upper arm Flexes the lower arm

27 Trapezius Upper back and neck Extends head and moves shoulder

28 Shoulder Abducts the arm Injection site Deltoid

29 Pectoralis major Upper chest Adducts and flexes the upper arm

30 Sternocleidomastoid Side of neck Turns & flexes head

31 Sartorius Front of thigh Abducts thigh, flexes leg

32 Tibialis anterior Front of lower leg Flexes and inverts foot

33 Muscle diseases Fibromyalgia: : Chronic pain in muscles Muscular dystrophy: inherited, progressive muscle atrophy Myasthenia gravis: impulses are not transmitted to the muscles leading to weakness and paralysis

34 More muscle diseases Spasms: cramps, sudden painful involuntary muscle contraction Strain: overstretching of muscle or tendon

35 Image Citations Slide 10: Achilles tendon-1/16/06 science-msd/image/ach msd/image/ach-tendon.gif Slide 11: 1/16/06 Slide 12: 1/16/06 on.jpg Slide 12: 1/16/06 anatomy/gr/adduction.gif Slide 13: 1/16/06 Slide 14: 1/16/06 prolab.com/comlab/sttop/sttop- bm/pictures/flexion.gif Slide 15: 1/16/06 knee_extension.gif Slide 17: Delmar Learning s Medical Terminology Image Library, Second Edition. Version 1.0. ISBN: Slide 18: 1/16/06 hand.jpg

36 Image Citations Slide 19: 1/16/06 Slide 20: 1/16/06 Slide 21: Gluteus maximus 1/16/06 Slide 22: 1/16/06 Slide 23: 1/16/06 Slide 24: 1/16/06 Slide 25: Anterior arm muscles 1/16/ gif Slide 26: 1/16/06 biceps-brachial.jpg brachial.jpg Slide 27: 1/16/06 Trapezius

37 Image Citations Slide 28: 1/16/06 Slide 29: 1/16/06 Pectoralis major Slide 30: 2/17/07 Sternocleidomastoid, Slide 31: 2/17/07 Sartorius, Slide 32: 2/17/07 Tibialis anterior,

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